Denzinger - English translation, older numbering (2022)

1 THE creedwhich iscalled Apostolic is composed essentially of (1) a Trinitarian part,three articles professing faith in three divine persons; (2) aChristological part which was added to the first section.

Thereare extant,however, certain formulae composed in the manner of creeds, but lackingthe Christological part. These formulae seem to be more ancient thanthe Apostolic Creed. An achristological formula of this kind whichseems to be the most ancient of all-exists in a work infected withGnosticism written between the years 150 and 180, Testamentum inGalilaea D.N.I. Christi (or in an almost identical work Gesprache Jesumit seinen Jungern nach der Auferstehung) where the short Creed (reads):

"[Ibelieve] inthe Father almighty,--and in Jesus Christ, our Savior; --and in theHoly Spirit, the Paraclete, in the holy Church, and in the remission ofsins."

Anotherachristological formula, perhaps already used in the liturgy of Egyptprobably in the third century, is shown by a papyrus discovered inDer-Balyzeh, written in the seventh or eighth century (cf. Dict.d'Archeol. chret. et de Lit. s.v. Canon, II, 2, 1882 ff.):

"Ibelieve in Godalmighty;--and in his only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ;--and inthe Holy Spirit and in the resurrection of the body <in>the holyCatholic Church."

A.[The following]show at least elements of some Creed or a rule

ST.JUSTIN MARTYR,martyred 167.-Apology I and II; Dial. c. Tryph. [MG 6, 328 pp.]--Atwofold form, western and eastern can be conjectured with someprobability; therefore, a comparison will be made below [n. 8].

ST. IRENAEUS,died 202, bishop of Lyons.--Adv. haer. 1, 10, 1; 3, 4, 1 and 2; 16, 5(which are the chief places) [MG 7, 549 A 855 B 924 B]. He shows (1,10, 1) almost all the elements of the Roman creed as a faith which theChurch received from the apostles and their disciples (1, 10, 1).-(Greek text deleted)C.3 and 6. [Karapat Ter-Mekerttschian und ErwandTer-Minassiantz,Des hl. Irenaus Schrift zum Erweise der apostolischenVerkundigung (Texte und Untersuchungen, Harnack-Schmidt XXXI, I)Leipzig: 1907].

ST.HI PPOLYTUS,died 235, Roman presbyter. — Paradosis--Heshows the baptismalcreed by means of questions from "You believe in Jesus Christ . . ."[H. Elfers, Die Kirchenordnung Hippolyts von Rom,1938, 321. E. Hauler,Didasc. apost. fragm., Veron. 1900, 110 f., L 10 f. R.-H. Connolly, Theso called Egyptian Church Order and derived documents, 1916].

TERTULLIAN, diedafter 225 (probably in 240), perhaps a presbyter in Carthage.--Depraescr. haer.13,De virg. vel. I; De carne Chr. 20; Adv. Prax.2[ML2,26B 88 B 785B 856B]. He says that the church at Carthage received therule of faith from the church at Rome (De praescr. haer. 36)and that itwas common to the apostolic churches; (l.c. 21) the form of the creedwas somewhat fixed.

ORIGEN,died 254,presbyter at Alexandria.--Deprincip. I,praef. 4et 5[MG 11, 117 A]. Hehas a rule of faith similar to the creed.

CANONESHIPPOLYTI, of uncertain date (Some 200-235, others about 500) [Achelis,DiealtestenQuellen des oriental Kirchenrects I 38 (Texte undUntersuchungen, Gebhardt-Harnack VI) Leipzig: 1891].-They containquestions.

21. I believe in God, the Father almighty;

2.and in Christ Jesus, His only-begotten Son, our Lord,

3.who was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary,

4.a. was crucified by Pontius Pilate, and was buried;

b.

5.the third day He arose again from the dead;
6.a. He ascended into heaven,

b. sits at the right hand of the Father,

7.whence He is coming to judge the living and the dead;

8.and in the Holy Spirit,

9.a. the holy [Church,]

b.

10.a.

b. the forgiveness of sins,

11.the resurrection of the body. Amen.

1.I believe in God the Father almighty

2.and in Christ Jesus, His only begotten Son, our Lord

3.born of the Holy Spirit and Mary the virgin

4.a. was crucified by Pontius Pilate and was buried

b.

5.the third day He arose again from the dead

6.a. He ascended into heaven

b. sits at the right hand of the Father

7.whence He is coming to judge the living and the dead

8.and in the Holy Spirit

9.a. the holy [Church]

b.

10.a.

b. the forgiveness of sins

11.the resurrection of the body. Amen.

12.

B.[ Thefollowing] show a fixed form of the Creed.

4PSALTER OFAETHELSTANE (in Greek), in the third part, written in the ninth century(at the beginning perhaps) [H. sect. 18; L. 10; CspQ. III 5].The Creedis of uncertain date, very old,* was in liturgical use.

CODEX LAUDIANUS ,(E. Actium, lat.) [H. sect. 20; CspQ. III 162].-The Creed is ofuncertain date, written in the seventh century.*

CODEX SWAINSON(Latin) [Swainson, The Nicene and Apostles' Creeds,London: 1875, 161;H. sect. 23]--The Creed is of uncertain date, written in the eighthcentury.

MARCELLUSANCYRANUS , fourth century, bishop of Angora in Galatia of AsiaMinor--Epist. ad Iulium Papam written in the year 337* (In Epiphanius,Haer. 72) [MG 42, 385 D; H. sect. 17].

PRISCILLIAN, died385,* lived at Avila in Spain.-Lib. ad Damasum tract. 11 [ed. Schepss(CSEL XVIII [1889] 34). Cf. also KAnt. 20 ff.; H. Sect. 53; L 13].

PHOEBADIUS , diedafter 392, bishop of Agen in Aquitania secunda [Guyenna]. - -De fideorthodoxa contra Arianosat the end [H. sect. 59; ML 20, 49 B. "Libellusfidei"]; the book is genuine* (some ascribe it to Gregorius Baeticus,died after 392, bishop of Illiberi [Elivira-Granada].

RUFINUS , died410, presbyter of Aquileia--Expositio in Symbolum (other wiseCommentarius in Symbolum apostolorum)[H. sect. 19; ML 21, 3.35 B].--The form of the creed of both the Church at Rome and of the Church atAquileia is gathered from this.

NICETASOFROMATIANA,* wrote 380*-420,* Romatiana [Remesiana] inDacia.*--Explanatio Symboli habita ad competentes[H. sect. 40; ML 52,865 D].

ST. AUGUSTINE,died 430, bishop of Hippo.--Chief sources:De Fide et Symbolo; serm.212-214 in traditione Symboli; serm. 215 in redditione Symboli[ML 40,181; 38, 1058, 1072; H sect. 47; L 13. Serni. 2I5 is genuine*; manybelieve with Caspari that the creed of Hippo is given in Serm. 215, andthat the Creed of Milan is handed down in the rest].

ST. PETER CHRYSOLOGUS, died before 458, bishop of Ravenna.--Serm.57-62[H sect. 35; L. 12; ML 52, 357 A].

ST. MAXIMUS,middle of the fifth century, bishop of Turin,-- Hom. 83 d e expositioneSymboli[H. sect. 34; L. 13; ML 57, 433 A].

ST. FULGENTIUS OF RUSPE, died 533 (Ruspe in Africa) Liber 10. contraFabianum Arianum [H. sect. 49; L 14; ML 65, 822].

ST. MARTIN, died580, bishop of Braga [Braga in Spain, now Portugal]. De correctionerusticorum [H. sect. 54; ed. Caspari, Christiania 1883.-Cf. K I 153].

TRACTATUS SYMBOLIin a Missal and Sacramentarium for the use of a certain Florentinechurch furnishes a Florentine* Creed of the seventh * century;manuscript is of the twelfth century. [H. sect. 39; Csp ANQ 290].

ST. ILDEFONSE,* died 669, bishop of Toledo.-Liber de cognitionebaptismi C. 35 [H. sect. 55; L 13 f.; ML 96, 127 B].

ETHERIUS, Eighthcentury bishop of Osmo and Beatus (Biaco), eighth century, presbyter ofAstorga in Spain.-Etherii episcopi Uxamensis et Beati presbyteri adv.Elpiandum archiep. Toletanum libri duo,written in the year 785 [H.sect. 56 f.; L 13 f.; ML 96, 906 D].

LITURGIA MOZARABICA: Seventh century Liber Ordinum [ed. Ferotin, p.185; H. sect. 58; L 14; ML 85, 395 A].

FAUSTUSOF REI, died after 485, in Riez in France. Duae homiliae de Symbolo;Tractatus de Symbolo* [H. sect. 61, L 14; CspQ. II 200].

5ST.CAESARIUS OF ARLES, died 543, Primate of Gaul [Arles].-Sermo 10 [G.Morin, S. Caesarii Arel. Sermones I, 1, Maretioli 1937, P. 51 ff.; ML39, 2149]. The elements of the Creed are possessed, an exact formulacannot be worked out; seems to be the same as the two following:

SACRAMENTARIUMGALLICANUM [Mabillon, Museum Italicum I, Paris 1687, 312, H. sect. 66;L 15], 7/8th century, composed in Gaul,* (others, Missale Vesontiense[Besancon], Missale Bobbiense [Bobbio]); contains two formulae and aCreed in the manner of questions-(The first form is regarded).

MISSALEGALLICANUM VETUS, Of the beginning of the eighth century [Mabillon,Deliturgia Gallicana III, Paris: 1685, 339. H. sect. 67; L 15].

ST. PIRMINIUS, born in Gallia merid.*; died 753, bishop of the Meld!(?), afterwards abbot of the monastery of Reichenau [Reichenau inGermany]. Words of the Abbot Pirminius on the individual canonicalbooks scarapsus; written between 718 and 724.* [G. Jecker, Die Heimatdes III. Pirmin,Munster: 1927, 34 ff.; the creed itself in thecustomary form IL lo and 28 a, in the form of questions IL 12. H. Sect.92; ML 89, 1034 C].

CODEX AUGIENSIS CXCV, perhaps of the eighth century [CspQ III512].Creed written by a certain Irish monk(?).

ORDO VEL BREVIS EXPLANATIO DE CATECHIZANDIS RUDIBUS, c. a. 850 ad 950*[H sect. 71; CspANQ 282].

ORDOROMANUS, ancient of the year 950 [H. Sect. 25; Hittorp, De diviniscatholicae ecclesiae officiis, Cologne 1568].-Shows the usual form.

61a. I believe in God the Father almighty

b.creator of heaven and earth

4.a.suffered under Pontius Pilate, crucified, died, and was buried

b.descended into hell

6.a.He ascended to heaven

b.sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty

9.a.the holy Catholic Church

12.andlife everlasting.

The Eastern Form of theApostolic Creed

Sources

8ST. JUSTINMARTYR. See above [n. I] COPTIC APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS (ConstitutionesApostolicae Copticae) orthe Constitutions of the Egyptian Church inFunk, Didasc. et Const. Apost. II (1905) 97 ff., show the ApostolicTradition (Paradosis) of Hippolytus (on which see above n. 2-3) in theOrient also changed as a creed. Therefore, it seems to be a witnessalso for the eastern form of the Apostolic Creed.

Text

[of SaintCyril of Jerusalem] *

9 1. a. Webelieve in one God the Father Almighty

b. The creator of heaven and earth

c. and of all things visible and invisible

2.a. and in one Lord Jesus Christ the only begotten Son of God

b. who was begotten of the Father

c. true God

d. before all ages

e. by whom all things were made

3.a. (who for our salvation)

b. was made flesh (of the Holy Spirit and Mary the virgin)

and was made man

4.a. was crucified (under Pontius Pilate) and was buried

b.

5.a. arose on the third day

b. (according to the Scriptures

6.a. and ascended into heaven

b. and sits at the right hand of the Father

7.a. and comes in glory to judge the living and the dead

b. of whose kingdom there will be no end

8.a. and in one Holy Spirit the Paraclete

b.

c.

d.

e. who spoke among the prophets

9* . and one holy [Catholic] church

10.a. and in one baptism of repentance

b. in the dismissal of sins

11.and in the resurrection of the flesh

12.and in life everlasting

12EUSEBIUS , diedabout 340, bishop of Caesarea, Ep. ad suam dioec.[Socrates, Hist. eccl.I,8, 38; MG 67, 69; H. sect. 123; L 18]. Eusebius offered his creed. tothe Nicene council in 325, which used it to establish its own form.

ST.CYRIL, bishopof Jerusalem-Catecheses 6-18,held before 350 (351) [H sect. 124; L. 19;MG 33, 535 ff.]. He gives out a Creed used before 325; its text isconstrued otherwise by some [Macarius of Jerusalem, predecessorof St.Cyril, seems to have had the same creed, at least according to the:headings].

ST. EPIPHANIUS,died in 403, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus.-Ancoratus,written about theyear 374; contains at the end two formulae, of which the shorter (Greektext deleted) is here considered; [cf. the longer, n. 13 LI ; the Creedis believed to be older than the Ancoratus [H. sect. 125; L 19 f.; ed.K. Holl. 1915, 148; MG 43, 232 C].

CONSTITUTIONESAPOSTOLORUM VII 41, of the beginning* of the fifth century [otherwise,of middle of fourth century; it contains certainly more ancientmaterials (MG 1, 1041 C. Funk, Didascalia et ConstitutionesApostolorumI, Paderborn: 1905, 445)]. The Creed, as far as many partsare concerned, belongs to Lucian Martyr* (died 312); it shows aSyro-Palestinian* form.
THE CREEDOF EPIPHANIUS *

Longer Form

(Expositionof Nicene Creed proposed to certain catechumens in the Orient)

13 Webelieve in oneGod, the father almighty, the creator of all things invisible andvisible; and in one lord Jesus Christ, the son of God, the onlybegotten born of God the father, that is of the substance of theFather, God of God, light of light, true God of true God, begotten notmade, consubstantial to the father, by whom all things were made, boththose in heaven and those on earth, both visible and invisible, who forus melt and for our salvation came down and became man, that is wascompletely born of holy Mary ever-virgin by the Holy Spirit, was mademan, that is, assumed perfect human nature, soul and body and mind, andall whatever is man except sin, not from the seed of man nor by meansof man, but having fashioned unto himself a body into one holy unity;not as he lived in the prophets and talked and worked in them, butbecame man completely ("for the word was made flesh," he did not submitto an alteration, nor did he change his own divine nature into humannature); he combined both the divine nature and the human into the onlyholy perfection of himself; (for there is one Lord Jesus Christ, andnot two; the same God, the same Lord, the same King); but the samesuffered in the flesh and arose again and ascended into heaven with thevery body and sits in glory at the right hand of the Father, in thatvery body he is coming in glory to judge the living and the dead; ofwhose kingdom there shall be no end:-and we believe in the Holy Spiritwho spoke in the law, and taught by the prophets, and descended to theJordan, spoke by the Apostles, and lives in the saints; thus we believein him: that he is the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of God, the perfectSpirit, the Spirit Paraclete, uncreated, proceeding from the Father andreceiving of the Son, in whom we believe.

14 Webelieve in onecatholic and apostolic Church, and in one baptism of repentance, and inthe resurrection of the dead, and the just judgment of souls andbodies, and in the kingdom of heaven, and in life eternal.

Butthose who saythat there was a time when the Son or the Holy Spirit was not, that hewas made from nothing or is of another substance or essence, allegingthat the Son of God or the Holy Spirit was changed or altered, thesethe catholic and apostolic Church, your mother and our mother,anathematizes. We also anathematize those who do not confess theresurrection of the dead, and besides all the heresies which are notconsistent with this true faith.

THE FORMULACALLED THE "FAITH OF DAMASUS" *

[Ofuncertain author and time; from Gaul about 500 (?)]

15 Webelieve in one Godthe Father almighty and in our one Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God andin (one) Holy Spirit God. Not three Gods, but Father and Son and HolySpirit one God do we worship and confess: not one God in such a way asto be solitary, nor the same in such wise that he himself is Father tohimself and he himself is Son to himself; but the Father is he whobegot, and the Son is he who is begotten; the Holy Spirit in truth isneither begotten nor unbegotten, neither created nor made, butproceeding from the Father and the Son, coeternal and coequal and thecooperator with the Father and the Son, because it is written: "By theword of the Lord the heavens were established" (that is, by the Son ofGod), "and all the power of them by the spirit of his mouth" [Ps.32:6], and elsewhere: "Send forth thy spirit and they shall be createdand thou shalt renew the face of the earth" [Ps. 103:30]. And thereforewe confess one God in the name of the Father and of the Son and of theHoly Spirit, because god is the name of power, not of peculiarity. Theproper name for the Father is Father, and the proper name for the Sonis Son, and the proper name for the Holy Spirit is Holy Spirit. And inthis Trinity we believe in one God, because what is of one nature andof one substance and of one power with the Father is from one Father.The Father begot the Son, not by will, nor by necessity, but by nature.

16 The Sonin thefullness of time came down from the Father to save us and to fulfillthe Scriptures, though he never ceased to be with the Father, and wasconceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary; he took abody, soul, and sense, that is, he assumed perfect human nature; nordid he lose, what he was, but he began to be, what he was not; in sucha way, however, that he is perfect in his own nature and true in ournature.

Forhe who wasGod, was born a man, and he who was born a man, operates as God; and hewho operates as God, dies as a man; and he who dies as a man, arises asGod. He having conquered the power of death with that body, with whichhe was born, and suffered, and had died, arose on the third day,ascended to the Father, and sits at his right hand in glory, which healways has had and always has. We believe that cleansed in his deathand in his blood we are to be raised up by him on the last day in thisbody with which we now live; and we have hope that we shall obtain fromhim either life eternal, the reward of good merit or the penalty ofeternal punishment for sins. Read these words, keep them, subject yoursoul to this faith. From Christ the Lord you will receive both life andreward.

THE FORMULACALLED "THE MERCIFUL TRINITY" *

[Ofuncertain author and time; from Gaul about 500(?)]

17 Themerciful Trinityis one divine Godhead. Consequently the Father 17 and the Son and theHoly Spirit are one source, one substance, one virtue, and one power.We say that God the Father and God the Son and God the Holy Spirit arenot three gods, but we very piously confess one God. For although wename three persons, we publicly declare with the catholic and apostolicvoice that they are one substance. Therefore the Father and the Son andthe Holy Spirit, these three are one[cf. 1 John 5:7]. Three, neitherconfused, nor separated, but both distinctly joined, and, thoughjoined, distinct; united in substance, but differentiated in name,joined in nature, distinct in person, equal in divinity, entirelysimilar in majesty, united in trinity, sharers in splendor. They areone in such a way, that we do not doubt that they are also three; andthey are three in such a way that we acknowledge that they cannot bedisjoined from one another. Therefore there is no doubt, that an insultto one is an affront to all, because the praise of one pertains to theglory of all.

18 'Forthis is theprincipal point of our faith according to the Gospel and the apostolicdoctrine, that our Lord Jesus Christ and the Son of God are notseparated from the Father either in the acknowledgment of honor, or inthe power of virtue, or in the divine nature of substance, or by aninterval of time.'* And therefore if anyone says that the Son of God,who just as he is truly God, so also is true man except in sin alone,,did not possess something belonging to human nature or did not possesssomething belonging to the Godhead, he should be judged wicked andhostile to the Catholic and apostolic Church.

THE CREEDOF THE COUNCIL OF TOLEDO

OF THE YEAR400 [AND 447] *

[Formula,"A little book like a Creed"]

Therule of theCatholic faith against all heresies [(Here) begin the rules ,of theCatholic faith against all heresies, and especially indeed against thePriscillianists, which the bishops of Tarraco, Carthage, Lusitania, andBaetica have composed and with a command of Pope Leo of the Citytransmitted to Balconius, bishop of Gallicia. .. .. .. ].

19 Webelieve in onetrue God, Father, and Son and Holy Spirit, maker of the visible and theinvisible, by whom were created all things in heaven and on earth. ThisGod alone and this Trinity alone is of divine name [divine substance].The Father is not [himself] the Son, but has the Son, who is not theFather. The Son is not the Father, but the Son is of God by nature [isof the Father's nature]. The Spirit is also the Paraclete, who ishimself neither the Father, nor the Son, but proceeds from the Father[proceeding from the Father and the Son]. Therefore the Father isunbegotten, the Son is begotten, the Paraclete is not begotten, butproceeding from the Father [and the Son]. The Father is he whose wordswere heard from the heavens: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am wellpleased, hear ye him.[Matt. 17:5;2 Peter 1:17. Cf- Matt. 3:17]. The Sonis he who says: I came forth from the Father, and am come into theworld[cf. John 16:28 ]. The Paraclete himself [the Spirit] is he,concerning whom the Son says: Unless I go to the Father, the Paracletewill not come toyou [ John 16:17 ]. This Trinity, though distinct inpersons, is one substance [united], virtue, power, majesty [in virtueand in power and in majesty] indivisible, not different. [We believe]there is no divine nature except that [this], either of angel or ofspirit or of any virtue, which is believed to be God.

20Therefore this Son ofGod, God, born of the Father entirely before every beginning, hassanctified in the womb [the womb] of the Blessed Mary Virgin, and fromher has assumed true man, human nature having been begotten without the[virile] seed of man; [of not more or not less than two natures,namely, of God and of flesh, meeting completely in one person], thatis, [our] Lord Jesus Christ. Not [And not] an imaginary body or oneconstituted of form alone [ in place of this:or that it belong to somephantasm in him]; but a firm [and true] one. And this man hungered andthirsted and grieved and wept and felt all the pains of a body [ inplace of this:suffered all the injuries of a body]. Finally he wascrucified [by the Jews], died and was buried, [and] on the third day hearose again; afterwards he conversed with [his] disciples; the fortiethday [ after the resurrection ] he ascended to the heavens [ heaven ].This son of man is called [named] also the Son of God; but the Son ofGod, God, is not (likewise) called the Son of man [calls the Son of man(thus)].

Webelieve thatthere [will] assuredly [be] a resurrection of the human flesh [for thebody]. However, the soul of man is not a divine substance, or a part ofGod, but a creature [we say] which did not fall by the divine will[created].

211. If therefore[however] anyone says and [or] believes, that this world and all itsfurnishings were not made by God almighty, let him be anathema.

22 2. Ifanyone says and [or] believes, that God the Father is the same personas the Son or the Paraclete, let him be anathema.

233. If anyonesays and [or] believes that God the Son [of God] is the same person asthe Father or the Paraclete, let him be anathema.

24 4. Ifanyone says and [or] believes that the Paraclete the Spirit is eitherthe Father or the Son, let him be anathema.

255. If anyonesay and [or] believes that the man Jesus Christ was not assumed by theSon of God [ in place of this:that a body only without a soul wasassumed by the Son of God], let him be anathema.

26 6. Ifanyone says and[or] believes, that the Son of God, as God, suffered [ in place ofthis: that Christ cannot be born], let him be anathema.

27 7. Ifanyone says and[or] believes that the man Jesus Christ was a man incapable ofsuffering [in place of this:the divine nature of Christ was changeableor capable of suffering], let him be anathema.

28 8. Ifanyone says and [or] believes, that there is one God of the old Law,another of the Gospels, let him be anathema.

29 9. Ifanyone says and[or] believes, that the world was made by another God than [and not] byhim, concerning whom it is written:In the beginning God created hea venand earth [cf. Gen. I, I], let him be anathema.

30 10. Ifanyone saysand [or] believes that the human bodies will not rise again [do notrise] after death, let him be anathema.

31 11. Ifanyone says and for] believes that the human soul is a part of God oris God's substance, let him be anathema.

32 12. Ifanyone eitherbelieves that any scriptures, except those which the Catholic Churchhas received, ought to be held in authority or venerates them [Ifanyone says or believes other scriptures, besides those which theCatholic Church receives, ought to be held in authority or ought to bevenerated], let him be anathema.

33 [13. Ifanyone says or believes that there is in Christ one nature of theGodhead of humanity, let him be anathema.]

34[14. If anyonesays or believes that there is anything that can extend itself beyondthe divine Trinity, let him be anathema.]

35 [15. Ifanyone holds that astrology and the interpretation of stars (sic) oughtto be believed, let him be anathema.]

36 [16. Ifanyone saysor believes, that the marriages of men, which are considered licitaccording to divine law, are accursed, let him be anathema.]

37[17. If anyonesays or believes that the flesh of birds or of animals, which has beengiven for food, not only ought to be abstained from for the chastisingof the body, but ought to be abhorred, let him be anathema.]

38[18. If anyonefollows the sect of Priscillian in these errors or publicly professesit) so that he makes a change in the saving act of baptism contrary tothe chair of Holy Peter, let him be anathema.]

THE CREED"QUICUMQUE"

[Which iscalled "Athanasian"] *

39 Whoeverwishes to besaved, needs above all to hold the Catholic faith; unless each onepreserves this whole and inviolate, he will without a doubt perish ineternity. -But the Catholic faith is this, that we venerate one God inthe Trinity, and the Trinity in oneness; neither confounding thepersons, nor dividing the substance; for there is one person of theFather, another of the Son, (and) another of the Holy Spirit; but thedivine nature of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit isone, their glory is equal, their majesty is coeternal. Of such a natureas the Father is, so is the Son, so (also) is the Holy Spirit; theFather is uncreated, the Son is uncreated, (and) the Holy Spirit isuncreated; the Father is immense, the Son is immense, (and) the HolySpirit is immense; the Father is eternal, the Son is eternal, (and) theHoly Spirit is eternal: and nevertheless there are not three eternals,but one eternal; just as there are not three uncreated beings, northree infinite beings, but one uncreated, and one infinite; similarlythe Father is omnipotent, the Son is omnipotent, (and) the Holy Spiritis omnipotent: and yet there are not three omnipotents, but oneomnipotent; thus the Father is God, the Son is God, (and) the HolySpirit is God; and nevertheless there are not three gods, but there isone God; so the Father is Lord, the Son is Lord, (and) the Holy Spiritis Lord: and yet there are not three lords, but there is one Lord;because just as we are compelled by Christian truth to confess singlyeach one person as God and [and also] Lord, so we are forbidden by theCatholic religion to say there are three gods or lords. The Father wasnot made nor created nor begotten by anyone. The Son is from the Fatheralone, not made nor created, but begotten. The Holy Spirit is from theFather and the Son, not made nor created nor begotten, but proceeding.There is therefore one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not threeSons; one Holy Spirit, not three Holy Spirits; and in this Trinitythere is nothing first or later, nothing greater or less, but all threepersons are coeternal and coequal with one another, so that in everyrespect, as has already been said above, both unity in Trinity, andTrinity in unity must be venerated. Therefore let him who wishes to besaved, think thus concerning the Trinity.

40 But itis necessaryfor eternal salvation that he faithfully believe also the incarnationof our Lord Jesus Christ. Accordingly it is the right faith, that webelieve and confess, that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God is Godand man. He is God begotten of the substance of the Father before time,and he is man born of the substance of his mother in time: perfect God,perfect man, consisting of a rational soul and a human body, equal tothe Father according to his Godhead, less than the Father according tohumanity. Although he is God and man, yet he is not two, but he is oneChrist; one, however, not by the conversion of the Divinity into ahuman body, but by the assumption of humanity in the Godhead; oneabsolutely not by confusion of substance, but by unity of person. Forjust as the rational soul and body are one man, so God and man are oneChrist. He suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, on thethird day arose again from the dead, ascended to heaven, sits at theright hand of God the Father almighty; thence he shall come to judgethe living and the dead; .at his coming all men have to arise againwith their bodies and will render an account of their own deeds: andthose who have done good, will go into life everlasting, but those whohave done evil, into eternal fire.-This is the Catholic faith; unlessevery one believes this faithfully and firmly, he cannot be saved.

ST. PETERTHE APOSTLE (?)-67(?)

under whosename two canonical epistles are extant.

ST. LINUS67(?) - 79(?) ST. (ANA) CLETUS 79(?) - 90(?)

ST. CLEMENTI 90(?)- 99(?)

The Primacyof the Roman Pontiff *

[From theletter "(Greek text deleted)" to the Corinthians]

41 (1)BECAUSE of thesudden calamities that have followed one another in turn and because ofthe adverse circumstances which have befallen us, we think, brethren,that we have returned too late to those matters which are beinginquired into among you, beloved, and to the impious and detestablesedition . . . which a few rash and presumptuous men have aroused tosuch a degree of insolence that your honorable and illustrious name . .. is very much reviled. . . . In order to remind you of your duty, wewrite. . . . (57) You, therefore, who have laid the foundations of thisinsurrection, be subject in obedience to the priests and receivecorrection unto repentance. . . . (59) But if some will not submit tothem, let them learn what He [Christ] has spoken through us, that theywill involve themselves in great sin and danger; we, however, shall beinnocent of this transgression. . . . (63) Indeed you will give joy andgladness to us, if having become obedient to what we have writtenthrough the Holy Spirit, you will cut out the unlawful application ofyour zeal according to the exhortation which we have made in thisepistle concerning peace and union.

42Concerning the Hierarchy and the Status of the Laity *

[From thesame epistle to the Corinthians]

(40)(For) they donot go astray who follow the commands of the Lord. Inasmuch as peculiargifts have been bestowed upon the chief priest, a special place hasbeen assigned to the priests, and particular duties are incumbent uponthe Levites. The layman is bound by the precepts pertaining to thelaity.

(41)Let each ofus, brethren, "in his own order" [ 1 Cor. 15:23 ] with a goodconscience not transgressing the prescribed rule of his own office givethanks to God honorably.

(42)The Apostleswere made preachers of the Gospel to us by the Lord Jesus Christ; JesusChrist was sent by God. . . . Accordingly, when they had proclaimed theword through country districts and cities and had tested the firstconverts of these by the spirit, they appointed bishops and deacons ofthose who were to believe.

ST. EVARISTUS (99) (?)-107 (?) ST. PIUS 1 140 (?)-154 (?)

ST. ALEXANDER I 107 (?)-116 (?) ST. ANICETUS 154 (?)-165 (?)

ST. SIXTUS I 116 ( ?)-125 (? ) ST. SOTER 165 (?)-174 (? )

ST. TELESPHORUS 125 (?)-136 (?) ST. ELEUTHERIUS 174 ( P )-I 89 ( ? )

ST. HYGINUS 136 (?)-140 (?) ST. VICTOR 189 (?)-198 (?) *

ST.ZEPHYRINUS 198 (?)-217

resp. ST.CALLISTUS I 2I7-222

TheIncarnate Word *

[From St.Hippolytus's Philosophy IX 11, about the year 230]

42a"[Callistus],however, influenced ZEPHYRINUS himself to speak to the people openly: Iknow one God Christ Jesus, and besides him no other begotten andpassible; then indeed [CALLISTUS] said: The Father did not die, but theSon: in such a way as this he kept up the perpetual dispute among thepeople.

Whenwe hadlearned his [CALLISTUS'S] purposes, we did not yield, refuting andresisting for the sake of truth: driven to madness, especially becauseall agreed to his pretext-not we, however-he invoked two gods,voluntarily discharging the virus which lay hidden in his internalorgans."

TheAbsolving of Sins *

[Fragmentfrom Tertullian's "De pudicitia" c. 1]

43 "I alsohear that anedict is published and is indeed final. Evidently the Supreme Pontiff,because he is the bishop of bishops, declares: I forgive the sins ofadultery and fornication to those who have performed the penance." *

ST. URBANUS 222-230 ST. ANTERUS 235-236

ST. PONTIANUS 230-235 ST. FABIANUS 235-250

ST.CORNELIUS I 251-253

TheMonarchical Constitution of the Church *

[Fromepistle (6) "Quantam solicitudinem" to Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, 252]

44 "We knowthatCORNELIUS, bishop of the most holy Catholic 44 Church, was chosen byGod almighty and by Christ our Lord; we confess our error; we havesuffered imposture; we have been deceived by treachery and captiousloquacity; for although we seemed to have held, as it were, a certaincommunication with a schismatical and heretical man, nevertheless ourheart has always been in the Church; for we are not ignorant that thereis one God and that there is one Lord Christ, whom we have confessed,that there is one Holy Spirit and that there ought to be one bishop inthe Catholic Church."

Concerningthe written proof for teaching the Holy Spirit,

see Kirchn. 256 R n. 547; concerning the Trinity,

see R n.546.

TheEcclesiastical Hierarchy *

[From theepistle "(Greek text deleted)" to Fabius, bishop ofAntioch, in the year251]

45Therefore didnot that famous defender of the Gospel [Novatian] know that there oughtto be one bishop in the Catholic Church [of the city of Rome]? It didnot lie hidden from him (for how could it be concealed?) that in thisthere were forty-six priests, seven deacons, seven subdeacons,forty-two acolytes, and fifty-two exorcists and lectors together withporters and more than a thousand five hundred widows and [needy]eunuchs.

ST. LUCIUSI 253-254

ST. STEPHANI 254-257

The Baptismof Heretics *

[Fragmentof a letter to Cyprian, from his letter (74) to Pompey]

46 (1) . .. "Iftherefore any come to you from any heresy whatsoever, let nothing berenewed except what has been transmitted, so that the hand is placedupon them for repentance, since the heretics among themselves properlydo not baptize those coming to them, but only give them communion."

[Fragmentfrom a letter of Stephan from a letter

(75) ofFirmilianus to Cyprian]

47 (18)"But," he[STEPHAN] says, "the name of Christ conduces greatly to faith and tothe sanctification of baptism, so that whoever has been baptizedanywhere in the name of Christ, at once obtains the grace ofChrist."

ST. XYSTUS(SIXTUS) II 258

ST.DIONYSIUS 259-268

The Trinityand the Incarnation *

[Fragmentfrom epistle (2) against the Tritheists and

Sabellians,about the year 260]

48 (1) Nowassuredly itis just to preach against those who destroy the 48 one power which isthe most sacred teaching of the Church of God, dividing and rending itinto some three powers and distinct substances and three deities. For Ihave heard that some who preach and explain the divine word among youare teachers of this belief; yet they, so to speak, are diametricallyopposed to the opinion of Sabellius.

Forthe latterblasphemes when he says that the Son himself is the Father and thereverse: the former indeed in a certain measure proclaim three gods,when they divide the sacred unity into three different substancesaltogether distinct from one another. For it is necessary that thedivine Word be united to the God of all, and that the Holy Spirit abidein God and dwell in Him: and thus the divine Trinity is reduced to andgathered into one, as it were, into a certain head, that is into theomnipotent God of all. For foolish Marcion's doctrine which divides andseparates the monarchy into three principles is surely diabolical;moreover, it is not of the true disciples of Christ or of those to whomthe teaching of the Savior is pleasing. For these know well that theTrinity is indeed proclaimed in divine Scripture, moreover, that threegods are taught neither in the Old nor in the New Testament.

49 (2) Butnone the lessthey should be blamed who think that the Son is 49 a work, and that theLord was made just as one of those things which were actually created;since divine statements bear witness that He was begotten, as is properand fitting, not created or made.

Itis thereforenot a trifling, but a very great irreverence to say that the Lord wasmade in some way. For if the Son was made, there was a time when He didnot exist; and yet He always was, if He undoubtedly is, as He himselfdeclares, in the Father [John 14:10 f.]. Moreover, and if Christ is theword, the wisdom, and the power (for the divine Scriptures teach thatChrist is [John 1:14; 1 Cor. 1:24], as you yourselves know), surelythese are the powers of God. Wherefore, if the Son was made, there wasa time when these powers did not exist; and so there was a time whenGod was without them; which is very absurd.

50 But whyshould Itreat further about these matters with you, man full of the Spirit, andespecially who understand what absurdities follow from that opinionwhich asserts that the Son was made? It seems to me that the leaders ofthis belief did not consider these at all, and thus have completelystrayed from the truth, when they explain differently from what thedivine and prophetic Scripture wishes, the passage: "The Lord createdman in the beginning of his ways" [Prov. 8:22: LXX]. Certainly there isnot, as you know, only one meaning of the word "created." For in thispassage "created" is the same as "he set him over works made by Him,"made, I say, by the Son Himself.

Buthere "created"ought not to be understood exactly as "made." For " to make" and "tocreate" differ from each other. "Is not he thy father that hastpossessed thee, and made thee, and created thee?" [Dt. 32:6:LXX] saidMoses in the great canticle of Deuteronomy. And so who can rightlyrefute them: O rash and inconsiderate men, was he then a made thing"the first born of every creature" [Col. 1:15], "begotten from the wombbefore the daystar" [Ps. 109:3:LXX] of whom as Wisdom says, "before allthe hills he brought me forth"? [Prov. 8:25:LXX]. Finally anybody mayread in many passages of the divine statements that the Son was"begotten," but nowhere "made." By reason of this they who dare to callHis divine and inexplicable begetting a making, are clearly proved tospeak falsely about the Lord's generation.

51 (3)Neither thereforeought the admirable and divine unity be separated into three godheads,nor ought the dignity and supreme magnitude of the Lord be lessened bythe designation of making; but we must believe in God the FatherAlmighty, and in Christ Jesus his Son, and in the Holy Spirit, that theWord, moreover, is united to the God of all.

ForHe said: "Iand the Father are one" [ John 10:30], and: "I am in the Father, andthe Father in me" [ John 14:10]. Thus it is evident that the divineTrinity and the holy proclamation of the monarchy will be preservedintact.

ST. FELIX I 269-274 ST. CAIUS 283-296

ST. EUTYCHIANUS 275-283 ST. MARCELLINUS 296-304

COUNCIL OFILLIBERI * BETWEEN 300/306 *

TheIndissolubility of Matrimony

52a Can. 9.Likewise letthe faithful woman, who has left an adulterous husband and attractsanother faithful one, be forbidden to marry; if she should marry, lether not receive communion unless he whom she has left has previouslydeparted this world; unless by chance the exigency of illness shouldcompel the giving.

TheCelibacy of the Clergy

52b Can.27. A bishop,or any priest at all, may have with him only a sister or a virgindaughter dedicated to God; it is decided that he by no means have astranger.

52c Can.33. It isdecided that marriage be altogether prohibited to bishops, priests, anddeacons, or to all clerics placed in the ministry, and that they keepaway from their wives and not beget children; whoever does this, shallbe deprived of the honor of the clerical office.

Baptism andConfirmation

52d Can.38. If peopleare traveling by sea in a foreign place or if there is no church in theneighborhood, a person of the faith who keeps his baptism sound and isnot twice married, can baptize a catechumen placed in the exigency ofsickness, on condition that, if he survives, he bring him to a bishop,in order that it may be made perfect by the imposition of the hand.

52e Can.77. If anydeacon ruling the people without a bishop or priest baptizes some, thebishop will have to confirm these by a blessing; but if they shoulddepart the world beforehand, in the faith in which anyone of them hasbelieved, that one can be justified.

ST.MARCELLUS 308-309 ST. EUSEBIUS 309 (or 310)

ST.MILITIADES 311-314

ST.SYLVESTER I 314-335

COUNCIL OFARELAS * I 314

53*Can. 15. That deacons may not offer, see Kch 373

Plenary(against the Donatists) The Baptism of Heretics *

53 Can. 8.Concerningthe Africans, because they use their own law so as to rebaptize, it hasbeen decided that, if anyone from a heretical sect come to the Church,he should be asked his creed, and if it is perceived that he has beenbaptized in the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, only the handshould be imposed upon him, in order that he may receive the HolySpirit. But if upon being questioned he does not answer this Trinity,let him be baptized.

COUNCIL OFNICEA I 325

EcumenicalI (against the Arians).

The NiceneCreed *

54[Version of Hilary of Poitiers]

Webelieve in oneGod the Father almighty, creator of all things visible and invisible.And in our one Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, the onlybegotten bornof the Father, that is of the substance of the Father, God of God,light of light, true God of true God, born, not made, of one substancewith the Father (which they call in Greek "homousion"), by whom allthings were made, which are in heaven and on earth, who for oursalvation came down, and became incarnate and was made man, andsuffered, and arose again on the third day, and ascended into heaven,and will come to judge the living and the dead. And in the Holy Spirit.

Butthose who say:"There was [a time] when he was not," and, "Before he was born, he wasnot," and "Because he was made from nonexisting matter, he is either ofanother substance or essence," and those who call "God the Son of Godchangeable and mutable," these the Catholic Church anathematizes. *

The Baptismof Heretics and the Viaticum of the Dying *

55[Version of Dionysius Exig.*]

Can.8. Concerningthose who call themselves Cathari [Novatians] that is, clean, if at anytime they come to the Catholic Church, it has been decided by the holyand great Council, that, provided they receive the imposition of hands,they remain among the clergy. However, because they are accepting andfollowing the doctrines of the Catholic and Apostolic Church, it isfitting that they acknowledge this in writing before all; that is, boththat they communicate with the twice married and with those who havelapsed during a persecution.

56 Can. 19.Concerningthe Paulianists who take refuge with the Catholic Church, a decree hasbeen published that they should be fully baptized. If, however, any ofthese in time past have been in the clerical order, if indeed they haveappeared spotless and above reproach, after being baptized, let them beordained by the bishop of the Catholic Church. . . .

57 Can. 13.Concerningthese, who approach death, even now the ancient and regular law will bekept; so that, if anyone is departing from the body, he be not deprivedof the last and necessary viaticum. But if after being despaired of,and receiving communion, and being made a sharer of the oblation, heagain regains his health, let him be among those who receive only thecommunion of prayer. Generally, however, to everyone without exceptionplaced at death and requesting that the grace of communion be givenhim, the bishop probably ought to give from the oblation.

57*Synodal letter to the Egyptians concerningthe error of Arius

and theordinationsmadeby Melitius see Kch n 410 f.

ST. MARCUS336

ST. JULIUSI 337-352

The Primacyof the Roman Pontiff *

[From theepistle (Greek text deleted) to

theAntiochenes, in the year 341]

57a For if,indeed asyou assert, some sin has risen among them, a judicial investigationought to have been made according to the ecclesiastical canon, and notin this manner. Everyone should have written to us, in order that thuswhat was might be decided by all; for the bishops were the ones whosuffered, and it was not the ordinary churches that were harassed, butwhich the apostles themselves governed in person. Yet why has nothingbeen written to us, especially regarding the Alexandrian church? Or doyou not know that it is the custom to write to us first, and that herewhat is just is decided? Certainly if any suspicion of this nature didfall upon the bishop of that city, the fact should have been written tothis church.

COUNCILOF SERDICA 343-344

The Primacyof the Roman Pontiff *

57b[Authentic text][Can. 3] (Isid. 4). Caius the bishop said: That also, that a bishop maynot cross from one province into another province, in which there arebishops, unless perchance on the invitation of his brothers, lest weseem to have shut the door of charity. --That too should be provided;if perchance in any province some bishop has a dispute with a brotherbishop, let no one of these summon the bishops from anotherprovince.-But if any bishop has been judged in some case, and he thinkshe has a good case, so that a new trial may be given, if it seems goodto you, let us honor the memory of the most holy Apostle, PETER: eitherlet those who have examined the case or the bishops who reside in thenext province write to the Roman bishop; and if he should judge thatthe judicial investigation ought to be repeated, let it be repeated,and let him appoint judges. But if he should determine that the case issuch, that what has been finished should not be reopened, his decreeshall be confirmed. Is this agreeable to all? The synod replied: It isagreeable.

(Isid.5).Gaudentius the bishop said: To this very holy opinion which you haveoffered, if it is agreeable, we ought to add: when any bishop has beendeposed by the judgment of those bishops who abide in the neighboringplaces, and when he has proclaimed that he must plead his case in thecity of Rome, another bishop may not be ordained for his place in thesame office after the appeal of him who seems to have been deposed,unless his case has been decided by the judgment of the bishop of Rome.

57d [Can.3b] (Isid. 6.)Osius the bishop said: However it has been agreed, that, if a bishophas been accused, and the assembled bishops of the same province havejudged and deprived him of his office, and he appears to have appealed,and has taken refuge with the most blessed bishop of the Roman churchand has desired to be heard, and he has thought it just that anexamination be made anew, let him deign to write to these bishops whoare in the adjoining and neighboring province so that they themselvesmay diligently make all inquiries and decide according to their pledgeof truth. But if anyone asks that his case be heard again and by hisplea moves the Roman bishop to send a presbyter from his own side, whathe [the presbyter] wishes or what he determines will be in the power ofthe bishop; and if he decrees those ought to be sent who in person mayjudge with the bishops and who have the authority [of him] by whom theyhave been appointed, it [this decree] will be within his decision. Butif he believes that the bishops suffice to put an end to the affair, hewill do that which he decides in accordance with his own very wisedeliberation.

57b [Greekversion] 3.Hosius the bishop said: It is necessary to declare this in order thatno bishop may keep crossing from his own province into a differentprovince in which there are bishops, unless perchance he should beinvited by his brothers, so that we may not seem to close the doors ofcharity. And this too, one must provide for, that, if in any provinceone of the bishops should have trouble with his brother andfellow-bishop, neither of these two call to his aid as judges thebishops of another province. Yet on the other hand, if one of thebishops should think that he is being condemned in some trouble, andthinks that he has not an unsound, but a good case, in order that a newtrial may be held, if it seems good to your charity, let us honor thememory of Peter the apostle, and let these judges write to Julius thebishop of Rome so that through the bishops who border on the province,if it should be necessary, the trial be reopened, and he himself shouldfurnish the judges. But if it cannot be proven that this matter is ofsuch a nature as to need a new trial, let not the decisions made oncebe set aside, but let them be confirmed.

4.Gaudentius thebishop said: If it is decided, we ought to add to this decision whichyou have offered full of pure charity: that, if a bishop has beendeposed by the judgment of these bishops who are in the neighborhood,and he alleges that the business of defense will again fall uponhimself, another may not be ordained to his office unless previouslythe bishop of Rome has come to a decision concerning him and haspublished his judgment.

57d 5.Hosius the bishopsaid: It has been agreed that, if a bishop has been accused, and theassembled bishops of the same region have deposed him from his rank,and in as much as he has appealed and taken refuge with the mostblessed bishop of the Roman church, and he has wished to hear him, ifhe thinks it is just to renew the examination of his difficulty, lethim deign to write to these bishops who live in the neighboringprovince so that they themselves may examine carefully and withexactness each matter and declare their vote on the problem accordingto their pledge of truth. But if anyone should ask that his case beheard again, and by his prayer seems to move the bishop of Rome todispatch elders from his side; what be decides is good is in the powerof the bishop himself, and if he determines that it is necessary tosend those who will judge with the bishops and who have the absoluteauthority of him by whom they were sent, this also must be granted. Butif he should consider it sufficient by reason of the examination of thedifficulty and the sentence of the bishop, he will do what he thinks isgood according to his very wise deliberation. The bishops gave ananswer. What was said was agreeable.

From theepistle "Quod semper" by which the synod

transmittedits acts to St. Julius] *

57e Forthis will seemto be best and most fitting indeed, if the priests from each and everyprovince refer to the head, that is, to the chair of PETER the apostle.

ST.LIBERIUS 352-366

Concerningthe Baptism of Heretics, see St. SIRICIUS

[n. 88]

ST.DAMASUS I 366-384

COUNCIL OFROME, 382 *

The Trinityand the Incarnation *

[Tome ofDAMASUS *]

58 [Afterthis Council,which was assembled in the city of Rome by the Catholic bishops, * theymade additions concerning the Holy Spirit]. And because afterwards thiserror became so fixed that they even dared to say with sacrilegiouswords that the Holy Spirit was made by the Son:

59 (1) Weanathematize those who proclaim quite freely that he is not of onepower and substance with the Father and the Son.

60 (2) Weanathematize those also who follow the error of Sabellius, saying thatthe same one is Father as well as Son.

61 (3) WeanathematizeArius and Eunomius who with equal impiety, though in different terms,declare that the Son and Holy Spirit are creatures.

62 (4) Weanathematize the Macedonians who, springing from the root of Arius,have changed not the perfidy, but the name.

63 (5) Weanathematize Photinus who, renewing the heresy of Ebion, confesses thatthe Lord Jesus Christ was of Mary only.

64 (6) Weanathematizethose who say (there are) two Sons, one eternal, and the other afterthe assumption of flesh from the Virgin.

65 (7) Weanathematizethose who say that instead of the rational and intellectual soul ofman, the Word of God dwelt in a human body, although the Son Himselfand Word of God was not in His own body instead of a rational andintellectual soul, but assumed our soul without sin (that is therational and intellectual soul) and saved it.

66 (8) Weanathematizethose who contend that the Word, the Son of God, has extension orcollection (of members) and is separate from the Father, isunsubstantial, and will have an end.

67 (9)Those also whohave moved from churches to churches, we hold as not belonging to ourcommunion until they return to those cities in which they were firstestablished. But if one is ordained in the place of one who is living,while another is moving, let him who has left his own city be withoutthe dignity of the priestly office until his successor rests in theLord.

68(10) If anyonedoes not say that the Father does always exist, the Son does alwaysexist, and the Holy Spirit does always exist, he is a heretic.

69 (11) Ifanyone doesnot say that the Son was begotten of the Father, that is, of the divinesubstance of Him Himself, he is a heretic.

70(12) If anyonedoes not say that the Son of God is true God just as [His] Father istrue God [and] He is all-powerful and omniscient and equal to theFather, he is a heretic.

71 (13) Ifanyone saysthat because He was established in the flesh when He was on earth, Hewas not in heaven with the Father, he is a heretic.

72 (14) Ifanyone says,that in the passion of the cross God felt pain, and not the body withthe soul which the Son of God Christ had assumed-the form of a servant,which He had taken upon himself [cf. Phil. 2:7], as says theScripture-, he does not think rightly.

73 (15) Ifanyone doesnot say that He sits at the right hand of the Father, in the flesh, inwhich He will come to judge the living and the dead, he is a heretic.

74 (16) Ifanyone doesnot say that the Holy Spirit, just as the Son, is truly and properly ofthe Father, of divine substance, and is true God, he is a heretic.

75 (17) Ifanyone doesnot say that the Holy Spirit can do all things and knows all things andis everywhere just as the Son and the Father, he is a heretic.

76 (18) Ifanyone says that the Holy Spirit is a creature, or was made by the Son,he is a heretic.

77 (19) Ifanyone doesnot say that the Father made all things through the Son and His HolySpirit, that is, the visible and the invisible; he is a heretic.

78 (20) Ifanyone doesnot say that there is one divinity of Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit,one sovereignty, one majesty, one power, one glory, one dominion, onekingdom, and one will and truth, he is a heretic.

79(21) If anyonedoes not say there are three true persons of Father, and of Son, and ofHoly Spirit, equal, immortal, containing all things visible andinvisible, ruling all things, judging all things, vivifying all things,creating all things, saving all things, he is a heretic.

80 (22) Ifanyone doesnot say that the Holy Spirit ought to be adored by every creature justas the Son and Father, he is a heretic.

81 (23) Ifanyone thinkswell of the Father and the Son, but does not rightly esteem the HolySpirit, he is a heretic, because all heretics who think erroneouslyabout the Son [ of God I and the [ Holy ] Spirit are found in theperfidy of the Jews and the pagans.

82 (24) Butif anyonedivides,* saying that God [Christ's] Father, and God His Son, and Godthe Holy Spirit are gods, and does not thus say God on account of theone divinity and power which we believe and know (to be) the Father's,and the Son's, and the Holy Spirit's, but taking away the Son or theHoly Spirit, thus believes that the Father alone is called God, or inthis manner believes God one, he is a heretic in every respect, nayrather a Jew, because the name of gods was attached and given both toangels and to all the saints from God, but of the Father, and of theSon, and of the Holy Spirit because of their one and equal divinity,not the name of gods, but of God is declared and revealed to us, inorder that we may believe, because we are baptized only in the Father,and the Son, and the Holy Spirit and not in the names of archangels orangels, as heretics, or Jews, or even demented pagans.

Thisthen is thesalvation of Christians, that believing in the Trinity, that is, in theFather, and in the Son, and in the Holy Spirit, [and] baptized in this,we believe without doubt that there is only one true divinity andpower, majesty and substance of the same

The HolySpirit*

["Decree ofDAMASUS" from the acts of the Roman Synod, in the year 382]

83 It hasbeen said: Wemust first treat of the sevenfold Spirit, which reposes in Christ, theSpirit of wisdom:Christ, the power of God and the wisdom of God[1 Cor.1:24]. The Spirit of understanding: I will give thee understanding, andI will instruct thee in this way, in which thou shalt go[Ps. 31:8]. TheSpirit of counsel:And his name shall be called angel of great counsel[Is. 9:6: LXX]. The Spirit of power (as above):The power of God and thewisdom of God [1 Cor. 1:24]. The Spirit of knowledge: on account of theexcellence of the knowledge of Christ Jesus the apostle[Eph. 3:19]. TheSpirit of truth:I am the way and the life and the truth[ John 14:6].The Spirit of fear [of God]:The fear of the Lord is the beginning ofwisdom[Ps. 110:10] . . . [ there follows an explanation of the variousnames of Christ:Lord, Word, Flesh, Shepherd, etc.] . . . For the HolySpirit is not only the Spirit of the Father or not only the Spirit ofthe Son, but the Spirit of the Father and of the Son. For it iswritten:If anyone love the world, the Spirit of the Father is not inhim[1 John 2:15; Rom. 8:9]. Likewise it is written:Now if any man havenot the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his [Rom. 8:9]. When the Fatherand the Son are mentioned in this way, the Holy Spirit is understood,of whom the Son himself says in the Gospel, that the Holy Spiritproceedeth from the Father[John 15:26], andhe shall rec eive of mineand shall announce it to you[ John 16:14.]

The Canonof Sacred Scripture *

[From thesame decree and the acts of the same Roman Synod]

84 Likewiseit has beensaid: Now indeed we must treat of the divine Scriptures, what theuniversal Catholic Church accepts and what she ought to shun.

Theorder of theOld Testament begins here:Genesis one book, Exodus one book, Leviticusone book, Numbers one book, Deuteronomy one book, Joshua Nave one book,judges one book, Ruth one book, Kings four books, Paralipomenon twobooks, Psalms one book, Solomon three books, Proverbs one book,Ecclesiastes one book, Canticle of Canticles one book, likewise Wisdomone book, Ecclesiasticus one book.

Likewise theorder of the Prophets. Isaias one book, Jeremias one book, with Ginoth,that is, with his lamentations, Ezechiel one book, Daniel one book,Osee one book, Micheas one book, Joel one book, Abdias one book, Jonasone book, Nahum one book, Habacuc one book, Sophonias one book, Aggeusone book, Zacharias one book, Malachias one book.

Likewise theorder of the histories. Job one book, Tobias one book, Esdras twobooks, Esther one book, Judith one book, Machabees two books.

Likewise theorder of the writings of the New and eternal Testament, which the holyand Catholic Church supports. Of the Gospels, according to Matthew onebook, according to Mark one book, according to Luke one book, accordingto John one book.

The Epistles ofPaul [the apostle] in number fourteen. To the Romans one, to theCorinthians two, to the Ephesians one, to the Thessalonians two, to theGalatians one, to the Philippians one, to the Colossians one, toTimothy two, to Titus one, to Philemon one, to the Hebrews one.

Likewise the Apocalypse of John, one book. And the Acts of the Apostlesone book.

Likewise thecanonical epistles in number seven.Of Peter the Apostle two epistles,of James the Apostle one epistle, of John the Apostle one epistle, ofanother John, the presbyter, two epistles, of Jude the Zealot, theApostle one epistle, see n. 162 ff. *

The canon of the New Testament ends here.

COUNCILOF CONSTANTINOPLE I 381

EcumenicalII (against the Macedonians, etc.)

Condemnationof the Heretics *

85 Thefaith of thethree hundred and eighteen Fathers who assembled at Nicea in Bithyniais not to be disregarded; but it remain authoritative, and all heresyis to be anathematized: and especially that of the Eunomians or of theAnomians, and that of the Arians, or that of the Eudoxians, and that ofthe Macedonians, that is to say of those opposing the Spirit, and thatof the Sabellians, of the Marcellians and that of the Photinians andthat of the Apollinarians.

85 Can. I.[Version ofDionysius Exig.] The faith of three hundred and eighteen Fathers, whoconvened at Nicea in Bithynia, ought not to be violated; but remainsfirm and stable. Every heresy ought to be anathematized, and especiallythose of the Eunomians or Anomians, and of the Arians or Eudoxians, andof the Macedonians or those who oppose the Holy Spirit, and of theSabellians, and of the Marcellians, and of the Photinians, and of theApollinarians.

The"Nicene-Constantinopolitan" * Creed

86 Webelieve in oneGod, Father omnipotent, maker of heaven and earth, and of all thingsvisible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begottenSon of God, born of the Father before all ages, light of light, trueGod of true God, begotten not made, consubstantial with the Father, bywhom all things were made, who for us men and for our salvation camedown and was made flesh by the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary, andbecame man, and was crucified for us by Pontius Pilate, suffered, andwas buried and arose again the third day, according to the Scripture,and ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father, andis coming again with glory to judge the living and the dead; of whosekingdom there shall be no end. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, thegiver of life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with theFather and Son is worshipped and glorified, who spoke through theprophets. In one holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. We confess onebaptism for the remission of sins. We look for the resurrection of thedead, and the life of eternity to come. Amen.

86 [Versionof DionysiusExiguus] We believe [I believe] in one God the Father almighty, makerof heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And inone Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, born of the Father [the onlybegotten Son of God. And born of the Father] before all ages. [God ofGod, light of light] true God of true God. Born [Begotten], not made,consubstantial with the Father, by whom all things were made. Who forus men and our salvation [and for our salvation] came down from heaven.And was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary, and was madehuman [was made man]. And he was crucified [He was crucified also] forus under Pontius Pilate, [suffered]-and was buried. And on the thirdday he rose again, according to the Scriptures. And] ascended intoheaven, sits at the right hand of the Father, [and I will come againwith glory to judge the living and the dead; of whose kingdom thereshall not be an end. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and giver oflife, proceeding from the Father, [who proceeds from the Father and theSon, * who] to be adored with the Father and the Son [is adoredtogether with] and to be glorified together with (them) [and isglorified together with], who spoke through the holy Prophets [by theProphets]. And in one holy Catholic and apostolic Church. We confess [Iconfess] one baptism for the remission of sins. We expect [And Iexpect] the resurrection of the dead, and the life of a future age [tocome]. Amen.

ST.SIRICIUS 384-398

The Primacyof the Roman Pontiff *

[From theepistle (1) "Directa ad decessorem" to Himerius,

Bishop ofTerracina, Feb. 10, 385]

87 . . . Toyour inquirywe do not deny a legal reply, because we, upon whom greater zeal forthe Christian religion is incumbent than upon the whole body, out ofconsideration for our office do not have the liberty to dissimulate,nor to remain silent. We carry the weight of all who are burdened; nayrather the blessed apostle PETER bears these in us, who, as we trust,protects us in all matters of his administration, and guards his heirs.

The Baptismof Heretics *

[From thesame letter to Himerius]

88 (1, 1)And so on thefirst page of your letter you have indicated that very many baptized bythe impious Arians are hastening to the Catholic faith and that certainof our brothers wish to baptize these same ones again. This is notallowed since the Apostle forbids it to be done [cf. Eph. 4:5; Heb. 6:4ff. (?)] and the canons oppose it, and after the cessation of theCouncil of Ariminum general decrees * sent to the provinces by mypredecessor LIBERIUS of venerable memory prohibit it. These togetherwith the Novatians and other heretics we join to the company of theCatholics through the sole invocation of the sevenfold Spirit by theimposition of a bishop's hands, just as it was determined in the Synod,which, too, the whole East and West observe. It is proper that you alsodo not deviate from this course henceforth, if you do not wish to beseparated from our company by synodal decision .*

ChristianMarriage *

[From thesame epistle to Himerius]

88a (4, 5)But you haveinquired concerning the marriage veil, whether one can receive inmatrimony a girl betrothed to another. Let this not be done. Weprohibit it in every way, because, if that blessing which the priestgives to the bride is violated by any transgression, it is like a kindof sacrilege among the faithful.

88* (5, 6)The relapses into passions tobe forgiven finally before death, see Kch.n. 657.

TheCelibacy of the Clergy*

[From thesame epistle to Himerius]

89 (7, 8ff.) Let uscome now to the most sacred orders of the clergy, which we find soabused and so disorderly throughout your provinces to the injury ofvenerable religion, that we ought to say in the words of Jeremias:Whowill water to my head, or a fountain of tears to my eyes? and I willweep for this people day and night( Jer. 9:1). . . . For we havelearned that very many priests and levites of Christ, after longperiods of their consecration, have begotten offspring from their wivesas well as by shameful intercourse, and that they defend their crime bythis excuse, that in the Old Testament it is read that the faculty ofprocreating was given to the priests and the ministers.

Whoeverthatfollower of sensual desires is let him tell me now: . . . Why does [theLord] forewarn those to whom the holies of holies were to be entrustedsaying: Be ye holy, because I your Lord God am holy [ Lev. 20:7;1 Pet.1:16]? Why also were the priests ordered to dwell in the temple at adistance from their homes in the year of their turn? Evidently for thisreason that they might not be able to practise carnal intercourse withtheir wives, so that shining with purity of conscience they might offeran acceptable gift to God. . . .

Thereforealso theLord Jesus, when He had enlightened us by His coming, testifies in theGospel, that he came to fulfill the Law, not to destroy it[ Matt.5:17]. And so He has wished the beauty of the Church, whose spouse Heis, to radiate with the splendor of chastity, so that on the day ofjudgment, when He will have come again, He may be able to find herwithout spot or wrinkle [Eph. 5:27] as He instituted her through HisApostle. All priests and levites are bound by the indissoluble law ofthese sanctions, so that from the day of our ordination, we give upboth our hearts and our bodies to continence and chastity, providedonly that through all things we may please our God in these sacrificeswhich we daily offer."But those who are in the flesh,"as the vessel ofelection says, "cannot please God"[ Rom. 8:8 ].

Butthose, whocontend with an excuse for the forbidden privilege, so as to assertthat this has been granted to them by the Old Law, should know that bythe authority of the Apostolic See they have been cast out of everyecclesiastical office, which they have used unworthily, nor can theyever touch the sacred mysteries, of which they themselves have deprivedthemselves so long as they give heed to impure desires. And becauseexisting examples warn us to be on our guard for the future should anybishop, priest, or deacon be found such, which henceforth we do notwant) let him now understand that every approach to indulgence isbarred through us, because it is necessary that the wounds which arenot susceptible to the healing of warm lotions be cut out with a knife.

TheOrdinations of Monks *

[From thesame epistle to Himerius]

90 (13) Weboth desireand will that monks also, whom however the austerity of their mannersand the holy disposition of their lives and faith commend, be added tothe offices of the clergy. . . [cf. n. 1580].

TheVirginity of the Blessed Virgin Mary *

[Fromepistle (9) "Accepi litteras vestras" to Anysius,

Bishop ofThessalonica, 392]

91 (3)Surely, we cannotdeny that regarding the sons of Mary the statement is justly censured,and your holiness has rightly abhorred it, that from the same virginalwomb, from which according to the flesh Christ was born, anotheroffspring was brought forth. For neither would the Lord Jesus havechosen to be born of a virgin, if he had judged she would be soincontinent, that with the seed of human copulation she would pollutethat generative chamber of the Lord's body, that palace of the eternalKing. For he who imputes this, imputes nothing other than the falsehoodof the Jews, who say that he could not have been born of a virgin. For,if they accept this authority from the priests, that Mary seems to havebrought forth many children, they strive to sweep away the truth offaith with greater zeal.

COUNCIL OFCARTHAGE (III) 397

The Canonof the Sacred Scripture *

92 Can. 36(or otherwise47). [It has been decided] that nothing except the Canonical Scripturesshould be read in the church under the name of the Divine Scriptures.But the Canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers,Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenontwo books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon, twelvebooks of the Prophets, Isaias, Jeremias, Daniel, Ezechiel, Tobias,Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Machabees.Moreover, of the New Testament: Four books of the Gospels, the Acts ofthe Apostles one book, thirteen epistles of Paul the Apostle, one ofthe same to the Hebrews, two of Peter, three * of John, one of James,one of Jude, the Apocalypse of John. Thus [it has been decided] thatthe Church beyond the sea may be consulted regarding the confirmationof that canon; also that it be permitted to read the sufferings of themartyrs, when their anniversary days are celebrated.

ST.ANASTASIUS I 398-40I

TheOrthodoxy of the Pope LIBERIUS *

[From theepistle "Dat mihi plurimum" to Venerius,

Bishop ofMilan, about the year 400]

93 Thatwhich is donefor the love of Christ gives me very much joy; Italy, as victor withthat zeal and aroused ardor for the godhead, retained that faith wholewhich was handed down from the Apostles and placed in the whole worldby our ancestors. For at this time when Constantius of holy memory heldthe world as victor, the heretical African faction was not able by anydeception to introduce its baseness because, as we believe, our Godprovided that that holy and untarnished faith be not contaminatedthrough any vicious blasphemy of slanderous men-that faith which hadbeen discussed and defended at the meeting of the synod in Nicea by theholy men and bishops now placed in the resting-place of the saints.

Forthis faiththose who were then esteemed as holy bishops gladly endured exile, thatis Dionysius, thus a servant of God, prepared by divine instruction, orthose following his example of holy recollection, LIBERIUS bishop ofthe Roman Church, Eusebius also of Vercelli, Hilary of the Gauls, tosay nothing of many, on whose decision the choice could rest to befastened to the cross rather than blaspheme God Christ, which the Arianheresy compelled, or call the Son of God, God Christ, a creature of theLord.

93*Council of Toledo the yea" 400, The Minister of Unction

andAnointing (can. 20) see Kch n. 712.

ST.INNOCENT I 401-417 *

The Baptismof Heretics *

[Fromepistle (2) "Etsi tibi" to Vitricius, Bishop of Rouen, Feb. 15, 404]

94 (8) Thatthose whocome from the Novatians or the Montanists should be received by theimposition of the hand only, because although they were baptized byheretics, nevertheless they were baptized in the name of Christ.

Reconciliationin the Moment of Death *

[From theepistle "Consulenti tibi" to Exuperius, Bishop

ofToulouse, Feb. 20, 405]

95 (2). . .It has beenasked, what must be observed with regard to those who after baptismhave surrendered on every occasion to the pleasures of incontinence,and at the very end of their lives ask for penance and at the same timethe reconciliation of communion. Concerning them the former rule washarder, the latter more favorable, because mercy intervened. For theprevious custom held that penance should be granted, but that communionshould be denied. For since in those times there were frequentpersecutions, so that the ease with which communion was granted mightnot recall men become careless of reconciliation from their lapse,communion was justly denied, penance allowed, lest the whole beentirely refused; and the system of the time made remission moredifficult. But after our Lord restored peace to his churches, whenterror had now been removed, it was decided that communion be given tothe departing, and on account of the mercy of God as a viaticum tothose about to set forth, and that we may not seem to follow theharshness and the rigor of the Novatian heretic who refused mercy.Therefore with penance a last communion will be given, so that such menin their extremities may be freed from eternal ruin with the permissionof our Savior [see n. 1538].

95*Reconciliation outside of the danger of death; see Kch. n. 727.

The Canonof the Holy Scripture and the Apocryphal Books *

[From thesame epistle to Exuperius]

96 (7) Abrief additionshows what books really are received in the canon. These are thedesiderata of which you wished to be informed verbally: of Moses fivebooks, that is, of Genesis, of Exodus, of Leviticus, of Numbers, ofDeuteronomy, and Joshua, of judges one book, of Kings four books, andalso Ruth, of the Prophets sixteen books, of Solomon five books, thePsalms. Likewise of the histories, job one book, of Tobias one book,Esther one, Judith one, of the Machabees two, of Esdras two,Paralipomenon two books. Likewise of the New Testament: of the Gospelsfour books, of Paul the Apostle fourteen epistles, of John three [cf.n.84, 92] epistles of Peter two, an epistle of Jude, an epistle of James,the Acts of the Apostles, the Apocalypse of John.

Others,however,which were written by a certain Leucius under the name of Matthias orof James the Less, or under the name of Peter and John (or which werewritten by Nexocharis and Leonidas the philosophers under the name ofAndrew), or under the name of Thomas, and if there are any others, youknow that they ought not only to be repudiated, but also condemned.

The Baptismof the Paulianists *

[From theepistle (17) "Magna me gratulatio" to Rufus

and otherbishops of Macedonia, Dec. 13, 414]

97From the canonof Nicea[n. 56] indeed the Paulianists coming to the Church ought to bebaptized, but not the Novatians[see n. 55]: (5) . . . What therefore isdistinct in the two heresies themselves, clear reason declares, becausethe Paulianists do not at all baptize in the name of the Father, and ofthe Son, and of the Holy Spirit, and the Novatians do baptize in thesame tremendous and venerable names, and among them the question hasnot ever been raised concerning the unity of the divine power, that isof the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.

TheMinister of Confirmation *

[From theepistle (25) "Si instituta ecclesiastica" to

Decentiusthe Bishop of Gubbio, March 19, 416]

98 (3) Butin regard tothe signing of little children, it is evident that it may not be doneby any other than a bishop. For the presbyters, although they aresecond priests, nevertheless do not possess the crown of thepontificate. That this power of a bishop, however, is due to thebishops alone, so that they either sign or give the Paraclete theSpirit, not only ecclesiastical custom indicates, but also that readingin the Acts of the Apostles which declares that Peter and John weredirected to give the Holy Spirit to those already baptized [ cf.Acts8:14-17]. For to presbyters it is permitted to anoint the baptized withchrism whenever they baptize, whether without a bishop or in thepresence of a bishop, but (with chrism) that has been consecrated by abishop; nevertheless (it is) not (allowed) to sign the forehead withthe same oil; that is due to the bishops alone when they bestow theSpirit, the Paraclete. Indeed, I cannot say the words lest I seem to gofurther than to reply to the inquiry.

TheMinister of Extreme Unction *

[From thesame letter to Decentius]

99 (8)Truly since yourlove has wished to take counsel regarding this just as concerning other(matters), my son Celestine, the deacon, has also added in his letterthat what was written in the epistle of the blessed Apostle James hasbeen proposed by your love: If anyone among you is sick, let him callthe priests, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in thename of the Lord: and the prayer of faith shall save the sufferer, andthe Lord shall raise him up, and if he has committed sin, he shallpardon him[Jas. 5:14 f.]. There is no doubt that this anointing oughtto be interpreted or understood of the sick faithful, who can beanointed with the holy oil of chrism, which prepared by a bishop, ispermitted not only to priests, but also to all as Christians foranointing in their own necessity or in the necessity of their (people).Moreover, we see that addition to be superfluous; that what isundoubtedly permitted the presbyters is questioned regarding bishops.For, on this account it was said to priests, because the bishops beinghindered by other business cannot go to all the sick. But if a bishop,to whom it belongs to prepare the chrism, is able (to do it) or thinkssomeone is worthy to be visited by him, he can both bless and anointwith the chrism without delay. For, that cannot be administered topenitents, because it is a kind of sacrament. For, how is it supposedthat one species (of sacrament) can be granted to those to whom therest of the sacraments are denied?

The Primacyand the Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff *

[From theepistle (29) "In requirendis" to the African bishops, Jan. 27, 417]

100 (1) Inseeking thethings of God . . . preserving the examples of ancient tradition . . .you have strengthened the vigor of your religion . . . with truereason, for you have confirmed that reference must be made to ourjudgment, realizing what is due the Apostolic See, since all of usplaced in this position desire to follow the Apostle, from whom theepiscopate itself and all the authority of this name have emerged.Following him we know how to condemn evils just as (well as how) toapprove praiseworthy things. Take this as an example, guarding withyour sacerdotal office the practices of the fathers you resolve that(they) must not be trampled upon, because they made their decisions notby human, but by divine judgment, so that they thought that nothingwhatever, although it concerned separated and remote provinces, shouldbe concluded, unless it first came to the attention of this See, sothat what was a just proclamation might be confirmed by the totalauthority of this See, and from this source (just as all waters proceedfrom their natal fountain and through diverse regions of the wholeworld remain pure liquids of an uncorrupted source), the other churchesmight assume what [they ought] to teach, whom they ought to wash, thosewhom the water worthy of clean bodies would shun as though defiled withfilth incapable of being cleansed.

100*For another rescript of Innocent I concerning the same matter, see Kch n.720-726.

ST. ZOSIMUS 417-4I8

COUNCIL OF MILEUM II 416, APPROVED BY INNOCENT AND

COUNCIL OF CARTHAGE (XVI) 418, APPROVED BY ZOSIMUS

(against the Pelagians) *

Original Sin and Grace *

101 Can. 1. All the bishops established in the sacred synod of theCarthaginian Church have decided that whoever says that Adam, the firstman, was made mortal, so that, whether he sinned or whether he did notsin, he would die in body, that is he would go out of the body notbecause of the merit of sin but by reason of the necessity of nature, *let him be anathema.

102 Can. 2. Likewise it has been decided that whoever says that infantsfresh from their mothers' wombs ought not to be baptized, or says thatthey are indeed baptized unto the remission of sins, but that they drawnothing of the original sin from Adam, which is expiated in the bath ofregeneration, whence it follows that in regard to them the form ofbaptism "unto the remission of sins" is understood as not true, but asfalse, let him be anathema. Since what the Apostle says: "Through oneman sin entered into the world (and through sin death), and so passedinto all men, in whom all have sinned" [cf. Rom. 5:12], must not to beunderstood otherwise than as the Catholic Church spread everywhere hasalways understood it. For on account of this rule of faith eveninfants, who in themselves thus far have not been able to commit anysin, are therefore truly baptized unto the remission of sins, so thatthat which they have contracted from generation may be cleansed in themby regeneration. *

103 Can. 3. Likewise it has been decided that whoever says that thegrace of God, by which man is justified through Jesus Christ, our Lord,has power only for the remission of sins which have already beencommitted, and not also for help, that they be not committed, let himbe anathema.

104 Can. 4. In like manner, whoever says that the same grace of Godthrough Jesus Christ, our Lord, helps us not to sin only for thisreason, that through it the understanding of the commands is revealedand opened to us, that we may know what we ought to strive after, whatwe ought to avoid, but that through this [the power] is not also givento us to love and to be able to do that which we know ought to be done,let him be anathema. For since the Apostle says: "Knowledge puffs up,but charity edifies" [1 Cor. 8:1], it is very impious for us to believethat for that which puffs up, we have the grace of Christ, and for thatwhich edifies we have not, although each is a gift of God, both to knowwhat we ought to do and to love in order that we may do it, so thatwhile charity edifies, knowledge may not be able to puff us up.Moreover, just as it is written of God: "Who teaches man knowledge"[Ps. 93:10], so also it is written: "Charity is from God" [1 John 4:7].

105 Can. 5. It has likewise been decided that whoever says that thegrace of justification is given to us for this reason: that what we areordered to do through free will, we may be able to accomplish moreeasily through grace, just as if, even if grace were not given, wecould nevertheless fulfill the divine commands without it, though notindeed easily, let him he anathema. For concerning the fruits of Hiscommands the Lord spoke not when He said: "Without me you canaccomplish with greater difficulty," but when He said: "Without me youcan do nothing" [John 15:5].

106 Can. 6. It has likewise been decided that what St. John the Apostlesays: If we say, that we have not sin, we deceive ourselves, and thetruth is not in us [1 John 1:8], whoever thinks that this ought to beinterpreted thus: that he asserts that this ought to be said on accountof humility, namely, that we have sin, and not because it is truly so,let him be anathema. For the Apostle continues and adds: If however weconfess our sins, he is faithful and just, who remits our sins andcleanses us from all Iniquity [1 John 1:9], wherein it is quite clear,that this is said not only humbly but truly. For the Apostle could havesaid: If we say: we have not sin, we extol ourselves, and humility isnot in us. But when he says: We deceive ourselves, and the truth i'snot in us, he shows clearly that he who said he had not sin, spoke notthe truth but a falsehood.

107 Can. 7. It has likewise been decided that whoever says that forthis reason the saints say in the Lord's prayer: "Forgive us our debts"[ Matt. 6:12], that they say this not for themselves, because thatpetition is not now necessary for them, but for others who are sinnersamong their people, and that on this account each one of the saintsdoes not say: Forgive me my debts, but, Forgive us our debts;so thatthe just man is understood to seek this for others rather than forhimself, let him be anathema. For the Apostle James was holy and just,when he said: "For in many things we all offend"[ Jas. 3:2]. For whywas "all" ( omnes)added, unless that this meaning was proper and in thePsalm where one reads: Enter not into judgment with thy servant,because no( ne omnes) living person shall be justified in thy sight[Ps. 142:2]. And in the prayer of wisest Solomon: There is not a man whohas not sinned[1 Kings 8:46]. And in the book of holy Job:In the handof every( omnis) man he signs, so that every ( omnis) man may know hisinfirmity[ Job 37:7]. Hence also holy and just Daniel, when he spoke inthe plural in his prayer: " We have sinned, we have done evil" [ Dan.9:5,15], and the rest which he there truly and humbly confesses, lestit should be thought, as certain ones do think, that he said this notabout his own sins, but rather about the sins of his people, declaredafterwards: "When. . .I prayed and confessed my sins and the sins of mypeople" [Dan. 9:20] to the Lord my God; he did not wish to say "oursins," but he said the sins of his people and his own sins, since as aprophet he foresaw there would be those who would thus misunderstand.

108 Can. 8. it has likewise been decided that whoever wishes that thewords themselves of the Lord's prayer, where we say:"Forgive us ourdebts" [ Matt. 6:12] be said by the saints so as to be spoken humbly,not truthfully, let him be anathema. For who would tolerate one prayingand lying, not to men, but to the Lord himself, who says with his lipsthat he wishes to be forgiven, and in his heart holds that he does nothave debts to be forgiven?

The Primacy and the Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff 1

[From the epistle (12) "Quamvis Patrum traditio" to

the African bishops, March 21, 418]

109 Although the tradition of the Fathers has attributed such greatauthority to the Apostolic See that no one would dare to disagreewholly with its judgment, and it has always preserved this judgment bycanons and rules, and current ecclesiastical discipline up to this timeby its laws pays the reverence which is due to the name of PETER, fromwhom it has itself descended . . . ; since therefore PETER the head isof such (Treat authority and he has confirmed the subsequent endeavorsof all our ancestors, so that the Roman Church is fortified . . . byhuman as well as by divine laws, and it does not escape you that werule its place and also hold power of the name itself, nevertheless youknow, dearest brethren, and as priests you ought to know, although wehave such great authority that no one can dare to retract from ourdecision, yet we have done nothing which we have not voluntarilyreferred to your notice by letters . . . not because we did not knowwhat ought to be done, or would do anything which by going against theadvantage of the Church, would be displeasing.

Original Sin*

[From the epistle "Tract(at)oria ad Orientales ecclesias,

Aegypti diocesim, Constantinopolim, Thessalonicam,

Hierosolymam," sent after March, 418]

109a The Lord [is] faithful in his words [ Ps. 144:13] and Hisbaptism holds the same plenitude in deed and words, that is in work,confession, and true remission of sins in every sex, age, and conditionof the human race. For no one except him who is the servant of sin ismade free, nor can he be said to be redeemed unless he has previouslytruly been a captive through sin, as it is written: "If the Sonliberates you, you will be truly free [John 8:36]. For through Him weare reborn spiritually, through Him we are crucified to the world. ByHis death that bond of death introduced into all of us by Adam andtransmitted to every soul, that bond contracted by propagation isbroken, in which no one of our children is held not guilty until he isfreed through baptism.

ST. BONIFACE I 418-422

The Primacy and Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff *

[From the epistle (13) "Retro maioribus tuis" to

Rufus, Bishop of Thessaly, March 11, 422]

110 (2) . . . To the Synod [of Corinth]. . . . . we have directed suchwritings that all the brethren may know. . . . . that there must be nowithdrawal from our judgment. For it has never been allowed that thatbe discussed again which has once been decided by the Apostolic See.

ST. CELESTINE I 422-432

Reconciliation in the Moment of Death *

[From the epistle (4) "Cuperemus quidem" to the

bishops of the provinces of Vienne and Narbo, July 26, 428]

111 (2) We acknowledge that penance is being denied the dying and noassent is given to the ardent wishes of those who at the time of theirdeath desire to come to the assistance of their souls with this remedy.We are horrified, I confess, that anyone is found of such greatimpiety, that he despairs of the love of God, as if He were not able atany time whatever to hasten to the aid of the one who runs to Him forhelp and to free from his burden a man endangered by the weight ofsins, from which he longs to be liberated. For what else is this, Iask, than to add death to the dying and to kill his soul with one's owncruelty, that it may not be able to be absolved? Since God, most readyto succor, inviting to repentance, thus promised: In whatever day, Hesays, the sinner shall be converted, his sins shall not be imputed tohim [cf. Eze. 33:16]. . . Since therefore the Lord is the examiner ofthe heart, penance must not be denied at any time to one who asks for(it) . . . .

COUNCIL OF EPHESUS 431

Ecumenical III (against the Nestorians)

The Incarnation *

[From the epistle II of St. Cyril of Alexandria to

Nestorius, read and approved in action I]

111a For we do not say that the nature of the Word was changed and madeflesh, nor yet that it was changed into the whole man (composed) ofsoul and body but rather (we say) that the Word, in an ineffable andinconceivable manner, having hypostatically united to Himself fleshanimated by a rational soul, became Man and was called the Son of Man,not according to the will alone or by the assumption of a person alone,and that the different natures were brought together in a real union,but that out of both in one Christ and Son, not because the distinctionof natures was destroyed by the union, but rather because the divinenature and the human nature formed one Lord and Christ and Son for us,through a marvelous and mystical concurrence in unity. . . . For it wasno ordinary man who was first born of the Holy Virgin and upon whom theWord afterwards descended; but being united from the womb itself He issaid to have undergone flesh birth, claiming as His own the birth ofHis own flesh. Thus [the holy Fathers] did not hesitate to speak of theholy Virgin as the Mother of God.

The Primacy of the Roman Pontiff *

[From the speech of Philip the Roman legate in action 111]

112 No one doubts, but rather it has been known to all generations,that the holy and most blessed Peter, chief and head of the Apostles,the pillar of the faith, the foundation stone of the Catholic church,received the keys of the kingdom from our Lord Jesus Christ the Saviorand Redeemer of the human race, and that the power of binding andloosing sins was given to him, who up to this moment and always livesin his successors, and judges [see n. 1824].

The Anathemas of the Chapter of Cyril * (against Nestorius) *

113 Can. 1. If anyone does not confess that God is truly Emmanuel, andthat on this account the Holy Virgin is the Mother of God (foraccording to the flesh she gave birth to the Word of God become fleshby birth), let him be anathema.

114 Can. 2. If anyone does not confess that the Word of God the Fatherwas united to a body by hypostasis and that one is Christ with his ownbody, the same one evidently both God and man, let him be anathema.

115 Can. 3. If anyone in the one Christ divides the subsistences afterthe union, connecting them by a junction only according to worth, thatis to say absolute sway or power, and not rather by a joining accordingto physical union, let him be anathema.

116 Can. 4. If anyone portions out to two persons, that is to saysubsistences, the words in the Gospels and the apostolic writings,whether said about Christ by the saints, or by Him concerning Himself,and attributes some as it to a man specially understood beside the Wordof God, others as befitting God alone, to the Word of God the Father,let him be anathema.

117 Can. 5. If anyone ventures to say that Christ is a man inspired byGod, and not rather that He is truly God, as a son by nature, as theWord was made flesh and has shared similarly with us in blood andflesh, let him be anathema.

118 Can. 6. If anyone ventures to say that God or the Lord is the Wordof Christ from God the Father and does not rather confess the same asat once both God and man, since the Word was made flesh according tothe Scriptures, let him be anathema.

119 Can. 7. If anyone says that Jesus as mail was assisted by the Wordof God, and that the glory of the Only-begotten was applied as toanother existing beside Him, let him be anathema.

120 Can. 8. If anyone ventures to say that the assumed man must beworshipped and glorified along with God the Word, and bears the sametitle with Him, as the one in the other, for the "(Greek text deleted)"always being added will force (one) to understand this, and does notrather honor Emmanuel with one worship and apply one glory to Him,according as the Word was made flesh, let him be anathema.

121 Can. 9. If anyone says that the one Lord Jesus Christ was glorifiedby the Spirit, as it were using through Him a power belonging toanother, and that He received from Him the power to work againstunclean spirits, and to perform miracles for men, and does not sayrather that the Spirit through which He worked the miracles was Hisown; let him be anathema.

122 Can. 10. The Divine Scripture says that Christ was made a highpriest and apostle of our confession [Heb. 3:1] and in the odor offragrance offered himself to God and the Father for us [ Eph. 5:2].Therefore, if anyone says that the Word of God Himself was not made ourHigh-priest and Apostle, when He was made flesh [ John 1:14] and man inour likeness, but that as it were another besides Himself specificallya man (born) of a woman, or if anyone says that He offered the oblationfor Himself and not rather for us alone, for He who knew not sin wouldnot have needed oblations, let him be anathema.

123 Can. 11. If anyone does not confess that the flesh of the Lord islife giving and belongs personally to the Word of God, the Father, butthat it is of someone else besides Him, but joined to Him according toworthiness, as having only the divine indwelling, and not rather as wesaid, is life-giving, since He was made the Word's own, and has powerto give life to all things, let him be anathema.

124 Can. 12. If anyone does not confess that the Word of God sufferedin the flesh, and tasted death in the flesh, and was made the firstbornfrom the dead [ Col. 1:18 ] according to which as God He is both thelife and the life-giver, let him be anathema.

Faith and the Tradition to be Guarded *

125 . . . The holy synod decided that no one is allowed to declare orat any rate to compose or devise a faith other than that defined by theholy fathers who with the Holy Spirit came together at Nicea. . . .

. . . If any should be discovered, whether bishops or priests, orlay persons, who believe or teach those things in the expositionconveyed by Charisius the priest concerning the Incarnation* of theOnly-begotten Son of God, or at any rate the abominable and distorteddogmas of Nestorius . . . , let them be subject to the decision of thisholy and ecumenical synod. . . .

Condemnation of the Pelagians *

126 Can. 1. Whether a metropolitan of the province after revoltingagainst the holy and ecumenical synod . . . . heeded or will heed the(opinions) of Celestius, this person is in no wise able to accomplishanything against the bishops of the province, since thereafter he isdebarred by the synod from all ecclesiastical communion and is renderedinefficacious. . . .

127 Can. 4. But if some of the clergy should rebel, and dare to holdthe opinions of Nestorius or Celestius either in private or in public,it has been judged by the holy synod that they too are deposed.

The Authority of St. Augustine *

[From Ep. (21) "Apostolici Verba Praecepti" to the

bishops of the Gauls, May 15 (?), 431]

128 Chapter 2. We have always held Augustine a man of holy memorybecause of his life and also of his services in our communion, nor haseven report ever sullied him with unfavorable suspicion. We recall himas having once been a man of such great knowledge that even by mypredecessors in the past he was always accounted among the bestteachers. *

The Catalog or the Authoritative Statements of the Past

Bishops of the Holy See* Concerning the Grace of God

129 Because some, who glory in the name of Catholic, linger in thecondemned view of heretics whether through perverseness or throughignorance, and presume to oppose the very pious disputers, and,although they do not hesitate to anathematize Pelagius and alsoCaelestius, nevertheless contradict our teachers, as if theyoverstepped the necessary limit, and profess to follow and approve onlythose [doctrines] which the most sacred See of the Blessed ApostlePETER has sanctioned and taught against the enemies of the grace of Godthrough the office of its leaders, it has become necessary to inquirediligently as to what the rulers of the Roman Church judged concerningthe heresy which had arisen in their times, and in opposition to themost harmful [heretics] what the defenders of free will decreed shouldbe thought with regard to the grace of God. Thus, too, we have addedcertain opinions of the African Councils, which the apostolichigh-priests have assuredly made their own when they approved [them].In order therefore that [those] who doubt in any [matter] may be themore fully instructed, we are making public the definitions of the HolyFathers in a brief catalogue, in which, if anyone is not a littlecontentious, he will recognize that the organic union of all reasoningsdepends upon this concise [catalogue] of supporting authorities, and noreason for contradiction remains to him, if he believes and speaks withthe Catholics.

130 Chapter 1. In the transgression of Adam all men lost their"natural power" * and innocence, and no one can rise from the depth ofthat ruin through free will, unless the grace of a merciful God raisehim up, [according as] Pope INNOCENT of blessed memory proclaimed andsaid in his letter * to the Council of Carthage:* "For he, having oncebraved every consequence of free choice, while he used his goods toounadvisedly, fell and was overwhelmed in the depth of histransgression, and found no [way] by which he was able to rise from it;and beguiled forever by his own liberty he would have lain prostrate bythe weight of this ruin, if the coming of Christ had not afterwardslifted him up by virtue of His grace, who through the purification of anew regeneration washed away in the bath of His baptism every past sin."

131 Chapter 2. For no one is good of himself, unless He gives [him] a participation of Himself, who alone is good.

In the same writings the opinion of the same pontiff bearswitness to this, stating: * "Shall we after this judge anything to beright in the minds of those who think they owe to themselves the factthat they are good, and do not consider Him, whose grace they obtaindaily; who feel sure that they are able to secure [it] alone withoutHim?"

132 Chapter 3. No one even after having been restored by the grace ofbaptism is capable of overcoming the snares of the devil and subduingthe concupiscenses of the flesh, unless he has received through thedaily help of God the perseverance of the good way of life. Thedoctrine of the same high-priest confirms this in the same letter,declaring* : "For although He had redeemed man from his past sins,nevertheless knowing that he would be able to sin again, He saved manythings for reparation to Himself, offering him daily remedies by whichHe might be able to correct him even after those (sins), and, if we donot struggle relying upon these [remedies] and trusting in them, weshall by no means be able to conquer human mistakes. For it isnecessary that, as we are victorious with His aid, we shall again bedefeated if He does not help us."

133 Chapter 4. The same teacher in the epistle to the council of Mileum* proclaims that no one uses his free will well, except through Christ,asserting: * "Note finally, O perverse doctrine of most distortedminds, that liberty itself so deceived the first man, that, while heused his bridle too indulgently, he fell into transgression bypresumption. Nor would he have been able to be rescued from this, hadnot the coming of Christ the Lord reestablished for him the state ofpristine liberty by the providence of regeneration."

134 Chapter 5. That all the zeal and all the works and merits of thesaints ought to be referred to the glory and praise of God; because noone pleases Him with anything except with that which He Himself hasgiven. To this view the regular authority of the Pope ZOSIMUS ofblessed memory directs us, when, writing to the bishops of the wholeworld, he says:* "We, however, by the inspiration of God (for all goodthings must be assigned to their author, whence they derive theirorigin) have referred all things to the conscience of our brothers andco-bishops." However, the African bishops honored with such greatpraise this discourse radiating with the light of sincerest truth, thatthey wrote thus to the same man: "That statement indeed, which you madein the letter, that you caused to be sent to all the provinces, saying:'We nevertheless by the inspiration of God, etc.,' we have accepted thewords thus: that you, as it were moving swiftly with the drawn sword oftruth have cut off those who extol the freedom of the human will inopposition to the help of God. For you have done nothing with free willexcept refer all things to the conscience of our lowliness. And yet youhave faithfully and wisely seen that it was done by the inspiration ofGod, and you have spoken truly and confidently. Therefore assuredly,becausethe good will is provided beforehand by the Lord[Prov. 8:35:LXX], and that the good may accomplish something, He Himself touchesthe hearts of His sons with paternal inspirations. For all that aremoved by the Spirit of God, they are the Sons of God[ Rom. 8:14]; sothat we do not think that our free will is lacking; and we do not doubtthat in each and every good movement of the human will, His help ismote powerful."

135 Chapter 6. That God thus operates in the hearts of men and in thefree will itself, so that a holy thought, a pious plan, and everymotion of good will is from God, because we can do anything goodthrough Him,without whom we ca n do nothing[John 15:5]. For to thisprofession the same teacher ZOSIMUS trained us, who, when he spoke * tothe bishops of the whole world concerning the assistance of divinegrace, said: "What time therefore occurs in which we do not need Hishelp? Accordingly in all acts, situations, thoughts, and movements Heought to be implored as helper and protector. Indeed, it is arrogantfor human nature to take anything to itself since the Apostledeclares:Our struggle is notagainst flesh and blood, but againstprinces and powers of this atmosphere, against the spirits ofwickedness in high places[ Eph. 6:12 ]. And thus He Himself saidagain:Unhappyman (that) I (am),who will free me from the body of thisdeath? The grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord[ Rom. 7:24 ]. Andagain:By the grace of God I am what I am, and His grace in me has notbeen void; but I have labored more than all those; yet not I, but thegrace with me[ 1 Cor. 15:10 ]."

136 Chapter 7. Furthermore that which was determined in the decrees ofthe synod of Carthage, * we have embraced as the Apostolic See's own,namely, what was defined in the third chapter: "That whoever says thatthe grace of God, by which we are justified through Jesus Christ ourLord, has power only for the remission of sins which have already beencommitted, and not also for help, that they may not be committed, lethim be anathema." [seen. 103 ].

137 And again in the fourth chapter: "That whoever says that the graceof God through Jesus Christ on this account alone helps us not to sin,that through it an understanding of the commands is revealed and openedto us, so that we know what we ought to strive after and what we oughtto shun, but that through it [the power] is not also given to us tolove and to be able to do that which we know ought to be done, let himbe anathema. For since the Apostle says:Knowledge puffs up, but charityedifies [ 1 Cor. 8:1]; it is very impious, for us to believe, that forthat which puffs up, we have the grace of Christ, and for that whichedifies, we have not, although each is a gift of God, both to know whatwe ought to do, and to love in order that we may do it, so that sincecharity edifies, knowledge may not be able to puff up. Moreover just asit is written of God:Who teaches man knowledge[ Ps. 93:10], so also itis written:Charity is fromGod [ 1 John 4:7 ];" [ see n. 104].

138 Likewise in the fifth chapter: "That whoever says, that for thisreason the grace of justification is given to us, that what we areordered to do through free will we may be able to accomplish moreeasily through grace, just as if, even were grace not given, we couldnevertheless fulfill the divine commands without it, though not indeedeasily, let him be anathema. For of the fruits of his commands the Lorddid not speak when He said:Without me you can accomplish ( them) withmore difficulty,but when He said: Without me you can do nothing[John15:5]" [See n. 105].

139 Chapter 8. * But besides these hallowed ordinances of the mostblessed and Apostolic See, in accordance with which the most piousFathers, after casting aside the pride of pernicious novelty, havetaught us to refer to Christ's grace both the beginnings of good will,and the advances in commendable devotions and the perseverance in theseunto the end, let us be mindful also of the sacraments of priestlypublic prayer, which handed down by the Apostles are uniformlycelebrated in the whole world and in every Catholic Church, in orderthat the law of supplication may support the law of believing.

For when the leaders of the holy nations perform the office ofambassador entrusted to them, they plead the cause of the human racebefore divine Clemency, and while the whole Church laments with them,they ask and pray that the faith may be granted to infidels; thatidolaters may be delivered from the errors of their impiety; that theveil of their hearts may be removed and the light of truth be visibleto the Jews; that heretics may come to their senses through acomprehension of the Catholic faith; that schismatics may receive thespirit of renewed charity; that the remedy of repentance may bebestowed upon the lapsed; that finally after the catechumens have beenled to the sacraments of regeneration, the royal court of heavenlymercy may be opened to them. Moreover, the effect of these prayersshows that these are not sought from the Lord perfunctorily anduselessly, since indeed God deigns to attract from every kind of errorvery many whom,torn from the power of darkness, He transfers into thekingdom of the Son of his love [ Col. 1:13], andfrom vessels of wrathHe makes vessels of mercy [Rom. 9:22 f.]. This is felt to be socompletely a divine work that the action of the graces and theacknowledgement of praise on account of the illumination or correctionof such [persons] should always be referred to God who effects thesethings.

140 That also, which the holy Church uniformly does in the whole worldwith regard to those to be baptized, we do not observe with indifferentrespect. Since whether children or youths come to the sacrament ofregeneration, they do not approach the fountain of life, before theunclean spirit is driven away from them by the exorcisms and thebreathings upon them of the priests; so that then it is truly manifesthowthe prince of this world is sent forth[John 12:31 ], and how thestrong[man] is first bound [Matt. 12:29 ], and thereafter his vesselsare plundered [Mark 3:27 ], having been transferred to the possessionof the victor, who leads captivity captive [ Eph. 4:8 ] and gives giftsto man [Ps. 67:19 ].

141 Therefore, in accordance with the ecclesiastical rules anddocuments taken on divine authority, we are so strengthened by ourLord's aid that we confess openly that God [is] the author of all gooddispositions of mind, and also of works, and of all zeal, and of allvirtues by which from the beginning of faith we tend towards God; andwe do not doubt that all the merits of man are preceded by His grace,through whom it is brought to pass, that we begin both to will and todo [ Phil. 2:13] anything good. Assuredly free choice is not taken awayby this aid and gift of God, but it is set at liberty, that light maycome from darkness, right from wrong, health from sickness, andprudence from imprudence. For, so great is the goodness of God towardsall men that He wishes the merits, which are His own gifts, to be ours,and in consideration of those which He has conferred, He intends togive eternal rewards. * For He acts in us that we may both will and dowhat He wishes, nor does He allow those gifts to be idle in us which Hehas given to be used and not to be neglected, that we also may becooperators with the grace of God. And if we see that there is anylistlessness in us as a result of our relaxation, let us carefully haverecourse to Him,who heals all our weaknesses and redeems our life fromdestruction [ Ps. 102:3 f.], andto whom we daily say: Lead us not intotemptation, but deliver us from evil [ Matt. 6:13].

142 Chapter 10. But although we do not dare to esteem lightly thedeeper and more difficult parts of the questions which they havetreated * in more detail who have resisted the heretics, yet we do notconsider it necessary to add what their writings, according to theaforementioned regulation of the Apostolic See, have taught us, becausewe believe that it is quite enough to confess the grace of God, fromwhose work and honor nothing should be entirely taken away, so that wedo not deem that to be at all Catholic which appears to be contrary tothe views presented above.

ST. SIXTUS III 432-440

"Creed of the union" of the year 433, by which peace was restored

between St. Cyril of Alexandria and the Antiochenes [St. Cyril,

Ep. 39: MG 77, 176 D f. 7; see R n. 2060; approved

by St. Sixtus III, App. n. 5002 ff. ]

ST. LEO I, THE GREAT 440-461

The Incarnation * (against Eutyches) *

[From the dogmatic epistle (28) "Lectis dilectionis tuae"

to Flavian, Patriarch of Constantinople, June 13, 449]

(2) see R n. 2182.

143 (3) The uniqueness of each nature being preserved and combined inone person, humility was assumed by majesty, weakness by strength,mortality by eternity, and for the sake of paying the debt of ourcreation, an inviolable nature was joined to a passible nature; sothat, because it was adapted to our relief, one and the same mediatorof God and men, the man Jesus Christ [1 Tim. 2:5] both could die byreason of the one, and could not die on account of the other.Accordingly, in the whole and perfect nature of true man, true God wasborn, complete in His own, complete in ours. . . .

144 (4) Consequently, the Son of God entered into these lowlyconditions of the world, after descending from His celestial throne,and though He did not withdraw from the glory of the Father, He wasgenerated in a new order and in a new nativity. In a new order, becauseinvisible in His own, He was made visible in ours; incomprehensible [inHis own], He wished to be comprehended; permanent before times, Hebegan to be in time; the Lord of the universe assumed the form of aslave, concealing the immensity of His majesty; the impassible God didnot disdain to be a passible man and the immortal [did not disdain] tobe subject to the laws of death. Moreover, He was generated in a newnativity, because inviolate virginity [that] did not know concupiscencefurnished the material of His body. From the mother of the Lord,nature, not guilt, was assumed; and in the Lord Jesus Christ born fromthe womb of the Virgin, because His birth was miraculous, nature wasnot for that reason different from ours. For He who is true God, islikewise true man, and there is no falsehood in this unity, as long asthere are alternately the lowliness of man and the exaltedness of theDivinity. For, just as God is not changed by His compassion, so man isnot destroyed by His dignity. For each nature does what is proper to itwith the mutual participation of the other; the Word clearly effectingwhat belongs to the Word, and the flesh performing what belongs to theflesh. One of these gleams with miracles; the other sinks underinjuries. And just as the Word does not withdraw from the equality ofthe paternal glory, so His body does not abandon the nature of our race[For more see R n. 2183 f. 2188].

144* Matrimony as a sacrament [ Eph. 5:32] see R n. 2189;

The creation of the soul and original sin, see

R n. 2181.

Secret Confession *

[From epistle "Magna indign." to all the bishops through

Campania, etc., March 6, 459]

145 (2) 1 also decree that that presumption against the apostolicregulation, which I recently learned is being committed by some throughunlawful usurpation, be banished by all means.

With regard to penance, what is demanded of the faithful, isclearly not that an acknowledgement of the nature of individual sinswritten in a little book be read publicly, since it suffices that thestates of consciences be made known to the priests alone in secretconfession. For although the fullness of faith seems to be laudable,which on account of the fear of God is not afraid to blush before men,nevertheless since the sins of all are not such that those who ask forpenance do not dread to publish them, so objectionable a custom shouldbe abolished. . . . For that confession is sufficient, which is firstoffered to God, then also to a priest, who serves as an intercessor forthe transgressions of the penitents. For then, indeed, more will beable to be incited to penance, if the conscience of the one confessingis not exposed to the ears of the people.

The Sacrament of Penance *

[From epistle (108) "Solicitudinis quidem tuae" to

Theodore, Bishop of Forum Julii, June 11, 452]

146 (2) The manifold mercy of God came to the assistance of fallen menin such a way that the hope of eternal life might be recovered not onlyby the grace of baptism, but also by the remedy of penance, that thosewho have violated the gifts of regeneration, condemning themselves bytheir own judgment, might attain to the remission of their sins; thehelp of divine goodness having been so ordered that the indulgence ofGod cannot be obtained except by the supplications of the priests.For"the Mediator of God and of men, the man Christ Jesus[1 Tim. 2:5]has entrusted this power to the leaders of the Church, that they mightboth grant the action of penance to those confessing, and admit thesame [persons] cleansed by salutary satisfaction to the communion ofthe sacraments through the gate of reconciliation. . . .

147 (5) It is necessary that each and every Christian hold a trial ofhis own conscience, lest from day to day he defer being converted toGod, and choose the difficulties of that time when neither theconfession of the penitent nor the reconciliation of the priest cantake place. But, as I have said, the need even of such should beserved, so that neither the action of penance nor the grace ofcommunion may be denied them, even if the function of speech has beenlost, and they ask it through the signs of a sound sense. But if theyare so oppressed by some violent illness, that what they asked a littlewhile before, they are not able to signify in the presence of thepriest, the testimonies of the faithful standing about ought to beadvantageous to them, that they may gain simultaneously the benefit ofboth penance and reconciliation, the regulation of the canons of theFathers, however, being observed regarding the persons of those whohave sinned against God by deserting the faith.

COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON 451

Ecumenical IV (against the Monophysites)

Definition of the Two Natures of Christ *

148 Therefore, following the holy fathers, we all teach that with oneaccord we confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the sameperfect in human nature, truly God and the same with a rational souland a body truly man, consubstantial with the Father according todivinity, and consubstantial with us according to human nature, likeunto us in all things except sin, [cf. Heb. 4:15]; indeed born of theFather before the ages according to divine nature, but in the last daysthe same born of the virgin Mary, Mother of God according to humannature; for us and for our deliverance, one and the same Christ onlybegotten Son, our Lord, acknowledged in two natures,' without mingling,without change, indivisibly, undividedly, the distinction of thenatures nowhere removed on account of the union but rather thepeculiarity of each nature being kept, and uniting in one person andsubstance, not divided or separated into two persons, but one and thesame Son only begotten God Word, Lord Jesus Christ, just as from thebeginning the prophets taught about Him and the Lord Jesus Himselftaught us, and the creed of our fathers has handed down to us.

Therefore, since these have been arranged by us with all possiblecare and diligence, the holy and ecumenical synod has declared that noone is allowed to profess or in any case to write up or to compose orto devise or to teach others a different faith.

148 [Version of Rusticus] Therefore, following the holy Fathers, we allteach that with one accord we confess one and the same Son, our LordJesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and the same perfect in humannature, true God and true man, the same with a rational soul and abody, consubstantial with the Father according to divine nature,consubstantial with us according to the human nature, like unto us inall things except sin [cf. Heb. 4:15]: indeed born of the Father beforethe ages according to divinity, but in the latest days the same born ofthe virgin Mary, Mother of God according to the humanity; for us andfor our salvation, one and the same Christ, only begotten Son, ourLord, acknowledged in two natures * without mingling, without change,indivisibly, undividedly, the distinction of the natures nowhereremoved on account of the union, but rather the uniqueness of eachnature being kept and uniting in one person and one substance, notdivided or separated into two persons, but one and the same Son onlybegotten God Word, Lord Jesus Christ, just as from the beginning theprophets taught about Him and the Lord Jesus Christ Himself taught us,and as the creed of the Fathers has handed down to us [see n. 54 ,86].

Therefore, since these having been arranged by us with allpossible care and diligence, the sacred and universal Synod hasdeclared that no one is allowed to profess or to write up or to composeor to devise or to teach others a different faith.

The Primacy of the Roman Pontiff *

[From the epistles of the Synod "Repletum est gaudio"

to Leo the Pope, at the beginning of November, 451]

149 For if where two or three are gathered together in His name, thereHe says He is in the midst of them, how great an intimacy did He showwith regard to the five hundred and twenty consecrated men, whopreferred to both native land and to labor the knowledge of confessionfor Him. Over these you ruled as a head over the members, among thoseholding office, displaying your good will.

149 [The more ancient version.] For if where two or three are gatheredtogetherinhis name, there he says he is in the midst of them [cf. Matt.18:20], how great an intimacy will He show in regard to the fivehundred and twenty priests, who have preferred to both native land andto labor the knowledge of confession for Him. Over these you ruled as ahead over the members, among those holding office, displaying your goodwill.

The words of St. LEO himself regarding the primacy of

the Roman Pontiff, see Kch n. 891-901

The Ordination of the Clergy *

[From "Ancient Statutes of the Church," or

"Ancient Statutes of the East"]

150 Can. 2 (90). When a bishop is ordained, let two bishops place(expose) and hold the book of the Gospels above his head, and while onepours forth the benediction upon him, let all the remaining bishops,who are present, touch his head with their hands.

151 Can 3 (91). When a priest is ordained, while the bishop is blessing[him] and holding his hands over his head, let all the priests also,who are present, hold their hands close to the hands of the bishopabove his head.

152 Can. 4 (92). When a deacon is ordained, let the bishop alone,who blesses him, place his hands above his head, because he isconsecrated not for the priesthood, but for the ministry.

153 Can. 5 (93). When a subdeacon is ordained, because he does notreceive the imposition of hands, let him receive the empty paten fromthe band of the bishop, and the empty chalice. But from the hand of thearchdeacon let him receive the cruet with the water and the maniple,and the towel.

154 Can. 6 (94). When an acolyte is ordained, let him indeed be taughtby the bishop how he ought to conduct himself in his office; let himreceive from the archdeacon the candlestick with the wax tapers, sothat he may know that he is about to be given the right to kindle thelights of the church. Let him also receive the empty cruet for carryingthe wine at the Eucharist of the blood of Christ.

155 Can. 7 (95). When the exorcist is ordained, let him receive fromthe hand of the bishop the little book in which the exorcisms arewritten, while the bishop says to him: Receive and commit to memory,and have the power of imposing the hand uponone possessed of the devil,whether[he be ] baptized or a catechumen.

156 Can. 8 (96). When a lector is ordained, let the bishop speak a wordconcerning him to the people, pointing out his faith, his life, and hisability. After this, while the people look on, let him hand him thebook, from which he is about to read, saying to him: Receive and be thereporter of the word of God; if you fulfill the office faithfully andusefully, you will have a part with those who have administered theword of God.

157 Can. 9 (97). When a porter is ordained, after he has beeninstructed by the archdeacon as to how he ought to live in the house ofGod, at the suggestion of the archdeacon let the bishop hand him thekeys of the church from the altar, saying: So act as if You were aboutto give God the reason for these things which are opened with thosekeys.

158 Can. 10 (98). The psalmist, that is the cantor, can receive hisoffice of singing without the knowledge of the bishop, by the soleorder of the presbyter, the presbyter saying to him:See that what yousing with your heart, and what you believe with your heart, you confirmwith your deeds.

[ There follow the regulations for consecrating virgins,

Widows: can. 101 on matrimony, see Kch n. 952]

ST. HILARIUS 461-468

ST. SIMPLICIUS 468-483

The Necessity of Guarding the Faith Which Has Been Handed Down *

[From the epistle "Quantum presbyterorum" to Acacius,

Bishop of Constantinople, January 9, 476]

159 (2) Because, according to the extant doctrine of our predecessorsof sacred memory, against which it is wrong to argue, whoever seems tounderstand rightly, does not desire to be taught by new assertions, butall [matters] in which either he who has been deceived by heretics canbe instructed, or he who is about to be planted in the vineyard of theLord can be trained, are clear and perfect; after imploring trust inyour most merciful leader, have the request for calling a synodrefused. (3) I urge (therefore), dearest brother, that by every meansresistance be offered to the efforts of the perverse to call a synod,which has not always been enjoined in other cases, unless something newarose in distorted minds or something ambiguous in a pronouncement sothat, if there were any obscurity, the authority of sacerdotaldeliberation might illumine those who were treating the ambiguouspronouncement in common, just as first the impiety of Arius and thenthat of Nestorius, lastly that of Dioscorus and also of Eutyches causedthis to be done. And --may the mercy of Christ our God (and) Savioravert this--it must be made known, abominable [as it is], that [thepurpose is] to restore [to their former positions] in opposition to theopinions of the priests of the Lord of the whole world and of theprincipal rulers of both [scil., worlds] those who have been condemned.. . .

The Unchangeableness of Christian Doctrine *

[From the epistle "Cuperem quidem" to Basiliscus

Augustus January 10, 476]

160 Those genuine and clear [truths] which flow from the very purefountains of the Scriptures cannot be disturbed by any arguments ofmisty subtlety. For this same norm of apostolic doctrine endures in thesuccessors of him upon whom the Lord imposed the care of the wholesheepfold [John 21:15 ff.], whom [He promised] He would not fail evento the end of the world [Matt. 28:20], against whom He promised thatthe gates of hell would never prevail, by whose judgment He testifiedthat what was bound on earth could not be loosed in heaven [Matt. 16:18ff.]. (6). . . Let whoever, as the Apostle proclaimed, attempts todisseminate something other, than what we have received, be anathema[Gal. 1:8 f.]. Let no approach to your ears be thrown open to thepernicious plans of undermining, let no pledge of revising any of theold definitions be granted, because, as it must be repeated very often,what has deserved to be cut away with the sharp edge of the evangelicalpruninghook by apostolic hands with the approval of the universalChurch, cannot acquire the strength for a rebirth nor is it able toreturn to the fruitful shoot of the master's vine, because it isevident that it has been destined to eternal fire. Thus, finally, themachinations of all heresies laid down by decrees of the Church arenever allowed to renew the struggles of their crushed attack.

COUNCIL OF ARLES 475 (?)

[From the letter of submission of Lucidus, the priest] *

Grace and Predestination

160a Your public reproof is public salvation, and your opinion ismedicine. From this I also draw the highest remedy, that by blamingpast errors I excuse [them], and by healing confession I wash myself.just so in consequence of the recent statutes of the Council about tobe published, I condemn with you that view which states that the workof human obedience does not have to be united with divine grace; whichsays that after the fall of the first man the free choice of the willwas totally destroyed; which states that Christ our Lord and Savior didnot incur death for the salvation of all; which states that theforeknowledge of God violently impels man to death, or that they whoperish, perish by the will of God; which affirms that whoever sinsafter baptism which has been legitimately received dies in Adam; whichstates that some have been condemned to death, others have beenpredestined to life; which states that from Adam even to Christ none ofthe nations has been saved unto the coming of Christ through the firstgrace of God, that is, by the law of nature, and that they lost freewill in the first parent; which states that the patriarchs and prophetsor every one of the highest saints, even before the times of theredemption, entered into paradise. All these I condemn as impious andreplete with sacrileges.

But I declare that the grace of God is such that I always unitethe striving and efforts of man with grace, and I proclaim that theliberty of the human will was not destroyed but enfeebled and weakened,and that he who is saved, was tried; and he who perished, could havebeen saved.

160b Also that Christ, God and Redeemer, as far as it pertained to theriches of His goodness, offered the price of death for all, and becauseHe, who is the Savior of all, especially of the faithful, does not wishanyone to perish, rich unto all who call upon him [Rom. 10:12] . . . .Now by the authority of the sacred witnesses, which are found in (Treatprofusion through the extent of the Divine Scriptures, in accordancewith the doctrine of our elders made clear by reason, I freely confessthat Christ came also for the lost, because they perished although Hedid not will [it]. For it is not right that the riches of His boundlessgoodness and His divine benefits be confined to those only who seem tohave been saved. For if we say that Christ extended assistance only tothose who have been redeemed, we shall seem to absolve the unredeemed,who, it is established, had to be punished for having despisedredemption. I declare further that by reason and through the regularsuccession of the centuries some have been saved by the law of grace,others by the law of Moses, others by the law of nature, which God haswritten in the hearts of all, in the expectation of the coming ofChrist; nevertheless from the beginning of the world, they were not setfree from the original slavery except by the intercession of the sacredblood. I acknowledge, too, that the eternal fires and the infernalflames have been prepared in advance for capital deeds, because divinejudgment, which they deservedly incur, who have not believed these Itruths] with their whole heart, justly follows those who persist inhuman sins. Pray for me, holy lords and apostolic fathers.

I, Lucius the priest, have signed this my letter with my ownhand, and I affirm the things which are asserted in it, and I condemnwhat has been condemned.

FELIX II (III) 483-492

ST. GELASIUS I 492-496

Errors Once Condemned, not to be Discussed Again *

[From the epistle "Licet inter varias" to Honorius,

Bishop of Dalmatia, July 28, 493 (?)]

161 (1) [For] it has been reported to us, that in the regions of theDalmatians certain men had disseminated the recurring tares of thePelagian pest, and that their blasphemy prevails there to such a degreethat they are deceiving all the simple by the insinuation of theirdeadly madness. . . . [But] since the Lord is superior, the pure truthof Catholic faith drawn front the concordant opinions of all theFathers remains present. . . . (2) . . . What pray permits us toabrogate what has been condemned by the venerable Fathers, and toreconsider the impious dogmas that have been demolished by them? Why isit, therefore, that we take such great precautions lest any dangerousheresy, once driven out, strive anew to come [up] for examination, ifwe argue that what has been known, discussed, and refuted of old by ourelders ought to be restored? Are we not ourselves offering, which Godforbid, to all the enemies of the truth an example of rising againagainst ourselves, which the Church will never permit? Where is it thatit is written: Do not go beyond the limits of your fathers [Prov.22:28], and: Ask your fathers and they will tell you, and your elderswill declare unto you [Deut. 32:7]? Why, accordingly, do we aim beyondthe definitions of our elders, or why do they not suffice for us? If inour ignorance we desire to learn something, how every single thing tobe avoided has been prescribed by the orthodox fathers and elders, oreverything to be adapted to Catholic truth has been decreed, why arethey not approved by these? Or are we wiser than they, or shall we beable to stand constant with firm stability, if we should underminethose [dogmas] which have been established by them? . . . .

161* The Authority and the Priesthood, and the Primacy of

the Roman Pontiff. See Kch n. 959

The Canon of Sacred Scripture *

[From the epistle 42, or decretal "de recipiendis et non

recipiendis libris," in the year 495]

162 An enumeration of the canonical books similar to that,which we haveplaced under DAMASUS[ n. 84] is accustomed in certaincodices to be set before the special Decree of GELASIUS. Neverthelessamong others it is no longer read in this place.Of John the Apostle oneepistle, of the other John the priest two epistles, but, of the ApostleJohn three epistles [cf. n. 84,92, 96].

Then follows:

The Primacy of the Roman Pontiff and the Patriarchal Sees *

[From the same epistle or "Decretal," in the year 495]

163 (1) After (all these) prophetic and evangelical and apostolicwritings (which we have set forth above), on which the Catholic Churchby the grace of God is founded, we have thought this (fact) also oughtto be published, namely that, although the universal Catholic Churchspread throughout the world has the one marriage of Christ,nevertheless the holy Roman Church has not been preferred to the otherchurches by reason of synodical decrees, but she has held the primacyby the evangelical voice of the Lord and Savior saying:Thou art Peter,and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shallnot prevail against it, and I will give unto thee the keys of thekingdom of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shallbe bound also in heaven, and wh atsoever thou shalt loose upon earth,it shall be loosed also in heaven[ Matt. 16:18 f.]. There is added alsothe association of the most blessed Paul the Apostle, the vessel ofelection, who not at a different time, as the heretics say, but at theone time, on one and the same day, while contending for the prizetogether with Peter was crowned with a glorious death under Caesar Neroin the City of Rome; and equally have they consecrated theabove-mentioned Church of Rome to Christ the Lord and have raised itabove all other cities in the whole world by their presence and theirvenerable triumph.

Accordingly the see of PETER the Apostle of the Church of Rome isfirst,having neither spot, nor wrinkle, nor anything of this kind[Eph.5:27]. But the second see at Alexandria was consecrated in the name ofblessed PETER by Mark his disciple and evangelist . . . but the thirdin honor is considered the see of the most blessed Apostle PETER atAntioch. . . .

The Authority of the Councils and the Fathers *

[From the same epistle or "Decretal"]

164 (2) And although no one can lay a foundation other than that, whichhas been laid, which is Christ Jesus [cf. 1 Cor. 3:11], neverthelessfor the purpose of instruction the holy, that is, the Roman Church,does not forbid these writings also, that is: the Sacred Synod of NICEA. . . EPHESUS . . . [and] CHALCEDON . . . to be received after those ofthe Old or New Testament, which we regularly accept.

165 (3) Likewise the works of blessed Caecilius Cyprian . . . [ and inthe same waythe works of Gregory Nazianzen, Basil, Athanasius, John(Chrysostom)) Theophilus, Cyril of Alexandria, Hilary, Ambrose,Augustine, Jerome, (and) Prosper may be admitted ] .Also the epistle ofblessed LEO the Pope to Flavian [dogmatic, see n. 143 f.] . ; if anyoneargues concerning the text of this one even in regard to one iota, anddoes not receive it in all respects reverently, let him be anathema.

Likewise it decrees that the works and treatises of all theorthodox Fathers who in no [way] have deviated from the society of theholy Roman Church . . . ought to be read.

Likewise, too, the decretal epistles, which the most blessedPopes . . . have written, ought to be received with reverence.

Likewise the deeds of the holy martyrs . . . [which] withremarkable caution are not read in the holy Roman Church . . . becausethe names of those who wrote (them) are entirely unknown . . . lest anoccasion of light mockery arise. We, however, with the aforementionedChurch venerate with every devotion both all the martyrs and theglorious combats of those who are known to God rather than to men.

Likewise we acknowledge with all honor the lives of the Fathers,of Paul, of Anthony, of Hilary, and of all the hermits, which howeverthe most blessed Jerome has described.

[Finally many other writings are enumerated and praised, with addition however: ]

But . . . let the judgment of blessed Paul the Apostle lead theway: "Prove. . . all things, hold that which is good" [1 Thess. 5:21 ].

Other things which have been written or published by heretics orschismatics, the Catholic and apostolic Roman Church in nowisereceives. We believe that a few of these . . . ought to be appended.

The Apocrypha "which are not accepted" *

[From the same epistle or "Decretal"]

166 (4) [ After the long series of apocrypha has been presented, theDecree of Gelasius is thus concluded: ] These and f writings] similarto these, which . . . all the heresiarchs and their disciples, or theschismatics have taught or written. . . . . . . we confess have notonly been rejected, but also banished from the whole Roman Catholic andapostolic Church and with their authors and the followers of theirauthors have been condemned forever under the indissoluble bond ofanathema.

The Remission of Sins*

[From the Tome of GELASIUS, "Ne forte," concerning

the bond of the anathema, about the year 495]

167 (5) The Lord said thatto those sinning against the Holy Spirit, itshould not be forgiven either here or in the future world [ Matt.12:32]. But how many do we know that sin against the Holy Spirit, suchas various heretics . . . who return to the Catholic faith, and herehave received the pardon of their blasphemy, and have enjoyed the hopeof gaining indulgence in the future? And not on this account is thejudgment of the Lord not true, or will it be thought to be in any wayweakened, since with respect to such men, if they continue to be thus,the judgment remains never to be relaxed at all; moreover, neverbecause of such effects is it not imposed. just as consequently is alsothat of the blessed John the Apostle: There is a sin unto death: I donot say that prayer should be offered for this: and there is a sin notunto death: I do say that prayer should be offered for this[ 1 John5:16, 17]. It is a sin unto death for those persisting in the same sin;it is not a sin unto death for those withdrawing from the same sin. Forthere is no sin for whose remission the Church does not pray, or whichshe cannot forgive those who desist from that same sin, or from whichshe cannot loose those who repent, since the power has been divinelygiven to her, to whom it was said:Whatsoever you shall forgive uponearth. . . [cf.John 20:23 ] ; "whatsoever you shall loose upon earth,shall be loosed also in heaven"[Matt. 18:18 ]. In whatsoeverall are[included], howsoever great they may be, and of whatsoever kind theymay be, although the judgment of them nevertheless remains true, bywhich he is denounced [as] never to be loosed who continues in thecourse of them, but not after he withdraws from this same [course].

The Two Natures of Christ *

[From the Tome of GELASIUS, "Necessarium," on

the two natures in Christ, (492-) 496]

168 (3) Although, I say, in accordance with this confession this mustpiously be believed regarding the conception of our Lord, although itcan in no wise be explained, the Eutychiansassert that there is onenature, that is, the divine; andNestoriusnone the less mentions asingle [nature] , namely, the human; if we must maintain two againstthe Eutychians, because they draw out one, it follows that we shouldwithout doubt proclaim also in opposition to Nestorius who declaresone, that not one, but rather two existed as a unity from Hisbeginning, properly adding the human, contrary to Eutyches, whoattempts to defend one, that is, the divine only, in order to show thatthe two, upon which that remarkable mystery rests, endure there; inopposition to Nestorius indeed, who similarly says one, namely, thehuman, we nevertheless substitute the divine, so that in like manner wehold that two against hisonewith a true division have existed in theplenitude of this mystery from the primordial effects of His union, andwe refute both who chatter in a different way of single[natures], noteach of them in regard to one only, but both in respect to the abidingpossession of two natures: to wit, the human and divine, united fromHis beginning without any confusion or defect.

(4) For although one and the same person is the Lord JesusChrist, and the whole God man and the whole man God, and whatever thereis of humanity, the God man makes his own, and whatever there is ofGod, the man God possesses, nevertheless, granted that this remains amystery and cannot be explained in any degree, thus the whole mancontinues to be what God is, [as?] the whole God continues to bewhatever man is . . . *

ST. ANASTASIUS II 496-498

The Ordinations of Schismatics *

[From the epistle (1) "Exordium Pontificatus mei" to

Anastasius Augustus, 496]

169 (7) According to the most sacred custom of the Catholic Church, letthe heart of your serenity acknowledge that no share in the injury fromthe name of Acacius should attach to any of these whom Acacius theschismatic bishop has baptized, or to any whom he has ordained priestsor levites according to the canons, lest perchance the grace of thesacrament seem less powerful when conferred by an unjust [person]. . .. For if the rays of that visible sun are not stained by contact withany Pollution when they pass over the foulest places, much less is thevirtue of him who made that visible [sun] fettered by any unworthinessin the minister.

(8) Therefore, then, this person has only injured himself bywickedly administering the good. For the inviolable sacrament, whichwas given through him, held the perfection of its virtue for others.

The Origin of Souls and Original Sin *

[From the epistle "Bonum atque iucundum" to the

bishops of Gaul, August 23, 498]

170 (1) . . . Certain heretics in Gaul think that by a rationalassertion they are persuaded of this, that just as the parents transmitbodies to the human race from material dregs, so also they bestow thevital principle of the living souls. . . . How (therefore) do they,contrary to God's will, with a very carnal mind think that the soulmade to the image of God is diffused and insinuated by the mixture ofhuman beings, when that very action by Him, who did this in thebeginning, has not ceased even today, just as He Himself said: MyFather works up to this time, and I work [cf. John 5:17]? Althoughlikewise they ought to know what is written: "He who lives untoeternity, created all things at the same timely [Sir. 18:1]. If, then,previously according to the Scripture He placed order and reason bysingle species in every individual creature (potentially), which cannotbe denied, and causally in the work pertaining to the creation of allthings at the same time, after the consummation of which He rested onthe seventh day, but now operates visibly in the work pertaining to thepassage of time even up to the present, * let the sound doctrines thenrest, namely, that He, who calls those, which are not, just as thosethat are [cf.Rom. 4:17], imparts souls.

(4) By the reasoning of which they think perhaps that they speakpiously and well, in declaring that the souls are justly handed down byparents, since they are entangled with sins, they ought to be separatedfrom them by this wise sundering, because nothing else can betransmitted by them than what has been brought to pass by their ownevil presumption, that is, guilt and the punishment of sin, which theiroffspring have followed through the vine-branch * and clearly show sothat men are born vicious and distorted. In this alone at any rate Godis clearly seen to have no communion, (and) lest any fall into thisnecessary destruction, He has prevented it by an inborn terror of deathand has given warning of it. Therefore, through the vine-branch what istransmitted by the parents evidently appears, and what God has operatedfrom the beginning even to the end, and what He is operating is shown.

ST. SYMMACHUS 498-514

ST. HORMISDAS 514-523

The Infallibility of the Roman Pontiff *

["Libellus professionis fidei" added to the epistle

"Inter ea quae" to the bishops of Spain, April 2, 517]

171 [Our] first safety is to guard the rule of the right faith and todeviate in no wise from the ordinances of the Fathers; because wecannot pass over the statement of our Lord Jesus Christ who said: "Thouart Peter and upon this rock I will build my church" . . . [Matt.16:18]. These [words] which were spoken, are proved by the effects ofthe deeds, because in the Apostolic See the Catholic religion hasalways been preserved without stain. Desiring not to be separated fromthis hope and faith and following the ordinances of the Fathers, weanathematize all heresies, especially the heretic Nestorius, who at onetime was bishop of the city of Constantinople, condemned in the Councilof EPHESUS by the blessed CELESTINE, Pope of the City of Rome,* and bythe venerable man Cyril, high priest of the City of Alexandria.Similiarly anathematizing both Eutyches and Dioscorus of Alexandriacondemned in the holy Synod of CHALCEDON [see n. 148] which we followand embrace, which following the sacred Council of NICEA proclaimed theapostolic faith, we detest both Timothy the parricide, surnamed theCat, and likewise his disciple and follower in all things, Peter ofAlexandria. We condemn, too, and anathematize Acacius, formerly bishopof Constantinople, who was condemned by the Apostolic See, theirconfederate and follower, or those who remained in the society of theircommunion, because Acacius justly merited a sentence in condemnationlike theirs in whose communion he mingled. No less do we condemn Peterof Antioch with his followers, and the followers of all mentioned above.

172 Moreover, we accept and approve all the letters of blessed LEO thePope, which he wrote regarding the Christian religion, just as we saidbefore, following the Apostolic See in all things, and extolling allits ordinances. And, therefore, I hope that I may merit to be in theone communion with you, which the Apostolic See proclaims, in whichthere is the whole and the true and the perfect solidity of theChristian religion, promising that in the future the names of thoseseparated from the communion of the Catholic Church, that is, those notagreeing with the Apostolic See, shall not be read during the sacredmysteries. But if I shall attempt in any way to deviate from myprofession, I confess that I am a confederate in my opinion with thosewhom I have condemned. However, I have with my own hand signed thisprofession of mine, and to you, HORMISDAS, the holy and venerable Popeof the City of Rome, I have directed it.

The Canon, Primacy, Councils, Apocrypha *

[From epistle 125 or "Decretal . . . on divine scriptures" in the year 520]

173 Besides those which are containedin the Decretal of Gelasius,[ n. 162] here, after the Synod of Ephesus "Constantinopolitana (1)"was also inserted: then was added:But even if any councils thus farhave been instituted by the holy Fathers, we have decreed that afterthe authority of those four they must be both kept and received.

The Authority of St. Augustine

[From the epistle "Sicut rationi" to Possessor, August 13, 520] *

173a 5. Yet what the Roman, that is the Catholic, Church follows andpreserves concerning free will and the grace of God can be abundantlyrecognized both in the various books of the blessed Augustine, andespecially [in those] to Hilary and Prosper, but the prominent chaptersare contained in the ecclesiastical archives and if these are lackingthere and you believe them necessary, we establish [them], although hewho diligently considers the words of the apostle, should know clearlywhat he ought to follow.

ST. JOHN 1 523-526

ST. FELIX III 526-530

COUNCIL OF ORANGE II 529 *

Confirmed by Boniface II (against the Semipelagians)

Original Sin, Grace, Predestination *

173b To us, according to the admonition and authority of the ApostolicSee, it has seemed just and reasonable that we should set forth to beobserved by all, and that we should sign with our own hands, a fewchapters transmitted * to us by the Apostolic See, which were collectedby the ancient fathers from the volumes of the Sacred Scriptureespecially in this cause, to teach those who think otherwise than theyought. . . .

174 [I. Original sin] Can. 1. If anyone says that by the offense ofAdam's transgression not the whole man, that is according to body andsoul, was changed for the worse [St. Augustine], * but believes thatwhile the liberty of the soul endures without harm, the body only isexposed to corruption, he is deceived by the error of Pelagius andresists the Scripture which says:"The soul, that has sinned, shall die"[ Ezech. 18:20]; and: "Do you not know that to whom you show yourselvesse rvants to obey, you are the servants of him whom you obey?"[ Rom.6:16]; and: Anyone is adjudged the slave of him by whom he is overcome[ 2 Pet.2:19].

175 Can. 2. If anyone asserts that Adam's transgression injured himalone and not his descendants, or declares that certainly death of thebody only, which is the punishment of sin, but not sin also, which isthe death of the soul, passed through one man into the whole humanrace, he will do an injustice to God, contradicting the Apostle whosays: Through one man sin entered in the world, and through sin death,and thus death passed into all men, in whom all have sinned[Rom. 5:12;Cf. St. Augustine]. *

176 [II Grace] Can. 3. If anyone says that the grace of God can bebestowed by human invocation, but that the grace itself does not bringit to pass that it be invoked by us, he contradicts Isaias the Prophet,or the Apostle who says the same thing: "I was found by those who werenot seeking me: I appeared openly to those, who did not ask me"[ Rom.10:20; cf.Is. 65:1 ].

177 Can. 4. If anyone contends that in order that we may be cleansedfrom sin, God waits for our good will, but does not acknowledge thateven the wish to be purged is produced in us through the infusion andoperation of the Holy Spirit, he opposes the Holy Spirit Himself, whosays through Solomon: "Good will is prepared by the Lord"[ Prov. 8:35:LXX], and the Apostle who beneficially says:"It is God, who works in usboth to will and to accomplish according to his good will" [Phil. 2:13].

178 Can. 5. If anyone says, that just as the increase [of faith] soalso the beginning of faith and the very desire of credulity, by whichwe believe in Him who justifies the impious, and (by which) we arriveat the regeneration of holy baptism (is) not through the gift of grace,that is, through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit reforming our willfrom infidelity to faith, from impiety to piety, but is naturally inus, he is proved (to be) antagonistic to the doctrine of the Apostles,since blessed Paul says:We trust, that he who begins a good work in us,will perfect it unto the day of Christ Jesus[Phil. 1:6]; and thefollowing: It was given to you for Christ not only that you may believein Him, but also, that you may suffer for Him[Phil. 1:29]; and:By graceyou are made safe through faith, and this not of yo urselves; for it isthe gift of God[Eph. 2:8. For those who say that faith, by which webelieve in God, is natural, declare that all those who are alien to theChurch of Christ are in a measure faithful [cf. St. Augustine]. *

179 Can. 6. If anyone asserts that without the grace of God mercy isdivinely given to us when we believe, will, desire, try, labor, pray,watch, study, seek, ask, urge, but does not confess that through theinfusion and the inspiration of the Holy Spirit in us, it is broughtabout that we believe, wish, or are able to do all these things as weought, and does not join either to human humility or obedience the helpof grace, nor agree that it is the gift of His grace that we areobedient and humble, opposes the Apostle who says: What have you, thatyou have not received? [1 Cor. 4:7]; and:By the grace of God I am that,which I am [ 1 Cor. 15:10 ; cf. St. Augustine and St. Prosper ofAquitaine]. *

180 Can. 7. If anyone affirms that without the illumination and theinspiration of the Holy Spirit,--who gives to all sweetness inconsenting to and believing in the truth,--through the strength ofnature he can think anything good which pertains to the salvation ofeternal life, as he should, or choose, or consent to salvation, that isto the evangelical proclamation, he is deceived by the hereticalspirit, not understanding the voice of God speaking in theGospel:"Without me you can do nothi ng" [John 15:5]; and that of theApostle: Not that we are fit to think everything by ourselves as ofourselves, but our sufficiency is,from God[2 Cor. 3:5; cf. St.Augustine]. *

181 Can. 8. If anyone maintains that some by mercy, but others by freewill, which it is evident has been vitiated in all who have been bornof the transgression of the first man, are able to come to the grace ofbaptism, he is proved to be inconsistent with the true faith. For heasserts that the free will of all was not weakened by the sin of thefirst man, or assuredly was injured in such a way, that neverthelesscertain ones have the power without revelation of God to be able bythemselves to seek the mystery of eternal salvation. How contrary thisis, the Lord Himself proves, who testifies that not some, but no onecan come to Him, except whom the Father draws[John 6:44], and just ashe says to PETER:"Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona, because fles h andblood hath not revealed it to you, but my Father, whois in heaven"[Matt. 16:17]; and the Apostle: No one can say Lord Jesus except in theHoly Spirit [1 Cor. 12:3; cf- St. Prosper]. *

182 Can. 9 . "The assistance of God.It is a divine gift, both when wethink rightly and when we restrain our feet from falsity and injustice;for as often as we do good, God operates in us and with us, that we maywork" [St. Prosper ].*

183 Can. 10. The assistance of God. The assistance of God oughtto be implored always even by those who have been reborn and have beenhealed, that they may arrive at a good end, or may be able to continuein good work [cf. St. Prosper]. *

184 Can. 11. "The obligation of vows. No one would rightly vow anythingto God, unless he accepts from Him what he vows" [St. Prosper] * as itis written: And what we have received from your hand, we give to you [1 Chron. 29:14 ].

185 Can. 12. "God loves such as us.God loves us, such as we shall be byHis gift, not such as we are by our own merit" [St. Prosper].*

186 Can. 13. The restoration of free will. Freedom of will weakened inthe first man cannot be repaired except through the grace of baptism;cc once it has been lost, it cannot be restored except by Him by whomit could be given. Thus Truth itself says: If the Son liberates you,then you will be truly free" [ John 8:36 ; St. Prosper]. *

187 Can. 14. "No wretched person is freed from misery, however small,unless he is first reached by the mercy of God" [St. Prosper] * just asthe Psalmist says:Let thy mercy, Lord, speedily anticipate us [ Ps.78:8 ]; and also: "My God, His mercy will prevent me"[Ps. 58:11 ].

188 Can. 15. "From that which God fashioned, Adam was changed by hisown iniquity, but for the worse. From that which injustice haseffected, the faithful (man) is changed by the grace of God, but forthe better. Therefore, the former change was (the result) of the firsttransgression, the latter according to the Psalmistis the change of theright hand of the Most High [ Ps. 76:11 ]" [St. Prosper]. *

189 Can. 16. "Let no one glory in that which he seems to possess, as ifhe did not receive (it), or think that he has received (it) for thisreason, because the sign appeared from without, either that it might beread, or sounded that it might be heard. For thus says the Apostle: Ifjustice ( is) through the law, then Christ died for nothing [ Gal.2:21]: ascending on high he led captivity captive, he gave gifts tomen[ Eph. 4:8; cf.Ps. 67:19]. Whoever has, has from Him, but whoeverdenies that he has from Him, either does not truly possess, orthat,which he possesses, is taken away from him [ Matt. 25:29]" [St.Prosper]. *

190 Can. 17. "Worldly desire creates the fortitude of theGentiles, but the charityof God, whichis diffused in our hearts,not byfree will, which is from us, butby the Holy Spirit, which is given tous[ Rom. 5:5] produces the fortitude of the Christians" [St. Prosper].*

191 Can. 18."That grace is preceded by no merits.A reward is dueto good works, if they are performed; but grace, which is not due,precedes, that they may be done" [St. Prosper]. *

192 Can. 19. "That no one is saved except by God's mercy. Even ifhuman nature remained in that integrity in which it was formed, itwould in no way save itself without the help of its Creator; therefore,since without the grace of God it cannot guard the health which itreceived, how without the grace of God will it be able to recover whatit has lost?" [St. Prosper] *

193 Can. 20."That without God man can do no good. God does many goodthings in man, which man does not do; indeed man can do no good thatGod does not expect that man do" [St. Prosper].*

194 Can. 21."Nature and grace.Just as the Apostle most truly saysto those, who, wishing to be justified in the law, have fallen evenfrom grace: if justice is from the law, then Christ died in vain [ Gal.2:21 ]; so it is most truly said to those who think that grace, whichthe faith of Christ commends and obtains, is nature: If justice isthrough nature, then Christ died in vain. For the law was already here,and it did not justify; nature, too, was already present, and it didnot justify. Therefore, Christ did not die in vain, that the law alsomight be fulfilled through Him, who said:I came not to destroy the law,but to fulfill (it) [Matt. 5:17], and in order that nature ruined byAdam, might be repaired by Him, who said: He cameto seek and to savethat which had been lost[ Luke 19:10]" [St. Prosper].*

195 Can. 22. "Those things which are peculiar to men.No one hasanything of his own except lying and sin. But if man has any truth andjustice, it is from that fountain for which we ought to thirst in thisdesert, that bedewed by some drops of water from it, we may not falteron the way" [St. Prosper].*

196 Can. 23. "The good will of God and of man. Men do their own will,not God's, when they do what displeases God; but when they do what theywish, in order to serve the divine will, even though willingly they dowhat they do, nevertheless it is the will of Him by whom what they willis both prepared and ordered" [St. Prosper]. *

197 Can. 24. "The branches of the vine. Thus there are branches in thevine,not that they may bestow anything upon the vine, but that they mayreceive from it the means by which they may live; so truly the vine isin the branches, that it may furnish vital nourishment to these, nottake it from them. And by this it is an advantage to the disciples, notto Christ, that each have Christ abiding in him, and that each abide inChrist. For if the branch is cut off, another can sprout forth from theliving root; but that which has been cut off, cannot live without tileroot [John 15:5 ff.]" [St. Prosper]. *

198 Can. 25. "The love with which we love God.Truly to love Godis a gift of God. He Himself has granted that He be loved, who thoughnot loved loves. Although we were displeasing we were loved, so thatthere might be produced in us [something] by which we might please. FortheSpiritwhom we love together with the Father and the Son pours forththe charity[of the Father and the Son]in our hearts[Rom. 5:5]" [St.Prosper]. *

199 And thus according to the statements of the Holy Scriptureswritten above, or the explanations of the ancient Fathers, God beingpropitious, we ought to proclaim and to believe that through the sin ofthe first man free will was so changed and so weakened that afterwardsno one could either love God as he ought, or believe in God, or performwhat is good on account of God, unless the grace of divine mercyreached him first. Therefore, we believe that in the [case of] the justAbel, and Noah and Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the multitudeof the ancient saints that illustrious faith which the Apostle Paulproclaims in their praise [Heb. 11], was conferred not by tile good ofnature, which had been given before in [the case of] Adam, but throughthe grace of God. Even after the coming of the Lord we know andlikewise believe that this grace was not held in the free will of allwho desired to be baptized, but was bestowed by the bounty of Christ,according to what has already been said often, and Paul the Apostledeclares: It has been given to you for Christ, not only, that you maybelieve in him, but also that you may suffer for him [Phil. 1:29]; andthis: God, who has begun a good work in you, will perfect it even tothe day of our Lord[Phil. 1:6]; and this: By grace you are made safethrough faith, and this not of yourselves: for it is the gift ofGod[Eph. 2:8]; and that which the Apostle says about himself:I haveobtained mercy, that I may be faithful [ 1 Cor. 7:25;1 Tim. 1:13]; hedid not say: "because I was," but: "that I may be." And that: What haveyou, that you have not received?[1 Cor. 4:7]. And that:Every good gift,and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father oflights [ Jas. 1:17 ]. And that: No one has anything, except it has beengiven him from above [John 3:27]. Innumerable are the testimonies ofthe Sacred Scriptures which can be brought forward to prove grace, butthey are passed over out of a desire for brevity; also because, intruth, more [proofs] will not profit those for whom a few do notsuffice.

[III. Predestination] According to the Catholic faith we believethis also, that after grace has been received through baptism, all thebaptized with the help and cooperation of Christ can and ought tofulfill what pertains to the salvation of the soul, if they will laborfaithfully. We not only do not believe that some have been trulypredestined to evil by divine power, but also with every execration wepronounce anathema upon those, if there are [any such], who wish tobelieve so great an evil. This, too, we profess and believe untosalvation, that in every good work we do not begin, and afterwards arehelped by the mercy of God, but He Himself, with no preceding goodservices [on our part], previously inspires us with faith and love ofHim, so that we may both faithfully seek the sacraments of baptism, andafter baptism with His help be able to perform those [acts] which arepleasing to Him. So very clearly we should believe that the faith-soadmirable-both of that famous thief, whom the Lord restored to hisnative land of paradise [Luke 23:43], and of Cornelius the centurion,to whom the angel of the Lord was sent [ Acts 10:3], and of Zacheus,who deserved to receive the Lord Himself [Luke 19:6], was not fromnature, but a gift of God's bounty.

BONIFACE II 530-532

Confirmation of the Council of Orange II *

[From the letter "Per filium nostrum" to Caesarius of Arles, January 25, 531].

200a 1 . . . To your petition, which you have composed with laudablesolicitude for the Faith, we have not delayed to give a Catholic reply.For you point out that some bishops of the Gauls, although they nowagree that other goods are born of God's grace, think that faith, bywhich we believe in Christ, is only of nature, not of grace; and that(faith) has remained in the free will of man from Adam-which it is asin to sayand is not even now conferred on individuals by the bounty ofGod's mercy; asking that, for the sake of ending the ambiguity, weconfirm by the authority of the Apostolic See your confession, in whichin the Opposite way you explain that right faith in Christ and thebeginning of all good will, according to Catholic truth, is inspired inthe minds of individuals by the preceding grace of God.

200b 2. And therefore, since many Fathers, and above all BishopAugustine of blessed memory, but also our former high priests of theApostolic See are proved to have discussed this with such detailedreasoning that there should be no further doubt in anyone that faithitself also comes to us from grace, we have thought that we shoulddesist from a complex response, especially since according to thesestatements from the Apostle which you have arranged, in which he says:I have obtained mercy, that I may be faithful [1 Cor. 7:25], andelsewhere: It has been given to you, for Christ, not only that you maybelieve in Him, but also that you may suffer for Him [Phil. 1:29], itclearly appears that the faith by which we believe in Christ, just asall blessings, comes to each man from the gift of supernal grace, notfrom the power of human nature. And this, too, we rejoice that yourFraternity, after holding a meeting with certain priests of the Gauls,understood according to the Catholic faith, namely in these matters inwhich with one accord, as you have indicated, they explained that thefaith, by which we believe in Christ, is conferred by the precedinggrace of God; adding also that there is no good at all according toGod, that anyone can will, or begin, or accomplish without the grace ofGod, since our Savior Himself says: Without Me you can do nothing"[John 15:5]. For it is certain and Catholic that in all blessings ofwhich the chief is faith, though we do not will it, the mercy of Godprecedes us, that we may be steadfast in faith, just as David theprophet says: "My God, his mercy will prevent me" [Ps. 58:11]; andagain: My mercy is with him [Ps. 88:25]; and elsewhere: His mercyfollows me [ Ps. 22:6]. And similarly blessed Paul says: Or did anyonefirst give to him, and will he be rewarded by him? Since from him, andthrough him, andin him are all things[ Rom. 11:35 f.]. So we marvelvery much that those, who believe the contrary, are oppressed by theremains of an ancient error even to the point that they do not believethat we come to Christ by the favor of God, but by that of nature, andsay that the good of that very nature, which is known to have beenperverted by Adam's sin, is the author of our faith rather than Christ;and do not perceive that they contradict the statement of the masterwho said: No one comes to me, except it be given to him by my Father [John 6:44]; but they also oppose blessed Paul likewise, who exclaims tothe Hebrews:Let us run in the contest proposed to us, looking upontheauthor and finisher of faith, Jesus Christ[ Heb. 2:1 f.]. Since this isso, we cannot discover what they impute to the human will without thegrace of God for belief in Christ, since Christ is the author andconsummator of faith.

3. Therefore, we salute [you] with proper affection, and approveyour confession written above in agreement with the Catholic rules ofthe Fathers.

JOHN II 533-535

"One of the Trinity Suffered," and the Blessed

Virgin Mary, Mother of God *

[From epistle (3) "Olim quidem" to the senators of

Constantinople, March, 534]

201 [Since] Justinian the Emperor, our son, as you have learned fromthe tenor or his epistle, has signified that arguments have arisen withregard to these three questions, whether one of the Trinity can becalled Christ and our God, that is, one holy person of the threepersons of the Holy Trinity whether the God Christ incapable ofsuffering because of deity endured [suffering in] the flesh; whetherproperly and truly (the Mother of God and the Mother of God's Wordbecome incarnate from her) the Mother of our Lord God Christ ought tobe called Mary ever Virgin. In these matters we have recognized theCatholic faith of the Emperor, and we show that this is clearly so fromthe examples of the prophets, and of the Apostles, or of the Fathers.For in these examples we clearly point out that one of the Holy Trinityis Christ, that is, one of the three persons of the Holy Trinity is aholy person or substance, which the Greeks call (Greek text deleted)[various witnesses are brought forward, as Gen. 3:22; 1 Cor. 8:6; theNicene Creed; Proclus' letter to the Westerners, etc.]; but let usconfirm by these examples that God truly endured in the flesh [Deut.28:66; John 14:6; Matt. 3:8; Acts 3:15,: 20, 28; 1 Cor. 2:8; Cyrillianath. 12; LEO ad Flavium etc.].

202 We rightly teach that the glorious Holy ever Virgin Mary isacknowledged by Catholic men [to be] both properly and truly the onewho bore God, and the Mother of God's Word, become incarnate from her.For He Himself deigned from earliest times properly and truly to becomeincarnate and likewise to be born of the holy and glorious VirginMother. Therefore, because the Son of God was properly and truly madeflesh from her and born of her, we confess that she was properly andtruly the Mother of God made incarnate and born from her, and (properlyindeed), lest it be believed that the Lord Jesus received the name ofGod through honor or grace, as the foolish Nestorius thinks; but trulyfor this reason, lest it be believed that He took flesh in a phantasmor some other manner, not true flesh from the virgin, just as theimpious Eutyches has asserted.

ST. AGAPETUS I 535-536 ST. SILVERIUS 536-(537)-540

VIGILIUS (537) 540-555

Canons against Origen *

[From the Book against Origen of the Emperor Justinian, 543]

203 Can. 1. If anyone says or holds that the souls of men pre-existed,as if they were formerly minds and holy powers, but having received asurfeit of beholding the Divinity, and having turned towards the worse,and on this account having shuddered (apopsycheisas) at the love ofGod, in consequence being called souls (psychae) and being sent downinto bodies for the sake of punishment, let him be anathema.

204 Can. 2. If anyone says and holds that the soul of the Lordpre-existed, and was united to God the Word before His incarnation andbirth from the Virgin, let him be anathema.

205 Can. 3. If anyone says or holds that the body of our LordJesus Christ was first formed in the womb of the holy Virgin, and thatafter this God, the Word, and the soul, since it had pre-existed, wereunited to it, let him be anathema.

206 Can. 4. If anyone says or holds that the Word of God was made likeall the heavenly orders, having become a Cherubim for the Cherubim, aSeraphim for the Seraphim, and evidently having been made like all thepowers above, let him be anathema.

207 Can. 5. If anyone says or maintains that in resurrection thebodies of men are raised up from sleep spherical, and does not agreethat we are raised up from sleep upright, let him be anathema.

208 Can. 6. If anyone says that the sky, and the sun, and themoon and the stars, and the waters above the heavens are certain livingand material * powers, let him be anathema.

209 Can. 7. If anyone says or holds that the Lord Christ in the futureage will be crucified in behalf of the demons, just as (He was) for thesake of men, let him be anathema.

210 Can. 8. If anyone says or holds that the power of God is limited,and that He has accomplished as much as He has comprehended, let him beanathema.

211 Can. 9. If anyone says or holds that the punishment of the demonsand of impious men is temporary, and that it will have an end at sometime, that is to say, there will be a complete restoration of thedemons or of impious men, let him be anathema.

COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE II 553

Ecumenical V (concerning the three Chapters)

Ecclesiastical Tradition *

212 We confess that (we) hold and declare the faith given from thebeginning by the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ to the HolyApostles, and preached by them in the whole world; which the sacredFathers both confessed and explained, and handed down to the holychurches, and especially [those Fathers] who assembled in the foursacred Synods, whom we follow and accept through all things and in allthings . . . judging as at odds with piety all things, indeed, whichare not in accord with what has been defined as right faith by the samefour holy Councils, we condemn and anathematize them.

Anathemas Concerning the Three Chapters *

[In part identical with "Homologia" of the Emperor, in the year 551]

213 Can. 1. If anyone does not confess that (there is) one nature orsubstance of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and onepower and one might, and that the Trinity is consubstantial, oneGodhead being worshipped in three subsistences, or persons, let such aone be anathema. For there is one God and Father, from whom are allthings, and one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and oneHoly Spirit, in whom are all things.

214 Can. 2. If anyone does not confess that there are twogenerations of the Word of God, the one from the Father before theages, without time and incorporeally, the other in the last days, whenthe same came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the holy andglorious Mother of God and ever Virgin Mary, and was born of her, letsuch a one be anathema.

215 Can. 3. If anyone says that one [person] is the Word of Godwho performed miracles, and another the Christ who suffered, or saysthat God the Word was with Christ when Ile was born of a woman, or waswith Him as one in another, but not that the same [person] is our LordJesus Christ, the Word of God, incarnate and made man, and that boththe miracles and the sufferings which He voluntarily endured in theflesh were of the same person, let such a one be anathema.

216 Can. 4. If anyone says that the union of the Word of was madeaccording to grace, or according to operation, dignity, or according toequality of honor, or according relation, or temperament, or power, oraccording to good was pleasing to God the Word because it seemed wellto Himself, as [mad] Theodore declares; or according to which theNestorians who call God the Word Jesus and Christ, and name the manseparately Christ and the Son, and, though plainly speaking of twopersons, pretend to speak of one person and one Christ according toname only, and honor, and dignity, and worship, but does not confessthat the union of the Word of God to a body animated with a rationaland intellectual soul, took place according to composition or accordingto subsistence, as the Holy Fathers have taught, and on this accountone subsistence of Him, who is the Lord Jesus Christ, one of the HolyTrinity, let such a one be anathema. For, since the union is thought ofin many ways, some following the impiety of Appollinaris and Eutyches,consenting to the disappearance of those who have come together,worship the union according to confusion; others thinking like Theodoreand Nestorius, rejoicing in the division, introduce the accidentalunion. But the Holy Church of God, rejecting the impiety of eachheresy, confesses the union of God's Word to the body according tocomposition, that is according to subsistence. For the union throughcomposition in the mystery about Christ not only preserves unconfusedwhat have come together but besides does not admit a division.

217 Can. 5. If anyone accepts the one subsistence of our Lord JesusChrist as admitting the significance of many subsistences, and on thisaccount attempts to introduce in the mystery about Christ twosubsistences or two persons, and of the two persons introduced by him,he speaks of one person according to dignity, and honor, and adoration,just as mad Theodore and Nestorius have written, and he falsely accusesthe sacred synod of Chalcedon of using the expression "of onesubsistence" according to this impious conception, but does not confessthat the word of God was united to a body according to subsistence, andon this account one subsistence of Him, that is one person, and thatthus, too, the holy Council of Chalcedon confessed one subsistence ofour Lord Jesus Christ, let such a one be anathema. For, the HolyTrinity did not receive the addition of a person or of a subsistencewhen one of the Holy Trinity, God the Word, became incarnate.

218 Can. 6. If anyone says that the holy glorious ever-virgin Mary isfalsely but not truly the Mother of God; or (is the Mother of God)according to relation, as if a mere man were born, but not as if theWord of God became incarnate [and of her] from her, but the birth ofthe man according to them being referred to the Word of God as beingwith the man when he was born, and falsely accuses the holy synod ofChalcedon of proclaiming the Virgin Mother of God according to thisimpious conception which was invented by Theodore; or, if anyone callsher the mother of the man or the mother of the Christ, as if the Christwere not God, but does not confess that she is exactly and truly theMother of God, because God the Word, born of the Father before theages, was made flesh from her in the last days, and that thus the holySynod of Chalcedon confessed her (to be), let such a one be anathema.

219 Can. 7. If anyone speaking on the two natures does not confess thatour Lord Jesus Christ is acknowledged as in His Divinity as well as inHis Manhood, in order that by this he may signify the difference of thenatures in which without confusion the marvelous union was born, andthat the nature of the Word was not changed into that of the flesh, norwas the nature of the flesh changed into that of the Word (for eachremains exactly as it is by nature, and the union has been madeaccording to subsistence) but with a view to division by part; if heaccepts such an expression as this with regard to the mystery ofChrist, or, acknowledging a number of natures in the same one Lord ourJesus Christ the Word of God made flesh, but does not accept thedifference of these [natures] of which He is also composed, but whichis not destroyed by the union (for one is from both, and through oneboth), but in this uses number in such a way, as if each nature had itsown subsistence separately, let such a one be anathema.

220 Can. 8. If anyone who agrees that a union has been born of the twonatures of divinity and humanity, or who says that one nature of theWord of God has been made flesh, does not accept these (expressions) asthe holy Fathers have taught, namely, that of the nature of God and ofthat of man, the union having taken place according to subsistence, oneChrist was produced; but from such words attempts to introduce onenature or substance of Godhead and humanity of Christ, let such beanathema. For, while asserting that the only-begotten Word is unitedaccording to subsistence, we do not say that any confusion of thenatures with each other has been produced; but rather we believe thatwhile each remains exactly as it is, the Word has been united to theflesh. Therefore, there is one Christ, God and man, the same [personbeing] consubstantial with the Father according to the Divinity, andthe same consubstantial with us according to the humanity, for theChurch of God equally detests and anathernatizes those who divide orcut part by part, and those who confuse the mystery of the divinedispensation of Christ.

221 Can. 9. If anyone says that Christ is adored in two natures and asa result of this two (forms of) adoration are introduced, a special onefor God the Word, and a special one for the man; or, if anyone with aview to the destruction of the humanity, or to the confusing ofDivinity and the humanity, talking of one nature or substance of thosewho have come together, thus adores Christ but does not adore with oneworship God the Word incarnate with His own flesh, just as the Churchof God has accepted from the beginning, let such a one be anathema.

222 Can. 10. If anyone does not confess that Jesus Christ, ourLord, who was crucified in the flesh is true God, and Lord of glory,and one of the Holy Trinity, let such a one be anathema.

223 Can. 11. If anyone does not anathematize Arius, Eunomius,Macedonius, Apollinarius, Nestorius, Eutyches, and Origen, in companywith their sinful works, and all other heretics, who have beencondemned by the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church and by the fourholy synods above-mentioned, and those of the above-mentioned hereticswho have thought or think likewise, and have remained in their impietyuntil the end, let such a one be anathema.

224 Can. 12. If anyone defends the impious Theodore of Mopsuestia, whosaid that one was God the Word, and another the Christ, who wastroubled by the sufferings of the soul and the longings of the flesh,and who gradually separated Himself from worse things, and was improvedby the progress of His works, and rendered blameless by this life, soas to be baptized as mere man in the name of the Father, and of theSon, and of the Holy Spirit, and on account of the baptism received thegrace of the Holy Spirit, and was deemed worthy of adoption as a son,and according to the likeness of the royal image is worshipped in theperson of God the Word, and after the resurrection became unchangeablein thoughts and absolutely unerring, and again the same impiousTheodore having said that the union of God the Word with the Christ wassuch as the Apostle (spoke of) with reference to man and woman: "Theyshall be two in one flesh"[Eph. 5:31]; and in addition to his otherinnumerable blasphemies, dared to say that after the resurrection, theLord when He breathed on His disciples and said:"Receive ye the holyghost"[Is. 20:22], did not give them the Holy Spirit, but breathed onlyfiguratively. But this one, too, said that the confession of Thomas ontouching the hands and the side of the Lord, after the resurrection, "My Lord and my God"[Is.. 20:28 ], was not said by Thomas concerningChrist, but that Thomas, astounded by the marvel of the resurrection,praised God for raising Christ from the dead;

225 and what is worse, even in the interpretation of the Acts of theApostles made by him, the same Theodore comparing Christ to Plato andManichaeus, and Epicurus, and Marcion, says that, just as each of thoseafter inventing his own doctrine caused his disciples to be calledPlatonists, and Manichaeans, and Epicureans, and Marcionites, andChrist invented His own way of life and His own doctrines [caused Hisdisciples] to be called Christians from Him; if, then, anyone defendsthe aforementioned most impious Theodore and his impious writings, inwhich he sets forth the aforesaid and other innumerable blasphemiesagainst the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ, but does notanathematize him and his impious writings, and all those who accept oreven justify him, or say that he preached in an orthodox manner, andthose who wrote in his defense or in defense of his wicked writings,and those who think the same things, or have thought them up to thistime and acquiesced in such heresy until their deaths, let such a onebe anathema.

226 Can. 13. If anyone defends the impious writings of Theodoritus,which are against the true faith and the first holy synod (held) inEphesus, and (against) Cyril in the number of the saints, and histwelve chapters [see note 113ff.], and defends all that he has writtenon behalf of the impious Theodore and Nestorius, and on behalf ofothers who think the same as the above-mentioned Theodore andNestorius, and accepts them and their godlessness; and because of themcalls the teachers of the Church impious, who believe in the union ofthe Word of God according to subsistence; and if he does notanathematize the said impious writings, and those who have thought orthink similarly with these, and all those who have written against thetrue faith, or against Cyril among the saints and his twelve chapters,and have died in such impiety, let such a one be anathema.

227 Can. 14. If anyone defends the epistle which Ibas is said to havewritten to Maris the Persian, which denied that God the Word becameincarnate of the holy Mother of God and ever virgin Mary, was made man,but which said that a mere man was born of her, whom he calls a temple,so that God the Word is one, and the man another; and which slanderedas a heretic Cyril in the number of the saints for having proclaimedthe right faith of the Christians; and as one who wrote in a mannerlike that of the wicked Apollinaris, and blamed the first holy synod(held) in Ephesus, because it condemned Nestorius without an inquiry;and the same impious letter stigmatizes the twelve chapters of Cyril[see n. 113ff.] in the number of the saints as wicked and opposed tothe true faith, and justifies Theodore and Nestorius and their impiousdoctrines and writings; if anyone then defends the said letter, anddoes not anathematize it, and those who defend it, and say that it istrue, or part of it is, and those who have written and are writing inits defense, or in defense of the wicked (ideas) included in it, anddare to justify it or the impiety included in it in the name of theholy Fathers, or of the holy synod (held) in Chalcedon, and havepersisted in these (actions) until death, let such a one be anathema.

228 When then these things have been so confessed, which we havereceived from Holy Scripture, and from the teaching of the HolyFathers, and from what was defined with regard to one and the samefaith by the aforesaid four holy synods, and from that condemnationformulated by us against the heretics and their impiety, and besides,that against those who have defended or are defending theaforementioned three chapters, and who have persisted or do persist intheir own error; if anyone should attempt to transmit [doctrines]opposed to those piously molded by us, or to teach or to write [them]if indeed he be a bishop, or belongs to the clergy, such a one, becausehe acts in a manner foreign to the sacred and ecclesiasticalconstitutions, shall be stripped of the office of bishop or cleric, butif he be a monk or a layman, he shall be anathematized.

PELAGIUS I 556-561

The Last Things *

[From Fide PELAGII in the letter "Humani generis"

to Childebert I, April, 557]

228a For I confess that all men from Adam, even to the consummation ofthe world, having been born and having died with Adam himself and hiswife, who were not born of other parents, but were created, the onefrom the earth, the other [al.: altera], however, from the rib of theman [cf. Gen. 2:7, 22], Will then rise again and stand before theJudgment seat of Christ, that every one may receive the proper thingsof the body, according as he has done, whether it be good or bad[ Rom.14:10; 2 Cor. 5:10]; and indeed by the very bountiful grace of God hewill present the just, as vessels of mercy prepared beforehand forglory[Rom. 9:23], with the rewards of eternal life; namely, they willlive without end in the society of the angels without any fear now oftheir own fall; the wicked, however, remaining by choice of their ownwithvessels of wrath fit for destruction[ Rom. 9:22], who either didnot know the way of the Lord, or knowing it left it when seized byvarious transgressions, He will give over by a very just judgment tothe punishment of eternal and inextinguishable fire, that they may burnwithout end. This, then, is my faith and hope, which is in me by thegift of the mercy of God, in defense of which blessed PETER taught[cf.1 Pet 3:15] that we ought to be especially ready to answer everyonewho asks us for an accounting.

The Form of Baptism *

[From the epistle "Admonemus ut" to Gaudentius,

Bishop of Volterra, about the year 560]

229 There are many who assert that they are baptized in the name ofChrist alone with only one immersion. But the evangelical precept whichthe very God, our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, handed down warns us togive each one holy baptism in the name of the Trinity and with a tripleimmersion also, since our Lord Jesus Christ said to his disciples: Go,baptize all nations in the name of the Father and of the Son and of theHoly Spirit [ Matt. 28:19]. If, in fact, those of the heretics, who aresaid to remain in places near your love, confess perchance that theyhave been baptized only in the name of the Lord, without anyuncertainty of doubt you will baptize them in the name of the HolyTrinity, if they come to the Catholic faith. But if . . . by a clearconfession it becomes evident that they have been baptized in the nameof the Trinity, you will hasten to unite them to the Catholic faith,employing only the grace of reconciliation, in order that nothing otherthan what the evangelical authority orders may seem to be accomplished.

The Primacy of the Roman Pontiff*

[From epistle (26) "Adeone te" to a certain bishop

(John ?), about the year 560]

230 Has the truth of your Catholic mother so failed you, who have beenplaced in the highest office of the priesthood, that you have not atonce recognized yourself as a schismatic, when you withdrew from theapostolic sees? Being appointed to preach the Gospel to the people, hadyou not even read that the Church was founded by Christ our Lord uponthe chief of the Apostles, so thatthe gates of hell might not be ableto prevail against it [ cf. Matt. 16:18 ] ? If you had read this, wheredid you believe the Church to be outside of him in whom alone areclearly all the apostolic sees? To whom in like measure as to him, whohad receivedthe keys, has the power of binding and of loosingbeengranted [cf. Matt. 16:19]? But for this reason he gave first to himalone, what he was about to give also to (in) all, so that, accordingto the opinion of blessed Cyprian the martyr who explains this verything, the Church might be shown to be one. Why, therefore, did you,already dearest in Christ, wander away from your portion, or what hopedid you have for your salvation?

(JOHN III 561-574)

COUNCIL OF BRAGA * II 561

Anathemas against Heretics, especially the Priscillianists *

231 1. If anyone does not confess that the Father, and the Son, and theHoly Spirit (are) three persons of one substance, and virtue, andpower) just as the Catholic and apostolic Church teaches, but saysthere is only one and a solitary person, so that He Himself is theFather who is the Son, and also He Himself is the Paraclete, theSpirit, just as Sabellius and Priscillian have asserted, let him beanathema.

232 2. If anyone introduces some other names of the Godhead in additionto the Holy Trinity, because, as he says, there is in the Godheadhimself a Trinity of the Trinity, just as the Gnostics and Priscillianshave stated, let him be anathema.

233 3. If anyone says that the Son of God our Lord did not exist beforeHe was born of the Virgin, just as Paul of Samosata and Photinus andPriscillian have said, let him be anathema,

234 4. If anyone does not truly honor the birthday of Christ accordingto the flesh, but pretends that he honors (it), fasting on the very dayand on the Lord's Day, because, like Cerdon, Marcion, Manichaeus, andPriscillian, he does not believe that Christ was born in the nature ofman, let him be anathema.

235 5. If anyone believes, as Manichaeus and Priscillian have said,that human souls or angels have arisen from the substance of God, lethim be anathema.

236 6. If anyone says that human souls first sinned in the heavenlyhabitation and in view of this were hurled down into human bodies onearth, as Priscillian has affirmed, let him be anathema.

237 7. If anyone says that the devil was not first a good angel made byGod, and that his nature was not a work of God, but says that he cameforth from darkness, and does not have any author of himself, but ishimself the origin and substance of evil, as Manichaeus and Priscillianhave said, let him be anathema.

238 8. If anyone believes that the devil made some creatures in theworld and by his own authority the devil himself causes thunder andlightning, and storms and spells of dryness, just as Priscillian hasasserted, let him be anathema.

239 9. If anyone believes that human souls [al. souls and human bodies]are bound by a fatal sign [al. by fatal stars], just as the pagans andPriscillian have affirmed, let him be anathema.

240 10. If anyone believes that the twelve signs or stars, which theastrologers are accustomed to observe, have been scattered throughsingle members of the soul or body, and say that they have beenattributed to the names of the Patriarchs, just as Priscillian hasasserted, let him be anathema.

241 11. If anyone condemns human marriage and has a horror of theprocreation of living bodies, as Manichaeus and Priscillian have said,let him be anathema.

242 12. If anyone says that the formation of the human body is acreation of the devil, and says that conceptions in the wombs ofmothers are formed by the works of demons, and for this reason does notbelieve in the resurrection of the body, just as Manichaeus andPriscillian have said, let him be anathema.

243 13. If anyone says that the creation of all flesh is not the workof God, but belongs to the wicked angels, just as Priscillian has said,let him be anathema.

244 14. If anyone considers the foods of the flesh unclean, whichGod has given for the use of men; and, not for the affliction of hisbody, but as if he thought it unclean, so abstains from these that hedoes not taste vegetables cooked with meats, just as Manichaeus andPriscillian have said, let him be anathema.

[15 and 16 consider only ecclesiastical discipline].

245 17. If anyone reads the Scriptures, which Priscillian hasdistorted according to his own error, or Dictinius's treatises, whichDictinius himself wrote before he was converted- or whatsoever writingsof the heretics under the name of the Patriarchs, of the Prophets, orof the Apostles they have devised in agreement with their own error,and follows or defends their impious creations, let him be anathema.

BENEDICT I 575-579

PELAGIUS II 579-590

The Unity of the Church *

[From epistle (1) "Quod ad dilectionern" to the

schismatic bishops of Istria, about 585]

246 (For) you know that the Lord proclaims in the Gospel: Simon, Simon,behold Satan has desired to have you, that he might sift you as wheat:but I have asked the Father for thee, that thy faith fail not; and thoubeing once converted, confirm thy brethren [Luke 22:31 f.].

Consider, most dear ones, that the Truth could not have lied, norwill the faith of PETER be able to be shaken or changed forever. Foralthough the devil desired to sift all the disciples, the Lordtestifies that He Himself asked for PETER alone and wished the othersto be confirmed by him; and to him also, in consideration of a greaterlove which he showed the Lord before the rest, was committed the careof feeding the sheep [cf. John 21:15 ff.]; and to him also He handedover the keys of the kin gdom of heaven,and upon him He promised tobuild his Church,and He testified that the gates of hell would notprevail against it [cf. Matt. 16:16 ff.]. But, because the enemy of thehuman race even until the end of the world does not abstain from sowingcockle [Matt. 13:25] over the good seed in the Church of the Lord, andtherefore, lest perchance anyone with malignant zeal should by theinstigation of the devil presume to make some alterations in and todraw conclusions regarding the integrity of the faith- and (lest) byreason of this your minds perhaps may seem to be disturbed, we havejudged it necessary through our present epistle to exhort with tearsthat you should return to the heart of your mother the Church, and tosend you satisfaction with regard to the integrity of faith. . . .

[ The faith of the Synods ofNICEA, CONSTANTINOPLE I, EPHESUSI,and especially ofCHALCEDON,and likewise of the dogmatic epistle ofLEO to Flavian having been confirmed, he proceeds thus: ]

If anyone, however, either suggests or believes or presumes toteach contrary to this faith, let him know that he is condemned andalso anathematized according to the opinion of the same Fathers. . . .Consider (therefore) the fact that whoever has not been in the peaceand unity of the Church, cannot have the Lord [Gal. 3:7]. . . .

The Necessity of Union with the Church *

[From epistle (2) "Dilectionis vestrae" to the schismatic

bishops of Istria, about 585]

247 . . . Do not (therefore) because of a love of ostentation, which isalways next to pride, remain in the vice of obstinacy; since in the dayof judgment no one can excuse himself. . . .

For although it is evident from the word of the Lord Himself inthe Sacred Gospel [cf. Matt. 16:18 ] where the Church is established,let us hear nevertheless what the blessed Augustine, mindful of theopinion of the same Lord, has explained. For he says that the Church ofGod is established among those who are known to preside over theapostolic sees) through the succession of those in charge, and whoeverseparates himself from the communion or authority of these sees, isshown to be in schism. And following additional remarks (he says): "Ifyou are put outside, for the name of Christ you will also die. Sufferfor Christ among the members of Christ; clinging to the body, fight forthe head." But the blessed Cyprian . . . among other things, says thefollowing: "The beginning starts from unity, and the primacy is givento PETER, So that the Church and the chair of Christ may be shown (tobe) one: and they are all shepherds, but the flock, which is fed by theApostles in unanimous agreement, is shown to be one." * And after a few(remarks he adds): "Does he who does not hold this unity of the Churchbelieve that he has the faith? Does he who deserts and resists thechair of PETER, on which the Church was founded, have confidence thathe is in the Church?" Likewise after other remarks (he asserts): "Theycan. not arrive at the reward of peace, because they disrupt the peaceof the Lord by the fury of discord. . . . Those who were not willing tobe at agreement in the Church of God, cannot remain with God; althoughgiven over to flames and fires, they burn, or thrown to wild beasts,they lay down their lives, there will not be [for them] that crown offaith, but the punishment of faithlessness, not a glorious result (ofreligious virtue), but the ruin of despair. Such a one can be slain, hecannot be crowned. . . . For the crime of schism is worse than thatwhich they [commit] who have offered sacrifice, who, nevertheless,having been disposed to penance for their sins prayed to God with thefullest satisfaction. In this case the Church is sought and solicited;in the other the Church is opposed. So in this case he who has fallen,has injured only himself; in the other, who attempts to cause a schismdeceives many by dragging (them) with himself. In this case there isthe loss of one soul; in the other there is danger to many. Certainlythe one knows that he has sinned and laments and bewails (it); theother puffed up with pride in his sin and pluming himself on the sinsthemselves, separates sons from their mother, seduces the sheep fromthe shepherds, disturbs the sacraments of God, and, whereas the formerhaving stumbled sinned once, the latter sins daily. Lastly although thelapsed, if afterwards he acquired martyrdom, is able to secure thepromises of the kingdom; if the other is slain outside of the Church,he cannot attain to the rewards of the Church." *

ST. GREGORY I, THE GREAT 590-604

The Knowledge of Christ (against the Agnoetae) *

[From the epistle "Sicut aqua frigida" to Eulogius,

Patriarch of Alexandria, August, 600]

248 (But) concerning that which has been written: That neither the Son,nor the angels know the day and the hour [cf. Mark 13:32], indeed, yourholiness has perceived rightly, that since it most certainly should bereferred not to the same son according to that which is the head, butaccording to his body which we are . . . . He [Augustine] also says . .. that this can be understood of the same son, because omnipotent Godsometimes speaks in a human way, as he said to Abraham: Now I know thatthou fearest God [Gen. 22:12], not because God then knew that He wasfeared, but because at that time He caused Abraham to know that hefeared God. For, just as we say a day is happy not because the dayitself is happy, but because it makes us happy, so the omnipotent Sonsays He does not know the day which He causes not to be known, notbecause He himself is ignorant of it, but because He does not permit itto be known at all. Thus also the Father alone is said to know, becausethe Son (being) consubstantial with Him, on account of His nature, bywhich He is above the angels, has knowledge of that, of which theangels are unaware. Thus, also, this can be the more preciselyunderstood because the Only-begotten having been incarnate, and madeperfect man for us, in His human nature indeed did know the day and thehour of judgment, but nevertheless He did not know this from His humannature. Therefore, that which in (nature) itself He knew, He did notknow from that very (nature), because God-made-man knew the day andhour of the judgment through the power of His Godhead. . . . Thus, theknowledge which He did not have on account of the nature of Hishumanity-by reason of which, like the angels, He was a creaturethis Hedenied that He, like the angels, who are creatures, had. Therefore (as)God and man He knows the day and the hour of judgment; but On thisaccount, because God is man. But the fact is certainly manifest thatwhoever is not a Nestorian, can in no wise be an Agnoeta. For with whatpurpose can he, who confesses that the Wisdom itself of God isincarnate say that there is anything which the Wisdom of God does notknow? It is written: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word waswith God, and the Word was God. . . . All things were made by him [John1:13]. If all, without doubt also the day of judgment and the hour.Who, therefore, is so foolish as to presume to assert that the Word ofthe Father made that which He does not know? it is written also: Jesusknowing, that the Father gave him all things into his hands [ John13:3]. If all things, surely both the day of judgment and the hour.Who, therefore, is so stupid as to say that the Son has received in Hishands that of which He is unaware?

Baptism and the Orders of Heretics *

[From the epistle "Quia charitati" to the bishops of

Spain, about June 22, 601]

249 From the ancient institution of the Fathers we have learnedthat those who are baptized in the name of the Trinity, although amidheresy, whenever they return to the holy Church, may be recalled to thebosom of their mother the Church either with the anointing of chrism,or the imposition of hands, or with a profession of faith alone . . . ,because the holy baptism, which they received among the heretics, atthat time restores the power of cleansing in them when they have beenunited to the holy faith and the heart of the universal Church. Butthese heretics who are not baptized in the name of the Trinity . . . ,whenever they come to the holy Church, are baptized, because whateverthose placed in error received not in the name of the Trinity-was notbaptism. Nor can that baptism itself, which, as has been said, had notbeen given in the name of the Trinity, be called repeated.

Therefore . . . without any hesitation your holiness may receivein your assembly all whoever return from the perverse error ofNestorius, their own orders preserved for them so that, while . . .through gentleness you make no opposition or difficulty in regard totheir own orders, you may snatch them from the mouth of the ancientenemy.

The Time of the Hypostatic Union *

[From the same epistle to the bishops of Spain]

250 (But) the flesh was not first conceived in the womb of the Virginand afterwards the divinity came into the flesh; but, as soon as theWord came into the womb, directly, the power of His own nature beingpreserved, the Word was made flesh. . . . Nor was He conceived firstand afterwards anointed; but that He was conceived of the Holy Spiritfrom the flesh of the Virgin, was anointed by the Holy Spirit, this was.

250* Concerning the adoration of images, see Kch n. 1054ff.;--concerning the authority for the four councils see R n.2291;--concerni ng the anointing, ibid. n. 2294;--concerning the riteof baptism, ibid. n. 2292; the effect, ibid. n. 2298; concerning theindissolubility of matrimony, ibid. n. 2297.

SABIANUS 604-606 ST. BONIFACE IV 608-615

BONIFACE III 607 ST. DEUSDEDIT 615-618

BONIFACE V 619-625

HONORIUS I 625-638

Two Wills and Operations in Christ *

[From the epistle (1) "Scripta fraternitatis vestrae"

to Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople in the year 634]

251 . . . With God as a leader we shall arrive at the measure of theright faith which the apostles of the truth have extended by means ofthe slender rope of the Sacred Scriptures. Confessing that the LordJesus Christ, the mediator of God and of men [1 Tim. 2:5], hasperformed divine (works) through the medium of the humanity naturally[gr. hypostatically] united to the Word of God, and that the same oneperformed human works, because flesh had been assumed ineffably andparticularly by the full divinity [gr. in--] distinctly, unconfusedly,and unchangeably . . . so that truly it may be recognized that by awonderful design [passible flesh] is united [to the Godhead] while thedifferences of both natures marvelously remain. . . . Hence, we confessone will of our Lord Jesus Christ also, because surely our nature, notour guilt was assumed by the Godhead, that certainly, which was createdbefore sin, not that which was vitiated after the transgression. ForChrist . . . was conceived of the Holy Spirit without sin, and was alsoborn of the holy and immaculate Virgin mother of God without sin,experiencing no contagion of our vitiated nature. . . . For there wasno other law in His members, or a will different from or contrary tothe Savior, because He was born above the law of the human nature. . .. There are extensive works of sacred literature pointing out veryclearly that the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son and the Word of God, bywhom all things were made [John 1:3], is Himself the one operator ofdivinity and of humanity. But whether on account of the works ofdivinity and of humanity, one or two operations ought to be said orunderstood to be derived, such (questions) should not concern us,leaving them to the grammarians, who are accustomed to sell to childrenwords acquired by derivation. For in sacred literature we haveperceived that the Lord Jesus Christ and His Holy Spirit operated notone operation or two, but we have learned that (He) operated in manyways.

[From the epistle (2) "Scripta dilectissimi filii" to the same Sergius]

252 . . . So far as pertains to ecclesiastical doctrine, what weought to hold or to preach on account of the simplicity of men and theinextricable ambiguities of questions (which) must be removed . . . .is to define not one or two operations in the mediator of God and ofmen, but both natures united in one Christ by a natural union, when weshould confess those operating with the participation of the other andthe operators, both the divine, indeed, performing what is of God, andthe human performing what is of the flesh; teaching [that they operate]neither separately, nor confusedly, nor interchangeably, the nature ofGod changed into man, and the human changed into God; but con. fessingthe complete differences of the natures. . . Therefore, doing away with. . . the scandal of the new invention, we, when we are explaining,should not preach one or two operations; but instead of one operation,which some affirm, we should confess one operator, Christ the Lord, inboth natures; and instead of two operations-when the expression of twooperations has been done away with-rather of the two naturesthemselves, that is of divinity and of the flesh assumed, in oneperson, the Only-begotten of God the Father unconfusedly, inseparably,and unchangeably performing their proper (works) with us.

[More from this epistle see Kch. n. 1065-1069]

SEVERINUS 640

JOHN IV 640-642

The Meaning of the Words of HONORIUS about the Two Wills *

[From the epistle "Dominus qui dixit" to Constantius the Emperor, 641]

253 . . . One and He alone is without sin, the mediator of Godand of men, the man Christ Jesus [cf. 1 Tim. 2:5] who was conceived andborn free among the dead [Ps. 87:6]. Thus in the dispensation of Hissacred flesh, He never had two contrary wills, nor did the will of Hisflesh resist the will of His mind. . . . Therefore, knowing that therewas no sin at all in Him when He was born and lived, we fittingly sayand truthfully confess one will in the humanity of His sacreddispensation; and we do not preach two contrary wills, of mind and offlesh, as in a pure man, in the manner certain heretics are known torave. In accord with this method, then, our predecessor (alreadymentioned) [HONORIUS] is known to have written to the (aforenamed)Sergius the Patriarch who was asking questions, that in our Savior twocontrary wills did not exist internally, that is, in His members, sinceHe derived no blemish from the transgression of the first man. . . .This usually happens, that, naturally where there is a wound, theremedicinal aid offers itself. For the blessed Apostle is known to havedone this often, preparing himself according to the custom of hishearers; and sometimes indeed when teaching about the supreme nature,he is completely silent about the human nature, but sometimes whentreating of the human dispensation, he does not touch on the mystery ofHis divinity. . . So, my aforementioned predecessor said concerning themystery of the incarnation of Christ, that there were not in Him, as inus sinners, contrary wills of mind and flesh; and certain onesconverting this to their own meaning, suspected that He taught one willof His divinity and humanity which is altogether contrary to the truth.. . .

THEODORUS I 642-649

ST. MARTIN I 649-653 (655)

THE LATERAN COUNCIL 649

(Against the Monothelites)

The Trinity, the Incarnation, etc.*

254 Can. 1. If anyone does not confess properly and truly in accordwith the holy Fathers that the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit[are a] Trinity in unity, and a unity in Trinity, that is, one God inthree subsistences, consubstantial and of equal glory, one and the sameGodhead, nature, substance, virtue, power, kingdom, authority, will,operation of the three, uncreated, without beginning, incomprehensible,immutable, creator and protector of all things, let him be condemned[see n. 78-82, 213].

255 Can. 2. If anyone does not properly and truly confess in accordancewith the Holy Fathers that God the Word himself, one of the holy andconsubstantial and venerable Trinity, descended from heaven, and wasincarnate of the Holy Spirit and Mary ever Virgin, and was made man,was crucified in the flesh, voluntarily suffered for us and was buried,and arose again on the third day, and ascended into heaven, and sits atthe right hand of the Father, and will come again with paternal glory,with his flesh assumed by Him and intellectually animated, to judge theliving and the dead, let him be condemned [see n. 2, 6, 65,215].

256 Can. 3. If anyone does not properly and truly confess inaccord with the holy Fathers, that the holy Mother of God and everVirgin and immaculate Mary in the earliest of the ages conceived of theHoly Spirit without seed, namely, God the Word Himself specifically andtruly, who was born of God the Father before all ages, and that sheincorruptibly bore [Him?], her virginity remaining indestructible evenafter His birth, let him be condemned [see n. 218].

257 Can. 4. If anyone does not properly and truly confess according tothe holy Fathers, two nativities of our one Lord and God Jesus Christ,as before the ages from God and the Father incorporally and eternally,and as from the holy ever Virgin, Mother of God Mary, corporally in theearliest of the ages, and also one and the same Lord of us and God,Jesus Christ with God and His Father according to His divine nature and, consubstantial with man and His Mother according to the human nature,and the same one passible in the flesh, and impassible in the Godhead,circumscribed in the body, uncircumscribed in Godhead, the same oneuncreated and created, terrestial and celestial, visible andintelligible, comprehensible and incomprehensible, that all mankindwhich fell under sin, might be restored through the same complete manand God, let him be condemned [see n. 214].

258 Can. 5. If anyone does not properly and truly confessaccording to the holy Fathers one incarnate nature of God the Word, inthis way, that our substance is called incarnate perfectly in ChristGod and without diminution, [see n. 220] provided substance issignified without sin, let him be condemned.

259 Can. 6. If anyone does not properly and truly confessaccording to the holy Fathers, that from two and in two naturessubstantially united unconfusedly and undividedly there is one and thesame Lord and God, Jesus Christ, let him be condemned [see n. 148].

260 Can. 7. If anyone does not properly and truly confess according tothe holy Fathers, the substantial difference of the natures preservedin Him, unconfusedly and undividedly, let him be condemned [see n.148 ].

261 Can. 8. If anyone does not properly and truly confessaccording to the holy Fathers the substantial union of the naturesrecognized in Him undividedly and unconfusedly, let him be condemned[see n. 148].

262 Can. 9. If anyone does not properly and truly confess according tothe holy Fathers, the natural properties of His Godhead and of Hishumanity preserved without diminution and without injury in Him, lethim be condemned.

263 Can. 10. If anyone does not properly and truly confess according tothe holy Fathers two wills of one and the same Christ our God, uniteduninterruptedly, divine and human, and on this account that througheach of His natures the same one of His own free will is the operator[Editors add: operator] of our salvation, let him be condemned.

264 Can. 11. If anyone does not properly and truly confess according tothe holy Fathers two operations of one and the same Christ our Goduninterruptedly united, divine and human, from this that through eachof His natures He naturally is the same operator of our salvation, lethim be condemned.

265 Can. 12. If anyone according to the wicked heretics confesses onewill and one operation of Christ our God, to the destruction of theconfession of the holy Fathers and to the denial of the samedispensation of our Savior, let him be condemned.

266 Can. 13. If anyone according to the wicked heretics, contrary tothe doctrine of the Fathers, confesses both one will and one operation,although two wills and two operations, divine and human, have beensubstantially preserved in union in Christ God, and have been piouslypreached by our holy Fathers, let him be condemned.

267 Can. 14. If anyone according to the wicked heretics, together withone will and one operation, which is impiously confessed by theheretics, denies and rejects both two wills and in like manner twooperations, that is, divine and human, which are preserved in unity inthe very Christ God, and are proclaimed in regard to Him in an orthodoxmanner by the holy Fathers, let him be condemned.

268 Can. 15. If anyone according to the wicked heretics unwiselyaccepts the divine-human operation, which the Greeks call (Greek textdeleted),as one operation, but does not confess that it is twofoldaccording to the holy Fathers, that is, divine and human, or that thenew application itself of the word "divine-human" which has been usedis descriptive of one, but not demonstrative of the marvelous andglorious union of both, let him be condemned.

269 Can. 16. If anyone according to the wicked heretics in thedestruction of the two wills and the two operations, that is, divineand human, preserved essentially in unity in Christ God, and piouslypreached by the holy Fathers, foolishly connects discords anddifferences with the mystery of His dispensation, and so attributes theevangelical and apostolic words about the same Savior not to one andthe same person and essentially to the same Lord Himself and God, ourJesus Christ, according to blessed Cyril, so that he is shown to be bynature God and likewise man, let him be condemned.

270 Can. 17. If anyone in word and mind does not properly and trulyconfess according to the holy Fathers all even to the last portion thathas been handed down and preached in the holy, Catholic, and apostolicChurch of God, and likewise by the holy Fathers and the five venerableuniversal Councils, let him be condemned.

271 Can. 18. If anyone according to the holy Fathers, harmoniously withus and likewise with the Faith, does not with mind and lips reject andanathematize all the most abominable heretics together with theirimpious writings even to one least portion, whom the holy Catholic andapostolic Church of God, that is, the holy and universal five Synodsand likewise all the approved Fathers of the Church in harmony, rejectsand anathematizes, we mean Sabellius, Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius,Apollinaris, Polemon, Eutyches, Dioscurus, Timothy Aelurus, Severus,Theodosius, Colluthus, Themistius, Paul of Samosata , Diodorus,Theodore, Nestorius, Theodulus the Persian, Origen, Didymus, Evagrius,and briefly all the remaining heretics, who have been condemned andcast out by the Catholic Church; whose teachings are the fruit ofdiabolical operation, and those, who unto the end have obstinatelysuggested (ideas) similar to these, or do suggest (them), or arebelieved to suggest (them), with whom (they are) justly (associated),inasmuch as (they are) like them and (are) possessed of a similarerror, according to which they are known to teach and by their ownerror determine their lives, we mean, Theodore formerly Bishop ofPharan, Cyrus of Alexandria, Sergius of Constantinople, or hissuccessors, Pyrrhus and Paul, persisting in their treachery, and alltheir impious writings; and those, who have unto the end obstinatelysuggested, or are suggesting, or are believed to suggest (ideas)similar to those, that is, one will and one operation of the divinityand humanity of Christ, and besides these the very impious Ecthesis,which was composed at the persuasion of the same Sergius by Heraclius,formerly emperor in opposition to the orthodox faith, defining that onewill of Christ God, and one operation from the composite are to bevenerated; but also everything, which has been impiously written ordone by them in defense of it, and those who accept it, or any thingthat has been written or done in defense of it; and together with thoseagain the wicked Typus, who on the persuasion of the aforementionedPaul was prepared recently by the most serene Emperor Constantine[read: Constantius], the emperor against the Catholic Church, inasmuchas he promulgates equally the denial and by silence the bindingtogether of two natural wills and operations, divine and human, whichare piously preached by the holy Fathers in the very Christ, true Godand our Savior, together with one will and operation, which isimpiously venerated in Him by the heretics, and inasmuch as he unjustlydefines that together with the holy Fathers the wicked heretics alsoare freed from all reprehension and condemnation, unto the trimmingdown of the definitions or of the rule of the Catholic Church.

272 If anyone therefore, as has been said, does not in agreement withus reject and anathematize all these most impious teachings of theirheresy, and those matters which have been impiously written by anyonein defense of them or in definition of them, and the specificallydesignated heretics, we mean Theodore, Cyrus and Sergius, Pyrrhus andPaul, seeing that they are the rebels against the Catholic Church; orif anyone holds as condemned and entirely deposed some one of these whowere in writing, or without writing, in any manner or place or timewhatsoever rashly deposed or condemned by them (heretics) or by personslike them, inasmuch as the one condemned does not believe at all likethem but with us confesses the doctrine of the holy Fathers-but, on thecontrary (anyone) does not consider everybody who has been of thisclass-that is, whether bishop or priest or deacon or a member of anyother ecclesiastical rank, or monk or layman-pious and orthodox and adefender of the Catholic Church, and also more firmly settled in theorder to which he has been called by the Lord, but believes such (tobe) impious and their judgments in defense of this detestable, or theiropinions vain and invalid and weak, nay more wicked and execrable orworthy of condemnation, let such a person be condemned.

273 Can. 19. If anyone who indubitably has professed and alsounderstands those (teachings) which the wicked heretics suggest,through vain impudence says that these are teachings of piety, whichthe investigators and ministers of the Word have handed down from thebeginning, that is to say, the five holy and universal Synods,certainly calumniating the holy Fathers themselves and the five holySynods mentioned, in the deception of the simple, or in the acceptanceof their own impious treachery, let such a person be condemned.

274 Can. 20. If anyone according to the wicked heretics in any mannerwhatsoever, by any word whatsoever, or at any time or placewhatsoeverillicitly removing the boundswhich the holy Fathers of theCatholic Churchhave rather firmly established[ Prov. 22:28], that is,the five holy and universal Synods, in order rashly to seek fornovelties and expositions of another faith; or books, or letters, orwritings, or subscriptions, or false testimonies, or synods, or recordsof deeds, or vain ordinations unknown to ecclesiastical rule; orunsuitable and irrational tenures of place; and briefly, if it iscustomary for the most impious heretics to do anything else, (ifanyone) through diabolical operation crookedly and cunningly actscontrary to the pious preachings of the orthodox (teachers) of theCatholic Church, that is to say, its paternal and synodalproclamations, to the destruction of the most sincere confession untothe Lord our God, and persists without repentance unto the endimpiously doing these things, let such a person be condemnedforever,and let all the people say: so be it, so be it[ Ps. 105:48].

ST. EUGENIUS I 654 (655)-657 ST. VITALIANUS 657-672

(ADEODATUS 672-676)

COUNCIL OF TOLEDO XI 675*

Creed of Faith (especially concerning the Trinity and the Incarnation) *

["Exposition of faith" against the Priscillianists]

275 [The Trinity] We confess and believe the holy and ineffableTrinity, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, one Godnaturally, to be of one substance, one nature, and also of one majestyand power. And we profess that the Father, indeed, is not begotten, notcreated but unbegotten. For He from whom both the Son received Hisnativity and the Holy Spirit His procession takes His origin from noone. Therefore, He is the source and origin of all Godhead; also is theFather Himself of His own essence, He who ineffably begot the Son[Another version: Father, essence indeed ineffable, Son of His ownsubstance] from an ineffable substance; nor did He, however, begetother than what He Himself is: God God, light light, from Him,therefore, is all paternity

276 in heaven and on earth [Eph. 3:15].--We confess also that the Sonwas born, but not made, from the substance of the Father withoutbeginning before all ages, because neither the Father without the Son,nor the Son without the Father ever at any time existed. And yet not asthe Son front the Father, so the Father from the Son, because theFather did not receive generation from the Son, but the Son from theFather. The Son, therefore, is God from the Father; the Father,however, is God, but not from the Son; Father indeed of the Son, notGod from the Son. He, however, is Son of the Father and God from theFather. However, the Son is equal in all things to God the Father,because at no time did He either begin or cease to be born. We believethat He is of one substance with the Father, and because of this we saythat He is (Greek text deleted) to the Father, that is, of the samesubstance with the Father, for (Greek text deleted) in Greek means one,(Greek text deleted) means substance, and the two joined together mean"one substance." For, neither from nothing, nor from any othersubstance, but from the womb of the Father, that is, from Hissubstance, we must believe that the Son was begotten or born.Therefore, the Father is eternal, and the Son is eternal. But if Healways was Father, He always had a Son to whom He was Father; and byreason of this we confess that the Son was born of the Father withoutbeginning. Neither do we call the same Son of God a part of a dividednature because of the fact that He is begotten of the Father; but weassert that the perfect Father begot the perfect Son without diminutionor division, because it is a characteristic of Divinity alone not tohave an unequal Son. Also, this Son is Son of God by nature, not byadoption, * whom we must believe God the Father begot neither by willnor by necessity; for, neither does any necessity happen [ al. capit,'take hold'] in God, nor does will precede wisdom.--We believe alsothat the

277 Holy Spirit, who is the third person in the Trinity, is God, oneand equal with God the Father and the Son, of one substance, also ofone nature; that He is the Spirit of both, not, however, begotten norcreated but proceeding from both. We believe also that this Holy Spiritis neither unbegotten nor begotten, lest if we say unbegotten, weshould affirm two Fathers, or if begotten, we should be proven todeclare two Sons; He is said to be the Spirit, however, not only of theFather but at the same time of the Father and the Son. For, neitherdoes He proceed from the Father into the Son, nor does He proceed fromthe Son to sanctify the creature, but He is shown to have proceeded atthe same time from both, because He is acknowledged to be the love orholiness of both. Therefore, we believe that this Holy Spirit was sentby both, as the Son was sent by the Father; but He is not consideredless than the Father and the Son, as the Son, on account of the body Heassumed, testifies that He Himself is less than the Father and the HolySpirit.

278 This is the account of the Holy Trinity that has been handed down.We must call and believe it to be not triple but triune. Neither can werightly say that in one God is the Trinity, but that one God is theTrinity. In the relative names of persons, however, the Father refersto the Son, the Son to the Father, and the Holy Spirit to both, in thatwhile relatively three persons are asserted, we yet believe they areone nature or substance. Neither as three persons, so do we predicatethree substances, but one substance, however three persons. For, as Heis Father, not to Himself, but to the Son; and as He is Son not toHimself but to the Fattier, similarly also the Holy Spirit refers in arelative sense not to Himself, but to the Father and to the Son, inthat He is proclaimed the Spirit of the Father and the Son.--Likewisewhen we say "God," no relationship is expressed, as the Father to theSon, or the Son

279 to the Father, or the Holy Ghost to the Father and the Son, but Godapplies especially to Himself. For, if we are asked concerning theindividual persons, we must confess that each is God. Therefore, we saythat the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God eachsingly; yet there are not three Gods, but there is one God. Likewisealso we say that the Father is omnipotent, the Son is omnipotent, andthe Holy Spirit is omnipotent, each singly; not, however, threeomnipotent Gods, but one omnipotent God, as also we predicate one lightand one principle. We confess and believe, therefore, that singly eachperson is wholly God and that all three persons are one God; they haveone indivisible and equal Godhead, majesty or power, neither is itlessened in the single person, nor increased in the three persons,because it does not have anything less when each person of God isspoken of singly,

280 nor more when all three persons are called one God.--Therefore,this Holy Trinity, which is the one and true God, neither excludesnumber nor is it contained in number.-For in the relation of personsnumber appears, but in the substance of divinity, what might beenumerated is not understood. Therefore, in this alone they implynumber, that they are related to each other; and in this, that they areto themselves, they lack number. For natural unity is so suitable tothis Holy Trinity that there cannot be a plurality in the threepersons. For this reason, then, we believe that saying in SacredScripture: "Great is our Lord and great is his power; and of his Wisdomthere is no number" [ Ps. 146:5]. Neither because we have said thatthese three persons are one God, are we able to say that the same oneis the Father who is the Son, or that He is the Son who is the Father,or that He who is the Holy Spirit is either the Father or the Son. ForHe is not the Father who is the Son, nor is He the Son who is theFather, nor is the Holy Spirit He who is either the Father or the Son,even though the Father is the same as the Son, the Son the same as theFather, the Father and the Son the same as the Holy Spirit; that is, innature one God. For, when we say that the same one is not the Father asthe Son, we refer to the distinction of persons. When, however, we saythat the Father is the same as the Son, the Son the same as the Father,the Holy Spirit the same as the Father and the Son, it is plain thatthe reference is to the nature or substance by which He is God, becausein substance they are one; for we

281 are distinguishing persons, we are not dividing the Deity.--Weacknowledge, therefore, the Trinity in a distinction of persons; weprofess unity on account of the nature or substance. Therefore, thethree are one, that is, in nature, not in person. We must not, however,consider these three persons separable, since we believe that no onebefore the other, no one after the other, no one without the other everexisted or did anything. For, they are found inseparable both in thatwhich they are, and in that which they do, because between thegenerating Father and the generated Son and the proceeding Holy Spiritwe believe that there was no interval of time in which either thebegetter at any time preceded the begotten, or the begotten was lackingto the begetter, or the proceeding Holy Spirit appeared after theFather or the Son. Therefore, for this reason we proclaim and believethat this Trinity is inseparable and unconfused. These three,therefore, are called persons, as our ancestors define, that they maybe recognized, not that they may be separated. For, if we giveattention to that which Holy Scripture says of Wisdom: "She is thebrightness of eternal light" [ Wis. 7:26], as we see the splendorinhering inseparably in light, so we confess that the Son cannot beseparated from the Father. Therefore, just as we do not confuse thesethree persons of one and inseparable nature, so do we in nowise declarethem separable. Since, indeed, the Trinity itself has so deigned toshow this clearly to us that even in these names by which it wished thepersons to be recognized singly, it does not permit one to beunderstood without the other; for neither is the Father recognizedwithout the Son, nor is the Son found without the Father. Indeed, thevery relation of personal designation forbids the persons to beseparated, whom, even when it does not name them together, it impliestogether. Moreover, no one can hear anyone of those names without beingconstrained to think also of another. Since, then, these three are oneand the one three, there is yet remaining to each person His ownproperty. For the Father has eternity without nativity, the Soneternity with nativity, and the Holy Spirit procession without nativitywith eternity.

282 [The Incarnation] Of these three persons we believe that for theliberation of the human race only the person of the Son became true manwithout sin from the holy and immaculate Virgin Mary, from whom He isbegotten in a new manner and by a new birth; in a new manner, becauseinvisible in divinity, He became visible in flesh; by a new birth,however, is He begotten, because inviolate virginity without theexperience of sexual intercourse supplied the material of human fleshmade fruitful by the Holy Spirit. This Virgin birth is neither graspedby reason nor illustrated by example, because if grasped by reason, itis not miraculous; if illustrated by example, it will not be unique. *Yet we must not believe that the Holy Spirit is Father of the Son,because of the fact that Mary conceived by the overshadowing of thesame Holy Spirit, lest we seem to assert that there are two Fathers ofthe Son,

283 which is certainly impious to say.--In this marvelousconception with Wisdom building a house for herself, the Word was madeflesh and dwelt among us[John 1:14 ]. The Word itself, however, was notso converted and changed that He who willed to become man ceased to beGod; but the Word was made flesh in such a way that not only are theWord of God and the flesh of man present, but also the soul of arational man, and this whole is called God on account of God, and manon account of man. In this Son of God we believe there are two natures,one of divinity, the other of humanity, which the one person of Christso united in Himself that the divinity can never be separated from thehumanity, nor the humanity from the divinity. Christ, therefore, isperfect God and perfect man in the unity of one person; but it does notfollow, because we have asserted two natures in the Son, that there aretwo persons in Him, lest--which God forbid--a quaternity be predicatedof the Trinity. For God the Word has not received the person of man,but the nature, and to the eternal person of divinity He has united the

284 temporal substance of flesh.-Likewise we believe thatthe Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are of one substance, but wedo not say that the Virgin Mary gave birth to the unity of the Trinity,but only to the Son, who alone assumed our nature in the unity of Hisperson. Also, we must believe that the entire Trinity accomplished theIncarnation of the Son of God, because the works of the Trinity areinseparable. However, only the Sontook the form of a servant [cf. Phil.2:7 ] in the singleness of His person, not in the unity of His divinenature; in what is proper to the Son, not in what is common to theTrinity; and this form was adapted to Him for unity of person so thatthe Son of God and the Son of man is one Christ, that is, Christ inthese two natures exists in three substances; of the Word, which mustrefer to the essence of God alone, of the body, and of the soul, whichpertain to true man.

285 He has therefore, in Himself the twofold substance of Hisdivinity and our humanity. We understand, however, that by the factthat He proceeded from God the Father without beginning, He was bornonly, for He was neither made nor predestined; by the fact, however,that He was born of the Virgin Mary, we must believe that He was born,made, and predestined. Yet both births in Him are marvelous, because Hewas both begotten by the Father without a mother before all ages and inthe end of the ages He was born of a mother without a father; He who,however, according as He is God created Mary, according as He is manwas created from Mary; He is both father and son of His mother Mary.Likewise by the fact that He is God, He is equal to the Father; by thefact that He is man, He is less than the Father. Likewise we mustbelieve that He is both greater and less than Himself; for in the formof God even the Son Himself is greater than Himself on account of thehumanity He assumed, than which the divinity is greater; in the form,however, of a servant he is less than Himself, that is, in Hishumanity, which is recognized as less than His divinity. For, as byreason of the body which He assumed He is believed to be not only lessthan the Father but also less than Himself, so according to Hisdivinity He is coequal with the Father, and both He and the Father aregreater than man, which the person of the Son alone assumed. Likewiseto the question whether the Son could so be equal to and less than theHoly Spirit, as we believe that He is now equal to, now less than theFather, we reply: According to the form of God He is equal to theFather and to the Holy Spirit, according to the form of a servant, Heis less than both the Father and the Holy Spirit; because neither theHoly Spirit nor the Father, but only the person of the Son assumed abody, by which He is believed to be less than those two persons.Likewise we believe that this Son, inseparable from God the Father andthe Holy Spirit, is distinguished from them by His person, anddistinguished from other men by the nature He assumed [another version,from the manhood assumed]. Likewise with reference to man it is Hisperson that is preeminent; but with reference to the Father and theHoly Spirit it is the divine nature or substance. Yet we must believethat the Son was sent not only by the Father but also by the HolySpirit; because He himself said through the prophetAnd now the Lord hassent me and His Holy Spirit[Is. 48:16]. We believe also that He wassent by Himself, because we acknowledge that not only the will but alsothe works of the whole Trinity are inseparable. For, He who before allages was called the only begotten, in time became the first born; theonly begotten on account of the substance of the Godhead, the firstborn on account of the nature of the body which He assumed.

286 [The Redemption] In this form of assumed human nature we believeaccording to the truth of the Gospels that He was conceived withoutsin, born without sin, and died without sin, who alone for us becamesin [2 Cor. 5:21 ], that is, a sacrifice for our sin. And yet Heendured His passion without detriment to His divinity, for our sins,and condemned to death and to the cross, He accepted the true death ofthe body; also on the third day, restored by His own power, He arosefrom the grave.

287 In this example, therefore, of our Head we confess is accomplishedanother version: with true faith] the true resurrection of the body ofall the dead. Neither do we believe that we shall rise in an etherealOr any other body (as some madly say) but in that in which we live andexist and move. When this example of His holy resurrection wasfinished, our same Lord and Savior returned by ascending to Hispaternal home, which in His divinity He had never left. There sittingat the right hand of the Father, He awaits the end of time to be thejudge of all the living and the dead. Thence with the holy angels andmen He will come to judge, and to render to everyone the due of his ownreward, according as each oneliving in the bodyhas done good or evil[2Cor. 5:10]. We believe that the holy Catholic Church, purchased by theprice of His blood, will reign with Him for eternity. Established inher bosom we believe in and confess one baptism for the remission ofall sins. in this faith we both truly believe in the resurrection ofthe dead and we await the joys of the future life. We must pray and begfor this only, that when, the judgment finished and over, the Sonwillhand over the kingdom to God the Father[1 Cor. 15:24], that He mayrender us participators of His kingdom, so that through this faith inwhich we cling to Him, we may reign with Him without end.-Thisexposition is the pledge of our confession through which the teachingof all heretics is destroyed, through which the hearts of the faithfulare cleansed, through which also we ascend gloriously to God for alleternity. Amen.

DONUS 676-678

ST. AGATHO 678-681

ROMAN COUNCIL 680

The Hypostatic Union *

[From the dogmatic epistle of Agatho and the Roman

Synod "Omnium bonorum spes" to the Emperors *]

288 We acknowledge (indeed) that one and the same our Lord JesusChrist, the only begotten Son of God, from two and in two substancessubsists, unconfusedly without change, indivisibly, inseparably [seen.148], never the difference of natures destroyed on account of theunion, but rather the property of each nature preserved and concurringin one person and in one subsistence; not shared or divided in aduality of persons, nor fused into one composite nature; but weacknowledge, even after the subsistential union, one and the same onlybegotten Son, the Word God, our Lord Jesus Christ [see n. 148], neithereach in a different way, nor the one and the other, but the very samein two natures, that is, in the Godhead and in the humanity, becauseneither has the Word been changed into the nature of the flesh, nor hasthe flesh been transformed into the nature of the Word; for eachremains what by nature it was; indeed in contemplation alone do wediscern a difference of the united natures in that from whichunfusedly, inseparably, and incommutably it was composed; for one fromboth and each through one, because at the same time there arc presentboth the dignity of the Godhead and the humility of the flesh, eachnature, even after the union, preserving without defect its ownproperty, "and each form doing with the mutual participation of theother what it holds as its own (work); the Word doing what is of theWord, and the flesh accomplishing what is of the flesh, the one ofwhich shines forth in miracles, the other subnuts to injuries." * Thus,it follows that as we truly confess that He has two natures orsubstances, that is, the Godhead and the humanity, unfusedly,indivisibly, incommutably, so also He has both two natural wills andtwo natural operations, since the rule of piety instructs us thatperfect God and perfect man is one and the same Lord Jesus Christ [seen. 254-274], because it is shown that the apostolic and evangelicaltradition and the teaching of the holy Fathers, whom the holy,apostolic, and Catholic Church and the venerable Synods accept, havetaught us this.

COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE III 680-681

Ecumenical VI (against the Monothelites)

Definition of the Two Wills of Christ *

289 This present holy and universal Synod faithfully receiving andwillingly accepting such a suggestion which was made by the most holyand most blessed Agatho, Pope of ancient Rome, to Constantine, our verygood and most faithful ruler, which (decree) by name has excommunicatedthose who have taught or have preached, as has been said above, thatthere is one will and one operation in the dispensation of theIncarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ, our true God [see n. 288],likewise has accepted another Synodal decree, which was sent by theSacred Council which, under the same most holy Pope, is made up of onehundred and twenty-five bishops * pleasing to God, in accordance with atranquillity established by God, in so far as they are in agreementwith the holy Council of Chalcedon, and the [see n. 148] letter of thismost holy and most blessed Pope Leo of ancient Rome which was directedto holy Flavian [see n. 143], and which (letter) the Synod has called amonument of this kind of orthodox faith.

290 Besides both in Synodical letters which were written by blessedCyril against the impious Nestorius and to the oriental bishops,following also the five holy ecumenical councils and the holy andtrusted Fathers, and defining harmoniously with them it confesses thatour Lord Jesus Christ, our true God, one of the holy and consubstantialTrinity and giving forth the origin of life, perfect in Godhead and thesame perfect in humanity, truly God and truly man, Himself of arational soul and body; it confesses the same consubstantial with theFather according to Godhead, and consubstantial with us according tohumanity, through all things like to us except in sin [Heb. 4:15],before ages, indeed, begotten of the Father according to Godhead, inthe last days, however, the same for us and for our salvation of theHoly Spirit and of the Virgin Mary properly and truly the mother of Godaccording to humanity, one and the same Christ, the only begotten LordGod in two natures recognized unfusedly, unchangeably, inseparably,indivisibly, never the difference of these natures destroyed on accountof union, but rather the property of each nature saved and in oneperson and in one substance concurring, not into two persons portionedor divided but one and the same only be,(Totten Son of God the Word.our Lord Jesus Christ, just as formerly the prophets taught us aboutHim, and our Lord Jesus Christ Himself has taught us, and the creed ofthe holy Fathers has handed down to us [Conc. Chal., see n. 148].

291 And so we proclaim two natural wills in Him, and two naturaloperations indivisibly, inconvertibly, inseparably, unfusedly accordingto the doctrine of the holy Father, and two natural wills not contrary,God forbid, according as impious heretics have asserted, but the humanwill following and not resisting or hesitating, but rather evensubmitting to His divine and omnipotent will. For, it is necessary thatthe will of the flesh act, but that it be subject to the divine willaccording to the most wise Athanasius. * For, as His flesh is calledand is the flesh of the Word of God, soalso the natural will of Hisflesh is called and is the proper will of the Word of God as He Himselfsays: "Because I came down from heaven, not to do my own will but thewill of my Father who sent me) , [ cf.John 6:38], calling the will ofthe flesh His own. For the body became His own. For as His most holyand immaculate animated flesh deified has not been destroyed but in itsown status and plan remained, so also His human will deified has notbeen destroyed, but on the contrary it has been saved according to thetheologian Gregory who says: * "For to wish of that one an entiredeification, which is understood in the Savior, is not contrary toGod."

292 But we glorify two natural operations indivisibly, inconvertibly,unfusedly, inseparably in our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, our true God,that is, the divine operation and the human operation, according to Leothe divine preacher who very clearly asserts: "For each form does whatis proper to itself with the mutual participation of the other, thatis, the Word doing what is of the Word and the flesh accomplishing whatis of the flesh" [see n. 144]. For at no time shall we grant onenatural operation to God and to the creature, so that neither what wascreated, we raise into divine essence, nor what is especially of divinenature, we cast down to a place begetting creatures. For of one and thesame we recognize the miracles and the sufferings according to the oneand the other of these natures from which He is and in which He has tobe as the admirable Cyril says. Therefore we, maintaining completely anunconfused and undivided (opinion), In a brief statement set forth all:that we, believing that He is one of the Holy Trinity, our Lord JesusChrist our true God, and after the incarnation assert that His twonatures radiate in His one substance, in which His miracles and Hissufferings through all His ordained life, not through phantasy buttruly He has shown, on account of the natural difference which isrecognized in the same single substance, while with the mutualparticipation of the other, each nature indivisibly and withoutconfusion willed and performed its own works; according to this plan weconfess two natural wills and operations concurring mutually in Him forthe salvation of the human race.

293 These things, therefore, having been determined by us with allcaution and diligence, we declare that no one is permitted tointroduce, or to describe, or to compare, or to study, or otherwise toteach another faith. But whoever presumes to compare or to introduce orto teach or to pass on another creed to those wishing to turn from thebelief of the Gentiles or of the Jews or from any heresy whatsoever tothe acknowledgement of truth, or who (presumes) to introduce a noveldoctrine or an invention of discourse to the subversion of those thingswhich now have been determined by us, (we declare) these, whether theyare bishops or clerics, to be excommunicated, bishops indeed from thebishopric, but priests from the priesthood; but if they are monks orlaymen, to be anathematized.

ST. LEO II 682-683 * JOHN V 685-686

ST. BENEDICT II 684-685 CONON 686-687

(ST. SERGIUS I 687-701)

COUNCIL OF TOLEDO XV 685

Protestation concerning the Trinity and the Incarnation *

[From "Liber responsionis" or the "Apologia" of Julian,

Archbishop of Toledo]

294 . . . We have found that in that book of response to our faith,which we had sent to the Roman Church through Peter the regent, it hadseemed to the Pope already mentioned (Benedict) that we had carelesslywritten that first chapter where we said according to divine essence:"Will begot will, as also wisdom, wisdom," because that man in ahurried reading thought that we had used these very names according toa relative sense, or according to a comparison of the human mind; andso in his reply he commanded us to give warning saying: "In the naturalorder we recognize that the word takes its origin from the mind, justas reason and will, and they cannot be changed, so that it may be saidthat, as the word and the will proceed from the mind, so also the mindfrom the word or the will, and from this comparison it seemed to theRoman Pontiff that the will cannot be said to be from the will." We,however, not according to this comparison of the human mind, noraccording to a relative sense, but according to essence have said: Willfrom will, as also wisdom from wisdom. For this being is to God aswilling: this willing as understanding. But this we cannot sayconcerning man. For it is one thing for man not to will that which is,and another thing to will even without understanding. In God, however,it is not so, because so perfect is His nature, that this being is toHim as willing, as understanding. . . .

295 Passing also to a re-examination of the second chapter in which thesame Pope thought that we had uncautiously said that three substancesare professed in Christ, the Son of God, as we will not be ashamed todefend the things that are true, so perchance others will be ashamed tobe ignorant of the things that are true. For who does not know thatevery man consists of two substances, namely of the soul and of thebody? . . . Therefore when the divine nature has been joined to thehuman nature, they can be called both three personal and two personalsubstances. . . .

COUNCIL OF TOLEDO XVI 693

Profession of Faith concerning the Trinity *

296 Let the designation of this "holy will"-although through acomparative similitude of the Trinity, where it is called memory,intelligence, and will-refer to the person of the Holy Spirit;according to this, however, what applies to itself, is predicatedsubstantially. For the will is the Father, the will is the Son, thewill is the Holy Spirit; just as God is the Father, God is the Son, Godis the Holy Spirit and many other similar things, which according tosubstance those who live as protectors of the Catholic faith do not forany reason hesitate to say. And just as it is Catholic to say: God fromGod, light from light, life from life, so it is a proved assertion oftrue faith to say the will from the will; just as wisdom from wisdom,essence from essence, and as God the Father begot God the Son, so theWill, the Father, begot the Son, the Will. Thus, although according toessence the Father is will, the Son is will and the Holy Spirit iswill, we must not however believe that there is unity according to arelative sense, since one is the Father who refers to the Son, anotherthe Son, who refers to the Father, another the Holy Spirit who, becauseHe proceeds from the Father and the Son, refers to the Father and theSon; not the same but one in one way, one in another, because to whomthere is one being in the nature of deity, to these there is a specialproperty in the distinction of persons.

John VI 701-705 Sisinnius 708

John VII 705-707 Constantine I 708-715

ST. GREGORY II 715-731

The Form and Minister of Baptism *

[From the epistle "Desiderabilem mihi" to St. Boniface, Nov. 22, 726]

296a You have said that some without the profession of the Creed werebaptized by adulterous and unworthy priests. In these cases may yourlove hold to the ancient custom of the Church: that, whoever has beenbaptized in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the HolySpirit, may in no case be rebaptized; for not in the name of the onebaptizing, but in the name of the Trinity has one received the gift ofthis grace. And let that which the Apostle says be observed: One God,one faith, one baptism [Eph. 4:51. But we recommend that to such youteach more zealously the spiritual doctrine.

ST. GREGORY III 73I-741

Baptism and Confirmation *

[From the epistle "Doctoris omnium" to St. Boniface, Oct. 29, 739]

296b However, because they were baptized in the name of the Trinity, itis necessary that those indeed who were baptized through a diversityand a variation of the relationship of languages, be strengthenedthrough the hands of imposition [another version: imposition] and ofthe holy chrism.

ST. ZACHARY 74I-752

The Form and Minister of Baptism *

[From the epistle "Virgilius et Sedonius" to St. Boniface, July I, 746 (?)]

297 For they have reported that there was a priest in that province,who was so completely ignorant of the Latin language that when he wasbaptizing, because of his ignorance of the Latin speech, breaking upthe language, said: "Baptizo te in nomine Patria et Filia et SpiritusSancti." And on account of this your honored brotherhood has consideredrebaptizing. But . . . if that one who baptized, not introducing anerror or a heresy, but through mere ignorance of the Roman speech bybreaking up the language, baptizing he said, as we mentioned above, wedo not agree that they should be baptized a second time.

[From the epistle (10 resp. 11) "Sacris liminibus" to

St. Boniface, May 1, 748 (?)]

297a In that (synod of the Angles) it is distinctly recognized thatsuch a decree and judgment is very firmly commanded and diligentlydemonstrated, so that whoever had been washed without the invocation ofthe Trinity, he has not been perfected, unless he shall have beenbaptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the HolySpirit.

(STEPHEN II 752) ST. PAUL I 757-767

ST. STEPHEN III 752-757 * STEPHEN IV 768-772

HADRIAN I 772-795

The Primacy of the Roman Pontiff *

[From the epistle "Pastoralibus Curis" to the Patriarch

Tarasius in the year 785]

298 . . . Let that false assembly, which without the Apostolic See . .. was held contrary to the traditions of the venerable fathers againstthe divine images, be declared anathema in the presence of ourdelegates, and let the word of our Lord Jesus Christ be fulfilled, that"the gates of hell shall not prevail against her" (Matt. 16:18); andagain: "Thou art Peter . . ." (Matt. 16:18-19), whose throne holdingthe first place in all the world shines forth and holds its place asthe head of the whole Church of God.

The Errors of the Adoptionists *

[From the epistle "Institutio universalis" to the bishops

of Spain, in the year 785]

299 . . . And then from your country a plaintive chapter came to usthat certain bishops living there, namely Eliphandus and Ascaricus withothers agreeing with them, do not blush to confess the Son of Godadopted, although no heretical leader, however great, has dared toutter such blasphemy, except that perfidious Nestorius who has declaredthat the Son of God is pure man . . . .

Predestination and the Various Abuses of the Spaniards*

[From the same epistle to the bishops of Spain]

300 As for that, however, which some of these say, thatpredestination to life or to death is in the power of God and not inours; they say: "Why do we try to live, because it is in the power ofGod?"; again others say: "Why do we ask God, that we may not beovercome by temptation, since it is in our power, as in the freedom ofwill?" For truly they are able to render or to accept no plan, beingignorant . . . [of the words] of blessed Fulgentius * [against acertain Pelagius]: "Therefore, God in the eternity of Hischangelessness has prepared works of mercy and justice . . . but formen who are to be justified He has prepared merits; He has preparedrewards for those who are to be glorified; but for the wicked He hasnot prepared evil wills or evil works, but He has prepared for themjust and eternal punishments. This is the eternal predestination of thefuture works of God, which as we have always acknowledged to be taughtto us by apostolic doctrine, so also faithfully we proclaim. . . ."

301 Dearly beloved ones, in regard to those diverse chapters,which we have heard from those parts, namely, that many saying thatthey are Catholics, living a life common with the Jews and nonbaptizedpagans, as in food so in drink or in diverse errors, say that they arenot being harmed; and that which has been practised, for although it isnot permitted for anyone to marry an infidel, they bless theirdaughters with one, and so they are entrusted to a pagan people; andthat without examination these aforesaid priests are ordained in orderthat they may preside; and also another great deadly error has grownstrong, that although the husband is living, these false priests choosewomen for themselves in marriage; and at the same time we have heardfrom these parts about the liberty of the will, and many other thingswhich are too numerous to mention . . . .

COUNCIL OF NICEA II 787

Ecumenical VII (against the Iconoclasts)

Definition of the Sacred Images and Tradition *

ACTION VII

302 (I. Definition) . . . We, continuing in the regal path, andfollowing the divinely inspired teaching of our Holy Fathers, and thetradition of the Catholic Church, for we know that this is of the HolySpirit who certainly dwells in it, define in all certitude anddiligence that as the figure of the honored and life-giving Cross, sothe venerable and holy images, the ones from tinted materials and frommarble as those from other material, must be suitably placed in theholy churches of God, both on sacred vessels and vestments, and on thewalls and on the altars, at home and on the streets, namely such imagesof our Lord Jesus Christ, God and Savior, and of our undefiled lady, orholy Mother of God, and of the honorable angels, and, at the same time,of all the saints and of holy men. For, how much more frequentlythrough the imaginal formation they are seen, so much more quickly arethose who contemplate these, raised to the memory and desire of theoriginals of these, to kiss and to render honorable adoration to them,not however, to grant true Iatria according to our faith, which isproper to divine nature alone; but just as to the figure of the reveredand life-giving Cross and to the holy gospels, and to the other sacredmonuments, let an oblation of incense and lights be made to give honorto these as was the pious custom with the ancients. "For the honor ofthe image passes to the original"; * and he who shows reverence to theimage, shows reverence to the substance of Him depicted in it.

303 (II. Proof) For thus the doctrine of our Holy Fathers, that is, thetradition of the Catholic Church which has received the Gospel from andeven to the end of the world is strengthened. Thus we follow Paul, whospoke in Christ [ 2 Cor. 2:17], and all the divine apostolic group andthe paternal sanctity keeping the traditions[ 2 Thess. 2:14] which wehave received. Thus prophetically we sing the triumphal hymns for theChurch:Rejoice exceedingly, O daughter of Zion, sing forth, O daughterof Jerusalem: be joyful and be happy with all your heart. The Lord hastaken from you the injustices of those adverse to you: He has redeemedyou from the power of your enemies. The Lord is king in your midst: Youwill not see more evils[ Wis. 3:14 f.: LXX]and peace to youunto timeeternal.

304 (III. Declaration) Those, therefore, who dare to think or to teachotherwise or to spurn according to wretched heretics the ecclesiasticaltraditions and to invent anything novel, or to reject anything fromthese things which have been consecrated by the Church: either theGospel or the figure of the Cross, or the imaginal picture, or thesacred relics of the martyr; or to invent perversely and cunningly forthe overthrow of anyone of the legitimate traditions of the CatholicChurch; or even, as it were, to use the sacred vessels or the venerablemonasteries as common things; if indeed they are bishops or clerics, weorder (them) to be deposed; monks, however, or laymen, to beexcommunicated.

The Sacred Elections *

ACTION VIII

305 Can. 3. Let every election of a bishop or of a presbyter or of adeacon made by the leaders remain invalid according to the canon(Apostolic Canon 30), which says: If any bishop, using secular powers,obtains a church by means of these, let him be deposed and let all besegregated who join with him. For, it is necessary that he who is goingto enter upon the office of bishop, be elected by bishops, as it hasbeen defined by the Holy Fathers who met at Nicea, in the canon (Canon4) which says: Indeed it is especially fitting that a bishop beordained by all the bishops who are in the province. If, however, thisis difficult either because of pressing necessity or because of thelength of the journey, nevertheless, in any case with three meetingtogether for this very thing, and the absent ones in agreement andjoining by letter, then the consecration may be held. The authority,however, over what is done in each province is granted to themetropolitan bishop.

Images, the Humanity of Christ, Tradition *

ACTION VIII

306 We admit that images should be venerated. Those of us who are not so minded we subject to anathema. . . .

307 If anyone does not confess that Christ, our Lord, has been described according to His humanity . . . let him be anathema.

308 If anyone rejects all ecclesiastical tradition either written or not written . . . let him be anathema.

The Errors of the Adoptionists*

[From the epistle of Hadrian "Si tamen licet" to the

bishops of Gaul and of Spain, 793]

309 On that occasion selections of perfidious words from a disorderedpen were read; among other things which must be rejected, was thematter arranged with false arguments giving rise, however, to perfidyconcerning the adoption of Jesus Christ, the Son of God according tothe flesh. This the Catholic Church has never believed, has nevertaught, has never given assent to those believing wickedly.

310 . . . O, you impious, and you who are ungrateful for so manybenefits, do you not fear to whisper with a poisonous mouth that He,our liberator, is an adopted Son, as it were, a mere man subject tohuman misfortune, and what is a disgrace to say, that He is a servant.. . . Why are you not afraid, O, querulous detractors, O, men odious toGod, to call Him servant, who has freed you from the servitude of thedevil? . . . For, although in the imperfect representation of theprophet He was called servant[cf. Job 1:8 ff.] because of the conditionof servile form which He assumed from the Virgin . . . we understandthat this was said both historically of holy Job and allegorically ofChrist.

COUNCIL OF FRANKFURT 794 *

Christ, the Natural, not the Adopted Son of God *

[From the synodical epistle of the bishops of France to the Spaniards]

311 . . . For in the beginning of your little book we have foundwritten what you have laid down: "We confess and we believe that God,the Son of God before all ages without beginning, was begotten from theFather, co-eternal and consubstantial, not by adoption but by birth."Likewise after a few words in the same place we read: "We confess andwe believe that He was made from a woman, made under the law[cf. Gal.4:4], that not by birth is He the Son of God but by adoption; not bynature but by grace." Behold the serpent hiding among the fruit bearingtrees of Paradise, that he may deceive every unwary one. . . .

312 That also which you, added in the following [cf.n. 295] wehave not found expressed in the profession of the Nicene Creed, that inChrist there are two natures and three substances [cf.n. 295] and "mandeified and God made human." What is the nature of man, but souland body? or what is the difference between nature and substance, thatit is necessary for us to say three substances, and not rather simply,as the Holy Fathers have said, that they confess our Lord Jesus Christtrue God and true man in one person? Certainly the person of the Sonremained in the Holy Trinity, to which person human nature was joinedso that it was one person, God and man, not man deified and God madehuman, but God man and man God, on account of the unity of the personone Son of God, and the same Son of man, perfect God, perfect man . . .Ecclesiastical custom is wont to name two substances in Christ, namelyof God and of man. . . .

313 If, therefore, He is true God, who was born of the Virgin,how then can He be adopted or a servant? For by no means do you dare toconfess God a servant or one adopted; and if the prophet called Himservant, it is not, however, from the condition of servitude, but fromthe obedience of humility, by which He was made obedientto theFatherevenunto death [Phil. 2:8].

[From "Capitulari"]

314 (I). . . In the beginning of the chapters there arose the questionconcerning the impious and abominable heresy of Elephandus, Bishop ofthe see of Toledo, and of Felix of Orgellitana, and of their followers,who, thinking wrongly, asserted adoption in the Son of God; the mostHoly Fathers, who previously rejected all these, have unanimouslyprotested against this and they have determined that this heresy mustbe thoroughly eradicated from the Holy Church.

ST. LEO III 795-816

COUNCIL OF FRIULI * 796

Christ, the Natural, not the Adopted * Son of God

[From the Symbol of Faith]

(Video) Desiigner - Panda (Official Music Video)

314a Neither was the human and temporal nativity absent from the divineand eternal nativity, but in one person of Christ Jesus true Son of Godand true Son of man. Not one Son of man and another of God . . . notthe supposed Son of God, but true; not adopted, but His own, becausenever was He alien from the Father because of the human nature which Heassumed. And so in each nature we confess that He is the true and notthe adopted Son of God, because unconfusedly and inseparably, manhaving been assumed, one and the same is the Son of God and the Son ofman. By nature Son to the mother according to humanity, however, trueSon to the Father in both natures. *

STEPHAN V 816-817 VALENTINE 827

ST. PASCHAL I 817-824 GREGORY IV 828-844

EUGENIUS II 824-827 SERGIUS II 844-847

ST. LEO IV 847-855

COUNCIL OF TICINUS * 850

The Sacrament of Extreme Unction *

315 (8) That saving sacrament also which James the Apostle commendssaying: If anyone is sick . . .it will be remitted him [ Jas. 5:14],must be made known to the people by skillful teaching; a truly greatmystery and one exceedingly to be sought, through which, if thefaithful ask, and their sins are forgiven, it may even follow thathealth of body is restored. . . . This, however, must be known, that,if he who is sick has not been freed from public penance, he cannotreceive the remedy of this mystery, unless first by the prescribedreconciliation he has merited the communion of the body and blood ofChrist. He to whom the other sacraments have been restricted, is by nomeans permitted to use this one.

COUNCIL OF QUIERSY * 853

(Against Gottschalk and the Predestinarians)

Redemption and Grace *

316 Chap. 1. Omnipotent God created man noble without sin with a freewill, and he whom He wished to remain in the sanctity of justice, Heplaced in Paradise. Man using his free will badly sinned and fell, andbecame the "mass of perdition" of the entire human race. The just andgood God, however, chose from this same mass of perdition according toHis foreknowledge those whom through grace He predestined to life [Rom. 8:29 ff.; Eph. 1:11], and He predestined for these eternal life;the others, whom by the judgment of justice he left in the mass ofperdition,* however, He knew would perish, but He did not predestinethat they would perish, because He is just; however, He predestinedeternal punishment for them. And on account of this we speak of onlyone predestination of God, which pertains either to the gift of graceor to the retribution of justice.

317 Chap. 2. The freedom of will which we lost in the first man, wehave received back through Christ our Lord; and we have free will forgood, preceded and aided by grace, and we have free will for evil,abandoned by grace. Moreover, because freed by grace and by gracehealed from corruption, we have free will.

318 Chap. 3. Omnipotent God wishes all menwithout exception tobesaved[1 Tim. 2:4 ] although not all will be saved. However, thatcertain ones are saved, is the gift of the one who saves; that certainones perish, however, is the deserved punishment of those who perish.

319 Chap. 4. Christ Jesus our Lord, as no man who is or has been orever will be whose nature will not have been assumed in Him, so thereis, has been, or will be no man, for whom He has not suffered- althoughnot all will be saved by the mystery of His passion. But because allare not redeemed by the mystery of His passion, He does not regard thegreatness and the fullness of the price, but He regards the part of theunfaithful ones and those not believing in faith those things which Hehas worked th rough love[ Gal. 5:6], because the drink of human safety,which has been prepared by our infirmity and by divine strength, hasindeed in itself that it may be beneficial to all; but if it is notdrunk, it does not heal.

COUNCIL OF VALENCE * III 855

(Against John Scotus)

Predestination *

320 Can. 1. We have faithfully and obediently heard that Doctor of theGentiles warning in faith and in truth: "O Timothy, guard that whichhas been entrusted to you, avoiding the profane novelties of words, andoppositions under the false name of knowledge, which some promisingconcerning faith have destroyed" [2 Tim. 6:20 f.]; and again: "Shunprofane and useless talk; for they contribute much toward ungodliness,and their speech spreadest like an ulcer" [2 Tim. 2:16 f.]; and again:"Avoid foolish and unlearned questions, knowing that they begetstrifes; but the servant of the Lord must not quarrel" [2 Tim. 2:23 f.]and again: "Nothing through contention, nothing through vain glory"[Phil. 2:3]: desiring to be zealous for peace and charity, in so far asGod has given, attending the pious counsel of this same apostle:"Solicitous to preserve the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace"[Eph. 4:3], let us with all zeal avoid novel doctrines and presumptuoustalkativeness, whence rather the smoke of contention and of scandalbetween brothers can be stirred up, than any increase of the fear ofGod arise. Without hesitation, however, to the doctors piously andcorrectly discussing the word of truth, and to those very clearexpositors of Sacred Scripture, namely, Cyprian, Hilary, Ambrose,Jerome, Augustine, and others living tranquilly in Catholic piety, wereverently and obediently submit our hearing and our understanding, andto the best of our ability we embrace the things which they havewritten for our salvation. For concerning the foreknowledge of God, andpredestination, and other questions in which the minds of the brethrenare proved not a little scandalized, we believe that we must firmlyhold that only which we are happy to have drawn from the maternal wombof the Church.

321 Can. 2. We faithfully hold that "God foreknows and has foreknowneternally both the good deeds which good men will do, and the evilwhich evil men will do," because we have that word of Scripture whichsays: "Eternal God, who are the witness of all things hidden, who knewall things before they are" [ Dan. 13:42]; and it seems right to hold"that the good certainly have known that through His grace they wouldbe good, and that through the same grace they would receive eternalrewards; that the wicked have known that through their own malice theywould do evil deeds and that through His justice they would becondemned by eternal punishment";* so that according to the Psalmist:"Because power belongs to God and mercy to the Lord, so that He willrender to each man according to his works" [ Ps. 61:12 f.], and asapostolic doctrine holds: "To them indeed, who according to patience ingood works, seek glory and honor and incorruption, eternal life; but tothem that are contentious, and who obey not the truth, but give creditto iniquity, wrath and indignation, tribulation and anguish upon everysoul of man doing evil" [Rom. 2:7 ff.]. In the same sense, this sameone says elsewhere: "In the revelation of the Lord Jesus from heavenwith the angels of His power, in a flame of fire, giving vengeance tothem who do not know God, and who do not obey the gospel of our LordJesus Christ, who shall suffer eternal punishment in destruction . . .when He shall come to be glorified in His Saints, and to be madewonderful in all them who have believed [2 Thess. 1:7 ff.]. Certainlyneither (do we believe) that the foreknowledge of God has placed anecessity on any wicked man, so that he cannot be different, but whatthat one would be from his own will, as God, who knew all things beforethey are, He foreknew from His omnipotent and immutable Majesty."Neither do we believe that anyone is condemned by a previous judgmenton the part of God but by reason of his own iniquity." * "Nor (do webelieve) that the wicked thus perish because they were not able to begood; but because they were unwilling to be good, they have remained bytheir own vice in the mass of damnation either by reason of originalsin or even by actual sin." *

322 Can. 3. But also it has seemed right concerningpredestination and truly it is right according to the apostolicauthority which says: "Or has not the potter power over the clay, fromthe same lump, to make one vessel unto honor, but another untodishonor?" [Rom. 9:21] where also he immediately adds: "What if Godwilling to show His wrath and to make known His power, endured withmuch patience vessels of wrath fitted or prepared for destruction, sothat He might show the riches of His grace on the vessels of mercy,which He has prepared unto glory" [Rom. 9:22 f.]: faithfully we confessthe predestination of the elect to life, and the predestination of theimpious to death; in the election, moreover, of those who are to besaved, the mercy of God precedes the merited good. In the condemnation,however, of those who are to be lost, the evil which they have deservedprecedes the just judgment of God. In predestination, however, (webelieve) that God has determined only those things which He Himselfeither in His gratuitous mercy or in His just judgment would do *according to Scripture which says: "Who has done the things which areto be done" [ Is. 4 5:11, LXX]; in regard to evil men, however, webelieve that God foreknew their malice, because it is from them, butthat He did not predestine it, because it is not from Him. (We believe)that God, who sees all things, foreknew and predestined that their evildeserved the punishment which followed, because He is just, in whom, asSaint Augustine* says, there is concerning all things everywhere sofixed a decree as a certain predestination. To this indeed he appliesthe saying of Wisdom: "Judgments are prepared for scorners, andstriking hammers for the bodies of fools" [Prov. 19:29]. Concerningthis unchangeableness of the foreknowledge of the predestination ofGod, through which in Him future things have already taken place, evenin Ecclesiastes the saying is well understood: "I know that all theworks which God has made continue forever. We cannot add anything, nortake away those things which God has made that He may be feared" [Eccles. 3:14]. "But we do not only not believe the saying that somehave been predestined to evil by divine power," namely as if they couldnot be different, "but even if there are those who wish to believe suchmalice, with all detestation," as the Synod of Orange, "we say anathemato them" [see n. 200].

323 Can. 4. Likewise concerning the redemption of the blood of Christ,because of the great error which has arisen from this cause, so thatsome, as their writings indicate, declare that it has been shed evenfor those impious ones who from the beginning of the world even up tothe passion of our Lord, have died in their wickedness and have beenpunished by eternal damnation, contrary to that prophet: "O death, Iwill be Thy death, O hell, I will be thy bite" [ Hosea 13:14]; it seemsright that we should simply and faithfully hold and teach according tothe evangelical and apostolic truth, because we hold this price to havebeen paid for those concerning whom our Lord Himself says: "As Moseslifted up the serpent in the desert, so it is necessary that the Son ofman be lifted up, that all, who believe in Him, may not perish, but mayhave eternal life. For God so loved the world that He gave His onlybegotten Son: that all, who believe in Him, may not perish but may haveeternal life" [John 3:14 ff.], and the Apostle: "Christ," he said,"once has been offered to exhaust the sins of many" [Heb. 9:28].Furthermore, although they are becoming widely spread, we completelyremove from the pious hearing of the faithful the chapters (four, whichby the council of our brothers have been unwisely accepted, because ofthe uselessness or even the harmfulness, and the error contrary totruth, and other reasons) absurdly concluded with nineteen syllogisms,and not outstanding in learning, in which the machination of the devilrather than any tenet of faith is found, and that such and similarthings may be avoided through all (chapters), we by the authority ofthe Holy Spirit forbid (them); we believe also that those who introducethese novel doctrines must be punished lest they become too harmful.

324 Can. 5. Likewise we believe that we must hold most firmlythat all the multitude of the faithful, regenerated "from the water andthe Holy Spirit" [John 3:5 ], and through this truly incorporated inthe Church, and according to the apostolic doctrine baptized in thedeath of Christ[Rom. 6:3], in His blood has been absolved from itssins; that neither for these could there have been true regenerationunless there were true redemption; since in the sacraments of theChurch there is nothing false, nothing theatrical, but certainlyeverything true, dependent upon truth itself and sincerity. Moreover,from this very multitude of the faithful and the redeemed some arepreserved in eternal salvation, because through the grace of God theyremain faithfully in their redemption, bearing in their hearts thevoice of their God Himself: "Who . . . perseveres even unto the end, hewill be saved" [Matt. 10:22 ; 24:13]; that others, because they wereunwilling to remain in the safety of faith, which in the beginning theyreceived, and because they choose by wrong teaching or by a wrong lifeto make void rather than to preserve the grace of redemption, came inno way to the fullness of salvation and to the reception of eternalbeatitude. in both certainly we have the doctrine of the holy Doctor:"We who are baptized in Christ Jesus, are baptized in His death" [Rom.6 :3], and: "All you who are baptized in Christ have put on Christ"[Gal. 3:27 ], and again: "Let us approach with a true heart in fullnessof faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and ourbodies washed with clean water let us hold unwavering the confession ofour hope" [ Heb. 10:22], and again: "For to us sinning willfully afterthe accepted knowledge of the truth, there is now left no sacrifice forsins" [Heb. 10:26], and again: "He who making void the law of Moses,dies without mercy with two or three witnesses. How much more do youthink he deserves worse punishments, who has crushed under foot the sonof God, and has considered the blood of the testament unclean, by whichhe was sanctified, and has offered insult to the Spirit of grace?" [Heb. 10:28].

325 Can. 6. Likewise concerning grace, through which those who believeare saved, and without which never has a rational creature livedhappily, and concerning free will weakened through sin in our firstparents, but reintegrated and healed through the grace of our LordJesus for His faithful, we most constant and in complete faith confessthe same, which the most Holy Fathers by the authority of the SacredScriptures have left for us to hold, which the Synod of Africa and theSynod of Orange [n. 174 ff.] have professed, which the most blessedPontiffs of the Apostolic See in the Catholic faith have held; but alsoconcerning nature and grace, we presume in no manner to change toanother way. We thoroughly refute, however, the foolish questions,andthe utterlyold wives' tales,the porridge of the Scoti bearing nausea tothe purity of faith, which in these most dangerous and grave times, tothe summit of cur labors even up to the dividing of charity wretchedlyand tearfully have arisen, lest Christian minds henceforthbe corruptedand cut offeven from the purity of faith,which is in Christ [ 2 Cor.11:3 ] Jesus,and we warn by the love of our Lord Christ that brotherlycharity, by being on its guard, protects the hearing from such things.Let the brotherhood recall that it is hard pressed by the very graveevils of the world, by the excessive harvest of iniquity, and that itis most cruelly suffocated by the chaff of light men. Let it have zealto conquer these things; let it labor to correct these things; and letit not burden the assembly with the inanities of those who grieve andweep piously, but rather in certain and true faith, let that beembraced which has been sufficiently determined by the Holy Fathersconcerning these and similar things.

BENEDICT III 855-858

ST. NICHOLAS I 858-867

ROMAN COUNCIL 860 AND 863

Primacy, the Passion of Christ, Baptism *

326 Chap. 5. If anyone condemns dogmas, mandates, interdicts, sanctionsor decrees, promulgated by the one presiding in the Apostolic See, forthe Catholic faith, for the correction of the faithful, for theemendation of criminals, either by an interdict of threatening or offuture ills, let him be anathema. *

327 Chap. 7. Truly indeed we must believe and in every way profess thatour Lord Jesus Christ, God arid Son of God, suffered the passion of theCross only according to the flesh; in the Godhead however, he remainedimpassible, as the apostolic authority teaches and the doctrine of theHoly Fathers most clearly shows.

328 Chap. 8. Let these however be anathema, who say that our RedeemerJesus Christ and Son of God sustained the passion of the Crossaccording to His Godhead, since it is impious and detestable toCatholic minds.

329 Chap. 9. For all those who say that these who believing in the mostholy font of baptism are reborn in the Father, in the Son, and in theHoly Spirit, are not equally cleansed from original sin, let it beanathema.

The Immunity and Independence of the Church *

[From epistle (8) "Proposueramus quidem" to

Michael the Emperor, 865]

330 . . . Neither by Augustus, nor by all the clergy, nor by religious,nor by the people will the judge be judged * . . . The first seat willnot be judged by anyone" * [see n. 352 ff.]

331 . . . . Where have you ever read that your former rulers werepresent in synodal meetings, unless perchance in those in which(matters) concerning faith were discussed, which is universal, which iscommon to all, which pertains not only to the clergy but even to thelaity and certainly to all Christians? . . . The greater the complaintwhich is brought to the judgment of a more powerful authority, so muchthe higher authority must be sought, until gradually it comes to thisSee, whose cause either from itself, as the merits of the mattersdemand, is changed for the better or is left without question to thewill of God alone.

332 Furthermore if you have not heard us, it remains for you to be withus of necessity, such as our Lord Jesus Christ has commanded those tobe considered, who disdained to hear the Church of God, especiallysince the privileges of the Roman Church, built on Blessed Peter by theword of Christ, deposited in the Church herself, observed in ancienttimes and celebrated by the sacred universal Synods, and veneratedjointly by the entire Church, can by no means be diminished, by nomeans infringed upon, by no means changed; for the foundation which Godhas established, no human effort has the power to destroy and what Godhas determined, remains firm and strong. . . . Thus the privilegesgranted to this holy Church by Christ, not given by the Synod, but nowonly celebrated and venerated. . . .

333 Since, according to the canons, where there is a greater authority,the judgment of the inferiors must be brought to it to be annulled, orto be substantiated, certainly it is evident that the judgment of theApostolic See, of whose authority there is none greater, is to berefused by no one. If indeed they wish the canon to be appealed to anypart of the world; from it, however, no one may be permitted* toappeal. . . . We do not deny that the opinion of this See can bechanged for the better, when either something shall have beenstealthily snatched from it, or by the very consideration of age ortime, or by a dispensation of grave necessity, it shall have decided toregulate something. We beseech you, however, never question thejudgment of the Church of God; that indeed bears no prejudgment on yourpower, since it begs eternal divinity for its own stability, and itbeseeches in constant prayer for your well being and eternal salvation.Do not usurp the things that belong to it; do not wish to snatch awaythat which has been intrusted to it alone, knowing that without doubtevery administrator of mundane affairs ought to be removed from sacredaffairs, just as it is proper that no one from the group of clergy andthose militant for God be implicated in any secular affairs. Finally,we are completely without knowledge of how those to whom it has beenintrusted only to be in charge of human affairs presume to judgeconcerning those through whom divine affairs are ministered. Thesethings existed before the coming of Christ, so that some figurativelylived at one and the same time as kings and priests; this, sacredhistory shows how holy Melchisedech was, and this the devil imitated inhis members, since he always hastens to assume for himself in atyrannical spirit the things which are becoming to the divine culture,so that these pagan emperors were also called supreme pontiffs. Butwhen it came to the same true king and pontiff, neither has He, theemperor, voluntarily taken to himself the rights of the pontiff, nor aspontiff has He usurped the name of the emperor. Since the same"mediator of God and man, the man Christ Jesus" [ 1 Tim. 2:5] by Hisown acts and distinct dignities, has so decreed the duties of eachpower, wishing His own to be lifted up by His salutary humility, not tobe submerged again by human pride, so that Christian rulers for eternallife may need pontiffs, and that pontiffs may use imperial laws onlyfor the course of temporal affairs; because spiritual action differsfrom carnal efforts.

The Form of Matrimony *

[From the responses of Nicholas to the decrees of the Bulgars, Nov., 866]

334 Chap. 3 . . . According to the laws, let the consent alone of thosesuffice concerning whose union there is question; and if by chance thisconsent alone be lacking in the marriage, all other things, even whensolemnized with intercourse itself, are in vain.

The Form and Minister of Baptism *

[From the responses to the decrees of the Bulgars, Nov., 866]

334a Chap. 15. You ask whether those persons who received baptism fromthat man [who imagines himself a priest] are Christians or ought to bebaptized again. If they have been baptized in the name of the highestand indivisible Trinity, they certainly are Christians; and it is notproper that they be baptized again, by whatever Christian they havebeen baptized. . . . An evil person by ministering blessings brings anaccumulation of harm not upon others but upon himself, and by this itis certain that no portion of injury touched those whom that Greekbaptized, because: "He it is that baptizeth" [ John 1:33], that isChrist, and again: "God . . . giveth the increase" [1 Cor 3:7] isheard; and not man.

335 Chap. 104. You assert that in your fatherland many have beenbaptized by a certain Jew, you do not know whether Christian or pagan,and you consult us as to what should be done about them. If indeed theyhave been baptized in the name of the Holy Trinity or only in the nameof Christ, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles [cf.Acts 2:38;19:5],(surely it is one and the same, as Saint Ambrose * sets forth) it isestablished that they should not be baptized again.

HADRIAN II 867-872

COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE IV 869-870

Ecumenical VIII (against Photius)

Canons against Photius *

In actio I the rule of faith of Hormisdas is read and

subscribed [see n. 171 f.]

336 (Text of Anastasius:) Canon I--We, wishing to advance withoutoffense through the just and regal way of divine justice, ought toretain the definitions and opinions of the Holy Fathers who liveaccording to God as lamps always burning and illuminating our steps.Therefore, judging and believing these as favorable words according tothe great and very wise Dienysius, * likewise regarding these with thedivine David we most readily sing: "The Command of the Lord is a lightillumining our eyes" [Ps. 18:9], and, "Thy light [law] is a lamp to myfeet and a light to my ways" [Ps. 118:105], and with the writer ofProverbs we say: "Thy command is a light and Thy law is a light" [Prov.6:23]; and with a loud voice with Isaias we cry to the Lord God: "Thyprecepts are a light upon the earth" [Is. 26:9: LXX]. For to the lighttruly have been assimilated the exhortations and dissuasions of thedivine canons, according as that which is better is discerned from thatwhich is worse, and the expedient and profitable from that which isrecognized as not expedient but even harmful. Therefore we profess tokeep and guard the rules, which have been handed down for the holy,Catholic and Apostolic Church by the holy, noted apostles as well as bythe universal and also the local Councils of the orthodox or even byany Father or teacher of the Church speaking the word of God; guidingby these both our own life and morals and also the whole group ofpriests, but also all those who are known by the name Christian,resolving to submit canonically to these punishments and condemnationsand on the other hand, to the receptions and justifications whichthrough these have been brought forth and defined; Paul, the greatapostle, openly gave warning to hold indeed the traditions which wehave received either through the word or through the epistle[ 2 Thess.2:14] of the Saints who have previously been distinguished.

336 We, wishing to advance without offense through the just and royalway of divine justice, ought to control the definitions of the HolyFathers as lamps always burning. Therefore, we confess to keep andguard the rules which have been handed down in the Catholic andApostolic Church by the holy and noted Apostles and by the universaland local orthodox synods or by any Father, teacher of the Church,speaking the word of God. For the great Apostle Paul expressly exhortedusto hold the traditionswhich we have received either through word orepistles of the Saints who have been distinguished before.

337 Can. 3. We decree that the sacred image of our Lord JesusChrist, the Liberator and Savior of all, be adored in equal honor withthe book of the holy Gospels. For, as through the eloquence of thesyllables which are in the book, we should all attain salvation, sothrough the imaginal energies of colors both all the wise and theunwise from that which is manifest enjoy usefulness; for the thingswhich are the sermon in syllables, these things also the writing whichis in colors, teaches and commands; and it is fitting, that accordingto the suitableness of reason and very ancient tradition on account ofhonor, because they refer to the very principal things, it followslikewise that the images will be honored and adored equally as thesacred book of the holy Gospels and the figure of the precious Cross.If, therefore anyone does not adore the image of Christ the Savior, lethim not see His form when He will comein paternal glory to be glorifiedand to glorify His saints[2 Thess. 1:10]; but let him be separated fromHis communion and glory; likewise, however, also the image of Mary, Hisundefiled Mother, and Mother of God; moreover, we also represent theimages of the holy Angels, just as Divine Scripture shows them inwords; and also of the Apostles most worthy of praise, of the Prophets,of the Martyrs and of holy men; at the same time also of all the saintswe both honor and venerate. And whoever does not hold thus, let him beanathema from the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

337 We adore the sacred image of our Lord Jesus Christ in like honorwith the book of the Holy Gospels. For as through the syllables carriedin it, we all attain salvation, so through the imaginal energies of thecolors both all the wise and the unwise from that which is manifestenjoy usefulness; for the things which are the sermon in syllables,those things also the writing which is in colors teaches and commands.If, therefore, anyone does not adore the image of Christ the Savior,let him not see His form in the second coming. And we likewise honorand adore the image of His undefiled Mother and the images of the holyangels, just as Divine Scripture characterizes them in words. And letthose who do not hold thus be anathema.

338 Can. 11. Although the Old and the New Testaments teach that man hasone rational and intellectual soul, and all the Fathers speaking theword of God and all the teachers of the Church declare the sameopinion, certain persons giving attention to the inventors of evil,have reached such a degree of impiety that they impudently declare thatman has two souls, and by certain irrational attempts "through wisdomwhich has been made foolish" [1 Cor. 1:20], they try to strengthentheir own heresy. Hastening to root out as the very worst cockle thiswicked opinion currently germinating, and furthermore carrying "thefirebrand in the hand of Truth" [ Matt. 3:12; 3:17], and wishing totransmit with the unquenchable fire all the chaff and "to show forththe cleansed threshing floor of Christ" [ Matt. 3:12 ; Luke 3:17] thisholy and universal Synod with a loud voice declares anathema allinventors and perpetrators of such impiety and those believing thingssimilar to these, and it defines and promulgates that no one have orkeep in any way the statutes of the authors of this impiety. If,however, anyone should presume to act contrary to this holy and greatSynod, let him be anathema, and let him be separated from the faith andworship of Christians.

338 Although the Old and New Testaments teach that man has one rationaland intellectual soul, and all the Fathers and teachers of the Churchteach the same opinion, there are some who think that he has two souls,and by certain irrational attempts they strengthen their own heresy.Therefore, this holy and ecumenical synod loudly anathematizes theoriginators of such impiety and those who agree with them; and ifanyone shall dare to speak contrary to the rest, let him be anathema.

339 Can. 12. In accord with the apostolic and synodical canonsforbidding promotions and consecrations of bishops made by the powerand precept of princes, we define and offer the opinion also that, ifany bishop through the craftiness or tyranny of princes should accept aconsecration of such dignity, let him by all means be deposed, since hewished or agreed to possess the house of God not from the will of Godboth by ecclesiastical rite and decree, but from a desire of carnalsense, from men and through men.

340 From Can. 17. . . . Moreover, we cast aside from ourears as something poisonous what is said by certain ignorant men,namely, that it is not possible to hold a synod without the presence ofthe civil ruler, since never did the sacred canons order secularleaders to meet in councils, but only bishops. Thus neither do we findthat they were present in the synods, ecumenical councils excepted; forneither is it right that secular rulers be spectators of things whichsometimes happen to the priests of God.

340 (12) There came to our ears the statement that a synod cannot beheld without the presence of the civil ruler. But nowhere do the sacredcanons order secular leaders to come together in synods, but onlybishops. Thus we do not find that their presence was effected exceptfor ecumenical synods. For it is not right that secular rulers bespectators of the things that happen to the priests of God.

341 Can. 21. We, believing that the word of the Lord whichChrist spoke to His Apostles and disciples: "Who receives you, receivesMe" [ Matt. 10:40 ]: "and who spurns you, spurns me" [ Luke 10:16], wassaid to all, even to those who after them according to them have beenmade Supreme Pontiffs and chiefs of the pastors, declare thatabsolutely no one of the powerful of this world may try to dishonor ormove from his throne anyone of those who are in command of thepatriarchial sees, but that they judge them worthy of all reverence andhonor; especially indeed the most holy Pope of senior Rome; next thePatriarch of Constantinople; then certainly of Alexandria and ofAntioch and of Jerusalem; but that no one compose or prepare anywritings and words against the most holy Pope of older Rome under thepretext, as it were, of some evil crimes, a thing which both Photiusdid recently, and Dioscorus long ago.

Whoever, moreover, shall use such boasting and boldness thatfollowing Photius or Dioscorus, in writings or without writings he mayarouse certain injuries against the See of Peter, the chief of theApostles, let him receive the equal and same condemnation as those. Butif anyone enjoying some secular power or being influential should tryto depose the above mentioned Pope of the Apostolic Chair or any of theother Patriarchs, let him be anathema. But if the universal Synod shallhave met, and there will have arisen even concerning the holy church ofthe Romans any doubt or controversy whatever, it is necessary withveneration and with fitting reverence to investigate and to accept asolution concerning the proposed question, either to offer to haveoffered but not boldly to declare an opinion contrary to the SupremePontiffs of senior Rome.

(13) If anyone should employ such daring as, like Photius andDioscorus, in writings or without writings, to rouse certain inquiriesagainst the See of Peter, the chief of the Apostles, let him receivethe same condemnation as those; but if, when the ecumenical synod hasmet, any doubt arises even about the church of the Romans, it ispossible to make an investigation reverently and with fitting respectconcerning the question at hand, and to accept the solution either tobe assisted or to assist, but not boldly to deliver (an opinion)contrary to the Supreme Pontiffs of senior Rome.

JOHN VIII 872-882 JOHN X 914-928

MARINUS I 882-884 LEO VI 928

ST. HADRIAN III 884-885 STEPHAN VIII 929-931

STEPHAN VI 885-891 JOHN XI 931-935

FORMOSUS 891-896 LEO VII 936-939

BONIFACE VI, 896 STEPHAN IX 939-942

STEPHAN VII 896-897 MARINUS II 942-946

ROMANUS 897 AGAPETUS II 946-955

THEODORE II 897 JOHN XII 955-963

JOHN IX 898-900 LEO VIII 963-964

BENEDICT IV 900-903 BENEDICT V 964 (966)

LEO V 903 JOHN XIII 965-972

SERGIUS III 904-911 BENEDICT VI 973-974

ANASTASIUS III 911-913 BENEDICT VII 974-983

LANDO 913-914 JOHN XIV 983-984

JOHN XV 985-996

ROMAN COUNCIL 993

(For the Canonization of St. Udalrich)

The Worship of the Saints *

342 . . . By common agreement we have decreed that we should veneratethe memory of that one, namely, St. Udalrich the bishop, with all piousaffection and most faithful devotion, since we so venerated and worshipthe relics of the martyrs and confessors that Him whose martyrs andconfessors they are, we may adore; we honor the servants that honor mayredound to the Lord, who said: "Who receives you, receives me" [Matt.10:40]; and thus we who do not have the pledge of our justice, by theirprayers and merits may be helped jointly before the most clement God,because the salutary divine precepts both of the holy Canons and of thevenerable Fathers effaciously taught that by the attentive study of allthe churches, and by the effort of apostolic guidance, the documentsaccomplish a degree of usefulness and an integrity of strength; just asthe memory of the already mentioned venerable Bishop Udalrich dedicatedto divine worship exists and is always advantageous in most devoutlygiving praise to God.

GREGORY V 996-999 JOHN XIX 1024-1032

SYLVESTER II 999-1003 BENEDICT IX 1032-1044

JOHN XVII 1003 SYLVESTER III 1045

JOHN XVIII 1004-1009 GREGORY VI 1045-1046

SERGIUS IV 1009-1012 CLEMENT II 1046-1047

BENEDICT VIII 1012-1024 DAMASUS II 1048

ST. LEO IX 1049-1054

Symbol of Faith *

[From the epistle "Congratulamur vehementer" to Peter,

Bishop of Antioch, April 13, 1053]

343 For I firmly believe that the Holy Trinity, the Father and the Sonand the Holy Spirit, is one omnipotent God, and in the Trinity thewhole Godhead is co-essential and consubstantial, co-eternal andco-omnipotent, and of one will, power, and majesty; the creator of allcreation, from whom all things, through whom all things, in whom allthings [Rom. 11:36] which are in heaven or on earth, visible orinvisible. Likewise I believe that each person in the Holy Trinity isthe one true God, complete and perfect.

344 I believe also that the Son of God the Father, the Word of God, wasborn eternally before all time from the Father, consubstantial,co-omnipotent, and co-equal to the Father through all things indivinity; born of the Holy Spirit from the ever virgin Mary in time,with a rational soul, having two nativities, the one from the Father,eternal, the other from the Mother, in time; having two wills andoperations, true God and true man, individual in each nature andperfect, not having suffered a fusion and division, not adopted orphantastical, the one and only God, the Son of God in two natures, butin the singleness of one person, incapable of suffering and immortal indivinity; but in humanity for us and for our salvation suffered in thetrue passion of the body and was buried, and arose from the dead on thethird day in the true resurrection of the body; because of which wemust declare with the disciples that He ate from no need of food butonly from will and power; on the fortieth day after His resurrectionwith the flesh in which He arose, and with His soul He ascended intoheaven and sits at the right hand of the Father, whence on the tenthday He sent the Holy Spirit, and thence, as He ascended, He will cometo judge the living and the dead, and will render to each one accordingto his works.

345 I believe also that the Holy Spirit, complete and perfect and trueGod, proceeding from the Father and the Son, co-equal, co-essential,co-omnipotent and co-eternal with the Father and the Son in allrespects, has spoken through the prophets.

346 That this holy and individual Trinity is not three Gods, but inthree persons and in one nature or essence [is] one God omnipotent,external, invisible and incommutable, so I believe and confess, so thatI may truly proclaim that the Father is not begotten, the Son is theonly begotten one, and the Holy Spirit is neither begotten norunbegotten, but proceeds from the Father and the Son.

347 (Variant Readings:) I believe that the one true Church is holy,Catholic and apostolic, in which is given one baptism and the trueremission of all sins. I also believe in a true resurrection of thisbody, which now I bear, and in eternal life.

348 I believe also that there is one author of the New and OldTestament, of the law both of the Prophets and of the Apostles, namelythe omnipotent God and Lord. (I believe) that God predestined only thegood things, but that He foreknew the good and the evil. I believe andprofess that the grace of God precedes and follows man, yet in such amanner that I do not deny free will to the rational creature. I alsobelieve and declare that the soul is not a part of God but was createdfrom nothing and was without baptism subject to original sin.

349 Furthermore, I declare anathema every heresy raising itselfagainst the holy Catholic Church, and likewise him whosoever hashonored or believes that any writings beyond those which the CatholicChurch accepts ought to be held in authority or has venerated them. Iaccept entirely the four Councils and I venerate them as the fourGospels, because through four parts of the world the universal Church,upon these as on square stone, has been founded *. . . . Equally Iaccept and venerate the three remaining Councils. . . . Whatever theabove mentioned seven holy and universal Councils believe and praise Ialso believe and praise, and whomever they declare anathema, I declareanathema.

The Primacy of the Roman Pontiff *

[From the epistle "In terra pax hominibus" to Michael

Cerularius and to Leo of Achrida, September 2, 1053]

350 Chap. 5 . . . You are said to have condemned publicly in a strangepresumption and incredible boldness the Apostolic and Latin Church,neither heard nor refuted, for the reason chiefly that it dared tocelebrate the commemoration of the passion of the Lord from the Azymes.Behold your incautious reprehension, behold your evil boasting, when"you put your mouth into heaven. When your tongue passing on to theearth" [ Ps. 72:9], by human arguments and conjectures attempts touproot and overturn the ancient faith. . . .

351 Chap. 7 . . . The holy Church built upon a rock, that is Christ,and uponPeteror Cephas, the son of John who first was called Simon,because by the gates of Hell, that is, by the disputations of hereticswhich lead the vain to destruction, it would never be overcome; thusTruth itself promises, through whom are true, whatsoever things aretrue: "The gates of hell will not prevail against it" [Matt. 16:18].The same Son declares that He obtained the effect of this promise fromthe Father by prayers, by saying to Peter: "Simon, behold Satan etc." [Luke 23:31]. Therefore, will there be anyone so foolish as to dare toregard His prayer as in anyway vain whose being willing is being able?By the See of the chief of the Apostles, namely by the Roman Church,through the same Peter, as well as through his successors, have not thecomments of all the heretics been disapproved, rejected, and overcome,and the hearts of the brethren in the faith of Peter which so farneither has failed, nor up to the end will fail, been strengthened?

352 Chap. 11. By passing a preceding judgment on the great See,concerning which it is not permitted any man to pass judgment, you havereceived anathema from all the Fathers of all the venerable Councils. .. .

353 Chap. 32 . . . As the hinge while remaining immovable opens andcloses the door, so Peter and his successors have free judgment overall the Church, since no one should remove their status because "thehighest See is judged by no one." [see n. 330 ff.]

VICTOR II 1055-1057 STEPHEN IX 1057-1058

BENEDICT X, 1058-1059

NICHOLAS II 1059-1061

ROMAN COUNCIL 1060

The Ordinations by Simoniacs *

354 Lord Pope Nicholas presiding at the Synod in the Basilica ofConstantine said: "We judge that in preserving dignity no mercy is tobe shown toward the simoniacs; but according to the sanctions of thecanons and the decrees of the Holy Fathers we condemn them entirely andby apostolic authority we decree that they are to be deposed.Concerning those, however, who have been ordained by the simoniacs, notthrough money but gratis, because the question from long standing hasbeen drawn out still longer, we absolve from every manner [anotherversion: knot or impediment] of doubt; so that with regard to thischapter let us permit no one later to doubt. . . . Thus, moreover, bythe authority of the holy Apostles Peter and Paul we entirely forbidthat at any time any of our successors from this our permission take orfix a rule for himself or another, because the authority of the ancientFathers has not promulgated this by order or grant, but too great anecessity of the time has forced us to permit it . . . . "

ALEXANDER II 1061-1073

ST. GREGORY VII 1073-1085

ROMAN COUNCIL VI 1079

(Against Berengarius)

The Most Holy Eucharist *

(Oath taken by Berengarius)

355 I, Berengarius, in my heart believe and with my lips confess thatthrough the mystery of the sacred prayer and the words of our Redeemerthe bread and wine which are placed on the altar are substantiallychanged into the true and proper and living flesh and blood of JesusChrist, our Lord, and that after consecration it is the true body ofChrist which was born of the Virgin and which, offered for thesalvation of the world, was suspended on the Cross, and which sittethat the right hand of the Father, and the true blood of Christ, whichwas poured out from His side not only through the sign and power of thesacrament, but in its property of nature and in truth of substance, ashere briefly in a few words is contained and I have read and youunderstand. Thus I believe, nor will I teach contrary to this belief.So help me God and these holy Gospels of God.

VICTOR III 1087

URBAN II 1088-1099

COUNCIL OF BENEVENTO 1091

The Sacramental Nature of the Diaconate *

356 Can. 1. Let no one be chosen in order of succession into theepiscopacy except one who has been found living religiously in sacredorders. Moreover we call sacred orders the diaconate and thepriesthood. Since we read that the early Church had only these, onlyconcerning these do we have the precept of the Apostle.

PASCHAL II 1099-1118

LATERAN COUNCIL 1102

(Against Henry IV)

The Obedience Owed the Church *

[Formula prescribed for all the cities of the Eastern Church]

357 I declare anathema every heresy and especially that one whichdisturbs the position of the present Church, which teaches and declaresthat excommunication is to be despised and that the restrictions of theChurch are to be cast aside. Moreover, I promise obedience to Paschal,the supreme Pontiff of the Apostolic See, and to his successors underthe testimony of Christ and the Church, affirming what the holy anduniversal Church affirms and condemning what she condemns.

COUNCIL OF GUASTALLA * 1106

The Ordinations by Heretics and Simoniacs *

358 For many years now the broad extent of the Teutonic kingdom hasbeen separated from the unity of the Apostolic See. In this schismindeed so great a danger has arisen that-and we say this withsorrow-only a few priests or Catholic clergy are found in such a broadextent Of territory. Therefore, with so many sons living in thiscondition, the necessity of Christian peace demands that regarding this(group) the maternal womb of the Church be open. Therefore instructedby the examples and writings of our Fathers, who in different timesreceived into their ranks the Novatians, the Donatists, and otherheretics, we are receiving in the episcopal office the bishops of theabove-mentioned region who have been ordained in schism, unless theyare proven usurpers, simoniacs, or criminals. We decree the sameconcerning the clergy of any rank whom way of life together withknowledge commends.

GELASIUS II 1118-1119

CALLISTUS II 1119-1124

LATERAN COUNCIL I 1123

Ecumenical IX (concerning investitures)

Simony, Celibacy, Investiture, Incest *

359 Can. 1. "Following the examples of the Holy Fathers" and renewingthe duty of our office "we forbid in every way by the authority of theApostolic See that anyone by means of money be ordained or promoted inthe Church of God. But if anyone shall have acquired ordination orpromotion in the Church in this way, let him be entirely deprived ofhis office." *

360 Can. 3. We absolutely forbid priests, deacons, or subdeacons theintimacy of concubines and of wives, and cohabitation with other women,except those with whom for reasons of necessity alone the Nicene Synodpermits them to live, that is, a mother, sister, paternal or maternalaunt, or others of this kind concerning whom no suspicion may justlyarise [see n.52 b f.]. *

361 Can. 4. "Besides according to the sanction of the most blessed PopeStephen we have decided that laymen, although they are religious,nevertheless have no faculty for determining anything concerningecclesiastical possessions; but according to the Canons of the Apostleslet the bishop have the care of all ecclesiastical business, and lethim dispense these things as in the sight of God. If, therefore, anycivil ruler or other layman appropriates to himself either a donationof property or of ecclesiastical possessions, let him be judgedsacrilegious." *

362 Can. 5. "We forbid that the marriages of blood relatives take placesince both divine and secular laws forbid these. For divine laws notonly cast out but also call wicked those who do this, and those who areborn from these (marriages); but secular laws call such disreputable,and they cast them off from inheritance. We, therefore, following ourFathers point them out in disgrace, and we declare that they aredisreputable." *

363 Can. 10. Let no one unless canonically elected extend his hand forconsecration to the episcopacy. But if he should presume to do so, letboth the one consecrated and the one consecrating be deposed withouthope of restoration.

HONORIUS II 1124-1130

INNOCENT II 1130-1143

LATERAN COUNCIL II 1139

Ecumenical X (against pseudo-pontiffs)

Simony, Usury, False Penitence, the Sacraments *

364 Can. 2. If anyone with the intervention of the accursed ardor ofavarice has acquired through money an allowance from the state, or apriory, or a deanery, or honor, or some ecclesiastical promotion, orany ecclesiastical sacrament, namely chrism or holy oil, theconsecrations of altars or of churches, let him be deprived of thehonor evilly acquired. And let the buyer and the seller and themediator be struck with the mark of disgrace. And not for food norunder the pretense of any custom before or after may anything bedemanded from anyone, nor may he himself presume to give, since he is asimoniac. But freely and without any diminution let him enjoy thedignity and favor acquired for himself. *

365 Can. 13. Moreover the detestable and shameful and, I say,insatiable rapacity of money lenders, forbidden both by divine andhuman laws throughout the Scripture in the Old and in the NewTestament, we condemn, and we separate them from all ecclesiasticalconsolation, commanding that no archbishop, no bishop, no abbot of anyrank, nor anyone in an order and in the clergy presume to receivemoneylenders except with the greatest caution. But during their wholelife let them be considered disreputable and, unless they repent, letthem be deprived of Christian burial. *

366 Can. 22. "Certainly because among other things there is one thingwhich especially disturbs the Holy Church, namely, false repentance, wewarn our confreres and priests lest by false repentance the souls ofthe laity are allowed to be deceived and to be drawn into hell. It isclear, moreover, that repentance is false when, although many thingshave been disregarded, repentance is practiced concerning one thingonly; or when it is practiced concerning one thing, in such a way thathe is not separated from another. Therefore, it is written: "He whoshall observe the whole law yet offends in one thing, has become guiltyof all," [ Jas. 2:10], with respect to eternal life. For just as if hehad been involved in all sins, so if he should remain in only one, hewill not enter the gate of eternal life. Also that repentance becomesfalse if when repenting one does not withdraw from either court orbusiness duty, a thing which for no reason can be done without sin, orif hatred is kept in the heart, or if satisfaction be not made to onewho has been offended, or if the offended one does not forgive the oneoffending, or if anyone take up arms against justice."*

367 Can. 23. "Those, moreover, who pretending a kind of pietycondemn the sacrament of the Body and Blood of the Lord, the baptism ofchildren, the sacred ministry and other ecclesiastical orders, and thebond, of legitimate marriages, we drive as heretics from the Church ofGod, and we both condemn and we command them to be restrained byexterior powers. We bind their defenders also by the chain of this samecondemnation." *

COUNCIL OF SENS * 1140 or 1141

The Errors of Peter Abelard *

368 1. That the Father is complete power, the Son a certain power, the Holy Spirit no power.

369 2. That the Holy Spirit is not of the substance [another version:* power] of the Father or of the Son.

370 3. That the Holy Spirit is the soul of the world.

371 4. That Christ did not assume flesh to free us from the yoke of the devil.

372 5. That neither God and man, nor this Person which is Christ, is the third Person in the Trinity.

373 6. That free will is sufficient in itself for any good.

374 7. That God is only able to do or to omit those things,either in that manner only or at that time in which He does (them), andin no other.

375 8. That God neither ought nor is He able to prevent evil.

376 9. That we have not contracted sin from Adam, but only punishment.

377 10. That they have not sinned who being ignorant have crucifiedChrist, and that whatever is done through ignorance must not beconsidered as sin.

378 11. That the spirit of the fear of the Lord was not in Christ.

379 12. That the power of binding and loosing was given to the Apostles only, not to their successors.

380 13. That through work man becomes neither better nor worse.

381 14. That to the Father, who is not from another, properly or especially belongs power, * not also wisdom and kindness.

382 15. That even chaste fear is excluded from future life.

383 16. That the devil sends forth evil suggestion through the operation * of stones and herbs.

384 17. That the coming at the end of the world can be attributed to the Father.

385 18. That the soul of Christ did not descend to hell by itself but only by power.

386 19. That neither action nor will, neither concupiscence nordelight, when * it moves it [the soul] is a sin, nor ought we to wishto extinguish (it).,*

[From the letter of Innocent II "Testante Apostolo"

to Henry the Bishop of Sens, July 16, 1140 * ]

387 And so we who though unworthily are observed to reside in the chairof St. Peter, to whom it has been said by the Lord: "And thou beingonce converted convert thy brethren" (Luke 22:33), after having takencounsel with our brethren the principal bishops, have condemned by theauthority of the sacred canons the chapters sent to us by yourdiscretion and all the teachings of this Peter (Abelard) with theirauthor, and we have imposed upon him as a heretic perpetual silence. Wedeclare also that all the followers and defenders of his error must beseparated from the companionship of the faithful and must be bound bythe chain of excommunication.

Baptism of Desire (an unbaptized priest) *

388 [From the letter "Apostolicam Sedem" to the Bishop

of Cremona, of uncertain time]

To your inquiry we respond thus: We assert without hesitation (onthe authority of the holy Fathers Augustine and Ambrose) that thepriest whom you indicated (in your letter) had died without the waterof baptism, because he persevered in the faith of holy mother theChurch and in the confession of the name of Christ, was freed fromoriginal sin and attained the joy of the heavenly fatherland. Read(brother) in the eighth book of Augustine's "City of God" * where amongother things it is written, "Baptism is ministered invisibly to onewhom not contempt of religion but death excludes." Read again the bookalso of the blessed Ambrose concerning the death of Valentinian * wherehe says the same thing. Therefore, to questions concerning the dead,you should hold the opinions of the learned Fathers' and in your churchyou should join in prayers and you should have sacrifices offered toGod for the priest mentioned.

CELESTINE II 1143-1144 Lucius II 1144-1145

EUGENIUS III 1145-1153

COUNCIL OF RHEIMS * 1148

Confession of Faith in the Trinity *

389 1. We believe and confess that God is the simple nature ofdivinity, and that it cannot be denied in any Catholic sense that Godis divinity, and divinity is God. Moreover, if it is said that God iswise by wisdom, great by magnitude, eternal by eternity, one byoneness, God by divinity, and other such things, we believe that He iswise only by that wisdom which is God Himself; that He is great only bythat magnitude which is God Himself; that He is eternal only by thateternity which is God Himself; that He is one only by the oneness whichis God Himself; that He is God only by that divinity which He isHimself; that is, that He is wise, great, eternal, one God of Himself.

390 2. When we speak of three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, weconfess that they are one God, one divine substance. And contrariwise,when we speak of one God, one divine substance, we confess that the oneGod himself, the one divine substance are three persons.

391 3. We believe (and we confess) that only God the Father and Son andHoly Spirit are eternal, and not by any means other things, whetherthey be called relations or peculiarities or singularities oronenesses, and that other such things belong to God, which are frometernity, which are not God.

392 4. We believe (and confess) that divinity itself, whether you callit divine substance or nature, is incarnate only in the Son.

ANASTASIUS IV 1153-1154 HADRIAN IV 1154-1159

ALEXANDER III 1159-118I

Erroneous Proposition concerning the Humanity of Christ *

[Condemned in the letter "Cum Christus" to Willelmus,

Archbishop of Rheims, February 18, 1177]

393 Since Christ perfect God is perfect man, it is strange with whattemerity anyone dares to say that "Christ is not anything else butman." * Moreover lest so great an abuse of God be able to springup in the Church . . . by our authority you should place underanathema, lest anyone dare to say this concerning the other . . .because just as He is true God, so He is true man existing from arational soul and human flesh.

The Illicit Contract of a Sale *

[From the letter "In civitate tua" to the

Archbishop of Geneva, of uncertain time]

394 In your city you say that it often happens that when certain onesare purchasing pepper or cinnamon or other wares which at that time arenot the value of more than five pounds, they also promise to those fromwhom they receive these wares that they will pay six pounds at a statedtime. However, although a contract of this kind according to such aform cannot be considered under the name of usury, yet nevertheless thesellers incur sin, unless there is a doubt that the wares would be ofmore or less value at the time of payment. And so your citizens wouldlook well to their own interests, if they would cease from such acontract, since the thoughts of men cannot be hidden from Almighty God.

The Bond of Matrimony *

[From the letter "Ex publico instrumento" to the

Bishop of Brescia, of uncertain time]

395 Since the aforesaid woman, although she has been espoused by theaforesaid man, yet up to this time, as she asserts, has not been knownby him, in instructing your brotherhood through Apostolic writings weorder that if the aforesaid man has not known the said woman carnallyand this same woman, as it is reported to us on your part, wishes toenter religion, after she has been made sufficiently mindful that sheought either to enter religion or return to her husband within twomonths, you at the termination of her objection and appeal absolve herfrom the sentence (of excommunication); that if she enters religion,each restore to the other what each is known to have received from theother, and the man himself, when she takes the habit of religion, havethe liberty of passing over to other vows. Certainly what the Lord saysin the Gospel: "It is not permitted to man unless on account offornication to put away his wife" [ Matt. 5:32;19:9], must beunderstood according to the interpretation of the sacred wordsconcerning those whose marriage has been consummated by sexualintercourse, without which marriage cannot be consummated, and so, ifthe aforesaid woman has not been known by her husband, it ispermissible (for her) to enter religion.

[From fragments of a letter to the Archbishop of

Salerno, of uncertain time]

396 After legitimate consent in the present case it is permitted to theone, even with the other objecting, to choose a monastery, as somesaints have been called from marriage, as long as sexual intercoursehas not taken place between them. And to the one remaining, if, afterbeing advised, he is unwilling to observe continency, he is permittedto pass over to second vows; because, since they have not been made oneflesh, it is quite possible for the one to pass over to God, and theother to remain in the world. *

397 If between the man and the woman legitimate consent . . . occurs inthe present, so indeed that one expressly receives another by mutualconsent with the accustomed words. . . . whether an oath is introducedor not, it is not permissible for the woman to marry another. And ifshe should marry, even if carnal intercourse has taken place, sheshould be separated from him, and forced by ecclesiastical order toreturn to the first, although some think otherwise and also judgmenthas been rendered in another way by certain of our predecessors.

The Form of Baptism *

[From fragments of the letter to (Pontius, the Bishop

of Clermont?), of uncertain time]

398 Certainly if anyone immerses a child in water three times in thename of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, Amen, and hedoes not say: "I baptize you in the name of the Father and of the Sonand of the Holy Ghost, Amen," the child is not baptized.

399 Let those concerning whom there is a doubt, whether or not theyhave been baptized, be baptized after these words have first beenuttered: "If you are baptized I do not baptize you; if you are not yetbaptized, I baptize you, etc."

LATERAN COUNCIL III 1179

Ecumenical XI (against the Albigenses)

Simony *

400 Chap. 10. Let monks not be received in the monastery at a price. .. If anyone, however, on being solicited gives anything for hisreception, let him not advance to sacred orders. Let him, however, whoaccepts (a price) be punished by the taking away of his office.*

Heresies that Must be Avoided *

401 Chap. 27. As Blessed Leo * says: "Although ecclesiasticaldiscipline, content with sacerdotal judgment, does not employ bloodypunishments, it is nevertheless helped by the constitutions of Catholicrulers, so that men often seek a salutary remedy, when they fear thatcorporal punishment is coming upon them." For this reason, since inGascony, in Albegesium, and in parts of Tolosa and in other places, thecursed perversity of the heretics whom some call Cathari, othersPatareni, others Publicani, others by different names, has so increasedthat now they exercise their wickedness not as some in secret, butmanifest their error publicly and win over the simple and weak to theiropinion, we resolve to cast them, their defenders and receivers underanathema, and we forbid under anathema that anyone presume to hold orto help these in their homes or on their land or to do business withthem. *

LATERAN COUNCIL III 1179

Ecumenical XI (against the Albigenses)

Simony *

400 Chap. 10. Let monks not be received in the monastery at a price. .. If anyone, however, on being solicited gives anything for hisreception, let him not advance to sacred orders. Let him, however, whoaccepts (a price) be punished by the taking away of his office.*

Heresies that Must be Avoided *

401 Chap. 27. As Blessed Leo * says: "Although ecclesiasticaldiscipline, content with sacerdotal judgment, does not employ bloodypunishments, it is nevertheless helped by the constitutions of Catholicrulers, so that men often seek a salutary remedy, when they fear thatcorporal punishment is coming upon them." For this reason, since inGascony, in Albegesium, and in parts of Tolosa and in other places, thecursed perversity of the heretics whom some call Cathari, othersPatareni, others Publicani, others by different names, has so increasedthat now they exercise their wickedness not as some in secret, butmanifest their error publicly and win over the simple and weak to theiropinion, we resolve to cast them, their defenders and receivers underanathema, and we forbid under anathema that anyone presume to hold orto help these in their homes or on their land or to do business withthem. *

LUCIUS III 1181-1185

COUNCIL OF VERONA 1184

The Sacraments (against the Albigenses) *

[From the decree "Ad abolendum" against the heretics]

402 All who, regarding the sacrament of the Body and Blood of our LordJesus Christ, or regarding baptism or the confession of sins, matrimonyor the other ecclesiastical sacraments, do not fear to think or toteach otherwise than the most holy Roman Church teaches and observes;and in general, whomsoever the same Roman Church or individual bishopsthrough their dioceses with the advice of the clergy or the clergythemselves, if the episcopal see is vacant, with the advice if it isnecessary of neighboring bishops, shall judge as heretics, we bind witha like bond of perpetual anathema.

URBAN III 1185-1187

Usury *

[From the epistle "Consuluit nos" to a certain priest of Brescia]

403 Your loyalty asks us whether or not in the judgment of souls heought to be judged as a usurer who, not otherwise ready to deliver byloan, loans his money on this proposition that without any agreement henevertheless receive more by lot; and whether he is involved in thatsame state of guilt who, as it is commonly said, does not otherwisegrant a similar oath, until, although without payment, he receives somegain from him; whether or not that negotiator ought to be condemnedwith a like punishment, who offers his wares at a price far greater, ifan extension of the already extended time be asked for making thepayment, than if the price should be paid to him at once. But sincewhat one must hold in these cases is clearly learned from the Gospel ofLuke in which is said: "Give mutually, hoping nothing thereby" [cf.Luke 6:35], men of this kind must be judged to act wrongly on accountof the intention of gain which they have, since every usury andsuperabundance are prohibited by law, and they must be effectivelyinduced in the judgment of souls to restore those things which havebeen thus received.

GREGORY VIII 1187 CLEMENT III 1187-1191

CELESTINE III 1191-1198

INNOCENT III 1198-1216

The Form of the Sacrament of Matrimony *

[From the letter, "Cum apud sedem" to Humbert,

Archbishop of Arles, July 15, 1198]

404 You have asked us whether the dumb and the deaf can be united toeach other in marriage. To this question we respond to your brotherhoodthus: Since the edict of prohibition concerning the contracting ofmarriage is that whoever is not prohibited, is consequently permitted,and only the consent of those concerning whose marriages we arespeaking is sufficient for marriage, it seems that, if such a onewishes to contract (a marriage), it cannot and it ought not to bedenied him, since what he cannot declare by words he can declare bysigns.

[From the letter to the Bishop of Mutina, in the year 1200] *

Besides in the contracting of marriages we wish you to observethis: when, as in the present case legitimate agreement exists betweenlegitimate persons, which is sufficient in such cases according tocanonical sanctions, and if this alone is lacking, other things aremade void, even if sexual intercourse itself has taken place, ifpersons legitimately married afterwards actually contract (marriage)with others, what before had been done according to law cannot beannulled.

On the Bond of Marriage and the

Pauline Privilege *

[From the letter "Quanto te magis" to Hugo, Bishop

of Ferrara, May 1, 1199]

405 Your brotherhood has announced that with one of thespouses passing over to heresy the one who is left desires to rush intosecond vows and to procreate children, and you have thought that weought to be consulted through your letter as to whether this can bedone under the law. We, therefore, responding to your inquiry regardingthe common advice of our brothers make a distinction, although indeedour predecessor seems to have thought otherwise, whether of twounbelievers one is converted to the Catholic Faith, or of two believersone lapses into heresy or falls into the error of paganism. For if oneof the unbelieving spouses is converted to the Catholic faith, whilethe other either is by no means willing to live with him or at leastnot without blaspheming the divine name or so as to drag him intomortal sin, the one who is left, if he wishes, will pass over to secondvows. And in this case we understand what the Apostle says: "If theunbeliever depart, let him depart: for the brother or sister is notsubject to servitude in (cases) of this kind" [1 Cor. 7:15]. Andlikewise (we understand) the canon in which it is said that "insult tothe Creator dissolves the law of marriage for him who is left." *

406 But if one of the believing spouses either slip into heresy orlapse into the error of paganism, we do not believe that in this casehe who is left, as long as the other is living, can enter into a secondmarriage; although in this case a greater insult to the Creator isevident. Although indeed true matrimony exists between unbelievers, yetit is not ratified; between believers, however, a true and ratifiedmarriage exists, because the sacrament of faith, which once wasadmitted, is never lost, but makes the sacrament of marriage ratifiedso that it itself lasts between married persons as long as thesacrament of faith endures.

Marriages of Pagans and the Pauline Privilege *

[From the letter "Gaudemus in Domino" to the Bishop

of Tiberias, in the beginning of 1201]

407 You have asked to be shown through Apostolic writings whetherpagans receiving wives in the second, third, or further degree ought,thus united, to remain after their conversion with the wives united tothem or ought to be separated from them. Regarding this we reply toyour brotherhood thus, that, since the sacrament of marriage existsbetween believing and unbelieving spouses as the Apostle points outwhen he says: "If any brother has an unbelieving wife, and she consentsto live with him, let him not put her away" [1 Cor. 7:12], and since inthe aforesaid degree matrimony is lawfully contracted with respect tothem by pagans who are not restricted by canonical constitutions, ("Forwhat is it to me?" according to the same Apostle, "to judge concerningthose which are outside?" [ 1 Cor. 5:12]; in favor especially of theChristian religion and faith, from receiving which many fearing to bedeserted by their wives can easily be restrained, such believers,having been joined in marriage, can freely and licitly remain united,since through the sacrament of baptism marriages are not dissolved butsins are forgiven.

408 But since pagans divide their conjugal affection among many womenat the same time, it is rightly doubted whether after conversion all orwhich one of all they can retain. But this (practice) seems to be indisagreement with and inimical to the Christian Faith, since in thebeginning one rib was changed into one woman, and Divine Scripturetestifies that "on account of this, man shall leave father and motherand shall cling to his wife and they shall be two in one flesh" [ Eph.5:31; Gen. 2:24; cf.Matt. 19:5]; it does not say "three or more"buttwo; nor did it say "he will cling to wives" butto a wife.Never isit permitted to anyone to have several wives at one time except to whomit was granted by divine revelation. This custom existed at one time,sometimes was even regarded as lawful, by which, as Jacob from a lie,the Israelites from theft, and Samson from homicide, so also thePatriarchs and other just men, who we read had many wives at the sametime, were ex-used from adultery. Certainly this opinion is proved truealso by the witness of Truth, which testifies in the Gospel: "Whosoeverputs away his wife (except) on account of fornication, and marriesanother commits adultery," [ Matt. 19:9; cf.Mark 10:11]. If, therefore,when the wife has been dismissed, another cannot be married accordingto law, all the more she herself cannot be retained; through this itclearly appears that regarding marriage plurality in either sex-sincethey are not judged unequallymust be condemned. Moreover, he whoaccording to his rite puts away a lawful wife, since Truth in theGospel has condemned such a repudiation, never while she lives, evenafter being converted to the faith of Christ, can he have another wife,unless after his conversion she refuses to live with him, or even ifshe should consent, yet not without insult to the Creator, or so as tolead him into mortal sin. In this case to the one seeking restitution,although it be established regarding unjust spoliation, restitutionwould be denied, because according to the Apostle: "A brother or sisteris not subject to servitude in (cases) of this kind" [ 1 Cor 7,12]. Butif her conversion should follow his conversion to faith, before, onaccount of the above mentioned causes, he would marry a legitimatewife, he would be compelled to take her back again. Although, too,according to the Evangelical truth, "he who marries one put aside isguilty of adultery" [Matt. 19:9], yet the one doing the dismissing willnot be able to upbraid the one dismissed with fornication because hemarried her after the repudiation, unless she shall otherwise havecommitted fornication.

The Dissolubility of Valid Marriage by Religious Profession *

[From the letter "Ex parte tua" to Andrew, the

Archbishop of Lyons, Jan. 12, 1206]

409 Unwilling to depart suddenly on this point from the footsteps ofour predecessors who, on being consulted, responded that beforemarriage has been consummated by sexual intercourse, it is permittedfor one of the parties, even without consulting the remaining one, topass over to religion, so that the one left can henceforth legitimatelymarry another; we advise you that this must be observed.

The Effect of Baptism (and the Character) *

410 (For) they assert that baptism is conferred uselesslyon children. . . . We respond that baptism has taken the place ofcircumcision. . . . Therefore as "the soul of the circumcised did notperish from the people" [Gen. 17:4], so "he who has been reborn fromwater and the Holy Spirit will obtain entrance to the kingdom ofheaven" [ John 3:5]. . . .Although original sin was remitted by themystery of circumcision, and the danger of damnation was avoided,nevertheless there was no arriving at the kingdom of heaven, which upto the death of Christ was barred to all. But through the sacrament ofbaptism the guilt of one made red by the blood of Christ is remitted,and to the kingdom of heaven one also arrives, whose gate the blood ofChrist has mercifully opened for His faithful. For God forbid that allchildren of whom daily so great a multitude die, would perish, but thatalso for these the merciful God who wishes no one to perish hasprocured some remedy unto salvation. . . . As to what opponents say,(namely), that faith or love or other virtues are not infused inchildren, inasmuch as they do not consent, is absolutely not granted bymost. . . . some asserting that by the power of baptism guilt indeed isremitted to little ones but grace is not conferred; and some indeedsaying both that sin is forgiven and that virtues are infused in themas they hold virtues as a possession not as a function, until theyarrive at adult age. . . . We say that a distinction must be made, thatsin is twofold: namely, original and actual: original, which iscontracted without consent; and actual which is committed with consent.Original, therefore, which is committed without consent, is remittedwithout consent through the power of the sacrament; but actual, whichis contracted with consent, is not mitigated in the slightest withoutconsent. . . . The punishment of original sin is deprivation of thevision of God, but the punishment of actual sin is the torments ofeverlasting hell. . . .

411 This is contrary to the Christian religion, that anyone alwaysunwilling and interiorly objecting be compelled to receive and toobserve Christianity. On this account some absurdly do not distinguishbetween unwilling and unwilling, and forced and forced, because he whois violently forced by terrors and punishments, and, lest he incurharm, receives the sacrament of baptism, such a one also as he whounder pretense approaches baptism, receives the impressed sign ofChristianity, and he himself, just as he willed conditionally althoughnot absolutely, must be forced to the observance of Christian Faith. .. . But he who never consents, but inwardly contradicts, receivesneither the matter nor the sign of the sacrament, because to contradictexpressly is more than not to agree. . . . The sleeping, moreover, andthe weak-minded, if before they incurred weak-mindedness, or beforethey went to sleep persisted in contradiction, because in these theidea of contradiction is understood to endure, although they have beenso immersed, they do not receive the sign of the sacrament; not so,however, if they had first lived as catechumens and had the intentionof being baptized; therefore, the Church has been accustomed to baptizesuch in a time of necessity. Thus, then the sacramental operationimpresses the sign, when it does not meet the resisting obstacle of acontrary will.

The Matter of Baptism *

[From the letter "Non ut apponeres" to Thorias

Archbishop of Nidaros] *

412 You have asked whether children ought to be regarded as Christianswhom, when in danger of death, on account of the scarcity of water andthe absence of a priest, the simplicity of some has anointed on thehead and the breast, and between the shoulders with a sprinkling ofsaliva for baptism. We answer that since in baptism two things always,that is, "the word and the element,"* are required by necessity,according to which Truth says concerning the word: "Going into theworld etc." [Luke 16:15; cf. Matt. 28:19

], and the same concerning the element says: "Unless anyone etc." [John3:5 ] you ought not to doubt that those do not have true baptism inwhich not only both of the above mentioned (requirements) but one ofthem is missing.

The Minister of Baptism and the Baptism of Spirit*

[From the letter "Debitum pastoralis officii" to Berthold,

the Bishop of Metz, August 28, 1206]

413 You have, to be sure, intimated that a certain Jew, when atthe point of death, since he lived only among Jews, immersed himself inwater while saying: "I baptize myself in the name of the Father, and ofthe Son, and of the Holy Spirit, Amen."

We respond that, since there should be a distinction between theone baptizing and the one baptized, as is clearly gathered from thewords of the Lord, when he says to the Apostles: "Go baptize allnations in the name etc." [cf. Matt. 28:19], the Jew mentioned must bebaptized again by another, that it may be shown that he who is baptizedis one person, and he who baptizes another. . . . If, however, such aone had died immediately, he would have rushed to his heavenly homewithout delay because of the faith of the sacrament, although notbecause of the sacrament of faith.

The Form of the Eucharistic Sacrament and its Elements *

[From the letter "Cum Marthae circa" to a certain

John, Archbishop of Lyons, Nov. 29, 1202]

414 You have asked (indeed) who has added to the form of the wordswhich Christ Himself expressed when He changed the bread and wine intothe body and blood, that in the Canon of the Mass which the generalChurch uses, which none of the Evangelists is read to have expressed. .. . In the Canon of the Mass that expression, "mysterium fidei,"isfound interposed among His words. . . . Surely we find many such thingsomitted from the words as well as from the deeds of the Lord by theEvangelists, which the Apostles are read to have supplied by word or tohave expressed by deed. . . . From the expression, moreover, concerningwhich your brotherhood raised the question, namely "mysterium fidei,"certain people have thought to draw a protection against error, sayingthat in the sacrament of the altar the truth of the body and blood ofChrist does not exist, but only the image and species and figure,inasmuch as Scripture sometimes mentions that what is received at thealtar is sacrament and mystery and example. But such run into a snareof error, by reason of the fact that they neither properly understandthe authority of Scripture, nor do they reverently receive thesacraments of God, equally "ignorant of the Scriptures and the power ofGod" [Matt. 22:29]. . . . Yet "mysterium fidei" is mentioned, sincesomething is believed there other than what is perceived; and somethingis perceived other than is believed. For the species of bread and wineis perceived there, and the truth of the body and blood of Christ isbelieved and the power of unity and of love. . . .

415 We must, however, distinguish accurately between three things whichare different in this sacrament, namely, the visible form, the truth ofthe body, and the spiritual power. The form is of the bread and wine;the truth, of the flesh and blood; the power, of unity and of charity.The first is the "sacrament and not reality." The second is "thesacrament and reality." The third is "the reality and not thesacrament." But the first is the sacrament of a twofold reality. Thesecond, however, is a sacrament of one and the reality (is) of theother. But the third is the reality of a twofold sacrament. Therefore,we believe that the form of words, as is found in, the Canon, theApostles received from Christ, and their successors from them. . . .

Water Mixed w ith Wine in the Sacrifice of the Mass *

[From the same letter to John, Nov. 29, 1202]

416 You have asked (also) whether the water with the wine is changedinto the blood. Regarding this, however, opinions among the scholasticsvary. For it seems to some that, since from the side of Christ twospecial sacraments flowed-of the redemption in the blood and ofregeneration in the water-into those two the wine and water, which aremixed in the chalice, are changed by divine power. . . . But othershold that the water with the wine is transubstantiated into the blood;when mixed with the wine, it passes over into the wine. . . . Besidesit can be said that water does not pass over into blood but remainssurrounded by the accidents of the original wine. . . . This, however,is wrong to think, which some have presumed to say, namely, that wateris changed into phlegm. . . . But among the opinions mentioned that isjudged the more probable which asserts that the water with the wine ischanged into blood.

[From the letter "In quadam nostra" to Hugo,

Bishop of Ferrara, March 5, 1209]

417 You say that you have read in a certain decretal letter of oursthat it is wrong to think what certain ones have presumed to say,namely, that the water of the Eucharist is changed into phlegm, forthey say falsely that from the side of Christ not water but a wateryliquid came forth. Moreover, although you recall that great andauthentic men have thought this, whose opinions in speech and inwritings up to this time you have followed, from whose (opinions),however, we differ, you are compelled to agree with our opinion. . . .For if it had not been water but phlegm which flowed from the side ofthe Savior, he who saw and gave testimonyto the truth [cf. John 19:35]certainly would not have said water but phlegm. . . . It remains,therefore, that of whatever nature that water was, whether natural, ormiraculous, or created anew by divine power, or resolved in somemeasure of component parts, without doubt it was true water.

The Feigned Celebration of Mass *

[From the letter "De homine qui" to the rectors of the

Roman brotherhood, September 22, 1208]

418 (For) you have asked us what we think about the careless priestwho, when he knows that he is in mortal sin, hesitates because of theconsciousness of his guilt to celebrate the solemnity of the Mass,which he however, cannot omit on account of necessity . . . and, whenthe other details have been accomplished, pretends to celebrate Mass;and after suppressing the words by which the body of Christ iseffected, he merely takes up the bread and wine. . . . Since,therefore, false remedies must be cast aside, which are more seriousthan true dangers, it is proper that he who regards himself unworthy onaccount of the consciousness of his own crime ought reverently toabstain from a sacrament of this kind, and so he sins seriously if hebrings himself irreverently to it; yet without a doubt he seems tooffend more gravely who so fraudently presumes to feign (the sacrificeof the Mass); since the one by avoiding sin, as long as he acts, fallsinto the hands of the merciful God alone; but the other by committingsin, as long as he lives, places himself under obligation not only toGod whom he does not fear to mock, but also to the people whom hedeceives.

The Minister of Confirmation *

[From the letter "Cum venisset" to Basil, Archbishop of Tirnova, Feb. 25, 1204]

419 The imposition of the hands is designated by the anointing of theforehead which by another name is called confirmation, because throughit the Holy Spirit is given for an increase (of grace) and strength.There,fore, although a simple priest or presbyter is able to give otheranointings, this one, only the highest priest, that is the bishop,ought to confer, because we read concerning the Apostles alone, whosesuccessors the bishops are, that through the imposition of the handsthey gave the Holy Spirit [cf. Acts 8:14 ff.].

Profession of Faith Prescribed for Durand of Osca and His

Waldensian Companions*

[From the letter "Fitts exemplo" to the Archbishop of

Terraco, Dec. 18, 1208]

420 By the heart we believe, by faith we understand, by the mouthwe confess, and by simple words we affirm that the Father and the Sonand the Holy Spirit are three Persons, one God, and entire Trinity,co-essential and consubstantial and co-eternal and omnipotent, and eachsingle Person in the Trinity complete God as is contained in "Credo inDeum, " [see n. 2] in "Credo in unum Deum" [see n. 86], and in"Quicumque vult" [see n. 39 ].

421 By the heart we believe and by the mouth we confess that theFather also and the Son and the Holy Spirit, one God, concerning whomwe are speaking, is the creator, the maker, the ruler, and thedispenser of all things corporal and spiritual, visible and invisible.We believe that God is the one and same author of the Old and the NewTestament, who existing in the Trinity, as it is said, created allthings from nothing; and that John the Baptist, sent by Him, was holyand just, and in the womb of his mother was filled with the Holy Spirit.

422 By the heart we believe and by the mouth we confess that theIncarnation of the Divinity took place neither in the Father, nor inthe Holy Spirit, but in the Son only; so that He who was in theDivinity the Son of God the Father, true God from the Father, was inthe humanity the son of man, true man from a mother, having true fleshfrom the womb of his mother and a human rational soul; at the same timeof each nature, that is God and man, one Person, one Son, one Christ,one God with the Father and the Holy Spirit, the author and ruler ofall, born from the Virgin Mary in a true birth of the flesh; He ate anddrank, He slept and, tired out from a journey, He rested, He sufferedin the true passion of His flesh; He died in the true death of Hisbody, and He arose again in the true resurrection of His flesh and inthe true restoration of His soul to the body in which, after He ate anddrank, He ascended into heaven, sits at the right hand of the Father,and in the same will come to judge the living and the dead.

423 By the heart we believe and by the mouth we confess the oneChurch, not of heretics but the Holy Roman, Catholic, and Apostolic(Church) outside which we believe that no one is saved.

424 The sacraments also which are celebrated in it with the inestimableand invisible power of the Holy Spirit cooperating, although they maybe administered by a priest who is a sinner, as long as the Churchaccepts him, in no way do we reprove nor from ecclesiastical offices orblessings celebrated by him do we withdraw; but we receive with a kindmind as from the most just, because the wickedness of a bishop orpriest does no harm to the baptism of an infant, nor to consecratingthe Eucharist, nor to the other ecclesiastical duties celebrated forsubjects. We approve, therefore, the baptism of infants, who, if theydied after baptism, before they commit sins, we confess and believe aresaved; and in baptism all sins, that original sin which was contractedas well as those which voluntarily have been committed, we believe areforgiven. We decree that confirmation performed by a bishop, that is,by the imposition of hands, is holy and must be received reverently.Firmly and without doubt with a pure heart we believe and simply infaithful words we affirm that the sacrifice, that is, the bread andwine [Other texts: in the sacrifice of the Eucharist those things whichbefore consecration were bread and wine] after the consecration is thetrue body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, in which we believenothing more by a good nor less by a bad priest is accomplished becauseit is accomplished not in the merits of the one who consecrates but inthe word of the Creator and in the power of the Holy Spirit. Therefore,we firmly believe and we confess that however honest, religious, holy,and prudent anyone may be, he cannot nor ought he to consecrate theEucharist nor to perform the sacrifice of the altar unless he be apriest, regularly ordained by a visible and perceptible bishop. And tothis office three things are necessary, as we believe: namely, acertain person, that is a priest as we said above, properly establishedby a bishop for that office; and those solemn words which have beenexpressed by the holy Fathers in the canon; and the faithful intentionof the one who offers himself; and so we firmly believe and declarethat whosoever without the preceding episcopal ordination, as we saidabove, believes and contends that he can offer the sacrifice of theEucharist is a heretic and is a participant and companion of theperdition of Core and his followers, and he must be segregated from theentire holy Roman Church. To sinners truly penitent, we believe thatforgiveness is granted by God, and with them we communicate mostgladly. We venerate the anointing of the sick with the consecrated oil.According to the Apostle [cf.1 Cor. 7 ] we do not deny that carnalunions should be formed, but ordinarily we forbid absolutely thebreaking of the contracts. Man also with his wife we believe andconfess are saved, and we do not even condemn second or later marriages.

Variations

425 We do not at all censure the receiving of the flesh. Nor do wecondemn an oath; on the contrary, we believe with a pure heart thatwith truth and judgment and justice it is permissible to swear. [In theyear 1210, the following sentence was added:] Concerning secular powerwe declare that without mortal sin it is possible to exercise ajudgment of blood as long as one proceeds to bring punishment not inhatred but in judgment, not incautiously but advisedly.

426 We believe that preaching is exceedingly necessary andpraiseworthy, yet that it must be exercised by the authority or licenseof the Supreme Pontiff or by the permission of prelates. But in allplaces where manifest heretics remain and renounce and blaspheme Godand the faith of the holy Roman Church, we believe that, by disputingand exhorting in all ways according to God, we should confound them,and even unto death oppose them openly with the word of God asadversaries of Christ and the Church. But ecclesiastical orders andeverything which in the holy Roman Church is read or sung as holy, wehumbly praise and faithfully venerate.

427 We believe that the devil was made evil not through creationbut through will. We sincerely believe and with our mouth we confessthe resurrection of this flesh which we bear and not of another. Wefirmly believe and affirm also that judgment by Jesus Christ will beindividually for those who have lived in this flesh, and that they willreceive either punishment or rewards. We believe that alms, sacrifice,and other benefits can be of help to the dead. We believe and confessthat those who remain in the world and possess their own wealth, bypracticing alms, and other benefits from their possessions, and bykeeping the commands of the Lord are saved. We believe that tithes andfirst fruits and oblations should be paid to the clergy according tothe Lord's command.

LATERAN COUNCIL IV 1215

Ecumenical XII (against the Albigensians, Joachim, Waldensians etc.

The Trinity, Sacraments, Canonical Mission, etc.*

Chap. 1. The Catholic Faith

(Definition directed against the Albigensians and other heretics]

428 Firmly we believe and we confess simply that the true God is onealone, eternal, immense, and unchangeable, incomprehensible, omnipotentand ineffable, Father and Son and Holy Spirit: indeed three Persons butone essence, substance, or nature entirely simple. The Father from noone, the Son from the Father only, and the Holy Spirit equally fromboth; without beginning, always, and without end; the Fathergenerating, the Son being born, and the Holy Spirit proceeding;consubstantial and coequal and omnipotent and coeternal; one beginningof all, creator of all visible and invisible things, of the spiritualand of the corporal; who by His own omnipotent power at once from thebeginning of time created each creature from nothing, spiritual, andcorporal, namely, angelic and mundane, and finally the human,constituted as it were, alike of the spirit and the body. For the deviland other demons were created by God good in nature, but theythemselves through themselves have become wicked. But man sinned at thesuggestion of the devil. This Holy Trinity according to common essenceundivided, and according to personal properties distinct, granted thedoctrine of salvation to the human race, first through Moses and theholy prophets and his other servants according to the most methodicaldisposition of the time.

429 And finally the only begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ, incarnateby the whole Trinity in common, conceived of Mary ever Virgin with theHoly Spirit cooperating, made true man, formed of a rational soul andhuman flesh, one Person in two natures, clearly pointed out the way oflife. And although He according to divinity is immortal and impassible,the very same according to humanity was made passible and mortal, who,for the salvation of the human race, having suffered on the wood of theCross and died, descended into hell, arose from the dead and ascendedinto heaven. But He descended in soul, and He arose in the flesh, andHe ascended equally in both, to come at the end of time, to judge theliving and the dead, and to render to each according to his works, tothe wicked as well as to the elect, all of whom will rise with theirbodies which they now bear, that they may receive according to theirworks, whether these works have been good or evil, the lattereverlasting punishment with the devil, and the former everlasting glorywith Christ.

430 One indeed is the universal Church of the faithful, outside whichno one at all is saved, * in which the priest himself is the sacrifice,Jesus Christ, whose body and blood are truly contained in the sacramentof the altar under the species of bread and wine; the bread (changed)into His body by the divine power of transubstantiation, and the wineinto the blood, so that to accomplish the mystery of unity we ourselvesreceive from His (nature) what He Himself received from ours. Andsurely no one can accomplish this sacrament except a priest who hasbeen rightly ordained according to the keys of the Church which JesusChrist Himself conceded to the Apostles and to their successors. Butthe sacrament of baptism (which at the invocation of God and theindivisible Trinity, namely, of the Father and of the Son and of theHoly Spirit, is solemnized in water) rightly conferred by anyone in theform of the Church is useful unto salvation for little ones and foradults. And if, after the reception of baptism, anyone shall havelapsed into sin, through true penance he can always be restored.Moreover, not only virgins and the continent but also married personspleasing to God through right faith and good work merit to arrive at ablessed eternity.

Chap.2.The Error of Abbot Joachim *

431 We condemn, therefore, and we disapprove of the treatise or tractwhich Abbot Joachim published against Master Peter Lombard on the unityor essence of the Trinity, calling him heretical and senseless becausein hisSentenceshe said: "Since it is a most excellent reality-theFather, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and it is not generating, norgenerated, nor proceeding." * Thus he (Joachim) declares that PeterLombard implies not so much a Trinity as a quaternity in God, namelythe three Persons and that common essence as a fourth, openlyprotesting that there is no matter which is the Father and the Son andthe Holy Spirit; neither is there essence, nor substance, nor nature,although he concedes that the Father, and the Son. and the Holy Spiritare one essence, one substance, and one nature. But he says that unityof this kind is not true and proper, but is something collective andsimilar, as many men are called one people, and many faithful, oneChurch, according to the following: "Of the multitude believing therewas one heart and one mind" [ Acts 4:32]; and, "He who clings to God isone spirit with him" [ 1 Cor. 6:17]; likewise, "He who . . . plants andhe who waters are one" [ 1 Cor. 3:8]; and, "we are all one body inChrist" [ Rom. 12:5]; again in the Book of Kings [Ruth]: "My people andyour people are one" [Ruth 1:16]. Moreover, to add to this opinion ofhis he brings the following most powerful expression, that Christ spokein the Gospel about the faithful: "I will, Father, that they are one inus as we are one, so that they may be perfected in unity" [John 17:22f.]. For not, (as he says), are the faithful of Christ one, that is, acertain one matter which is common to all, but in this way are theyone, that is, one Church because of the unity of the Catholic faith;and finally one kingdom, because of the union of indissoluble love, asin the canonical letter of John the Apostle we read: "For there arethree that give testimony in heaven, the Father, and the Son, and theHoly Spirit, and these three are one" [ 1 John 5:7], and immediately isadded: "And there are three who give testimony on earth, the Spirit,the water, and the blood, and these three are one" [ 1 John 5:8 ], asis found in certain texts.

432 We, however, with the approval of the sacred Council, believe andconfess with Peter Lombard that there exists a most excellent reality,incomprehensible indeed and ineffable, which truly is the Father, andthe Son, and the Holy Spirit, at the same time three Persons, andanyone of the same individually; and so in God there is Trinity only,not a quaternity; because any one of the three Persons is that reality,namely, substance, essence or divine nature, which alone is thebeginning of all things, beyond which nothing else can be found, andthat reality is not generating, nor generated, nor proceeding, but itis the Father who generates, the Son who is generated, and the HolySpirit who proceeds, so that distinctions are in Persons and unity innature. Therefore, although "one is the Father, another the Son, andanother the Holy Spirit, yet they are not different" * but what is theFather is the Son and the Holy Spirit entirely the same, so thataccording to the true and Catholic Faith they are believed to beconsubstantial. For the Father from eternity by generating the Son gaveHis substance to Him according to which He Himself testifies: "Thatwhich the Father has given to me is greater than all things" [John10:29]. But it cannot be said that He (the Father) has given a part ofHis substance to Him (the Son), and retained a part for Himself, sincethe substance of the Father is indivisible, namely, simple. But neithercan it be said that the Father has transferred His substance to the Sonin generating, as if He had given that to the Son which he did notretain for Himself; otherwise the substance would have ceased to exist.It is clear, therefore, that the Son in being born without anydiminution received the substance of the Father, and thus the Fatherand the Son have the same substance, and so this same reality is theFather and the Son and also the Holy Spirit proceeding from both. Butwhen Truth prays to the Father for His faithful saying: "I will thatthey may be one in us, as we also are one" [ John 17:22]: this word"one" indeed is accepted for the faithful in such a way that a union ofcharity in grace is understood, for the divine Persons in such a waythat a unity of identity in nature is considered, as elsewhere Truthsays: "Be . . . perfect, as also your heavenly Father is perfect"[Matt. 5:48 ], as if He said more clearly, "Be perfect" in theperfection of grace "as your heavenly Father is perfect" in theperfection of grace, that is, each in his own manner, because betweenthe Creator and the creature so great a likeness cannot be notedwithout the necessity of noting a greater dissimilarity between them.If anyone, therefore, shall presume to defend or approve the opinion ordoctrine of the above mentioned Joachim, let him be refuted as aheretic by all.

433 Yet on this account we do not wish to detract from the monastery inFlorence (whose founder is Joachim himself), since both the institutionthere is regular and the observance salutary, especially since Joachimhimself has ordered all his writings to be assigned to us, to beapproved or even corrected by the judgment of the Apostolic See,dictating a letter which he signed with his own hand in which he firmlyconfesses that he holds that Faith which the Roman Church, which (theLord disposing) is the mother and master of all the faithful, holds. Wereprove also and we condemn that very perverse dogma of the impiousAlmaricus, whose mind the father of lies has so blinded that hisdoctrine must be considered not so heretical as insane.

Chap. 3 . The Heretics[ Waldensian] *

[The necessity of a canonical mission]

434 Because some indeed "under the pretext of piety, denying hispower" (according to what the Apostle says) [2 Tim. 3:5], assume tothemselves the authority of preaching, when the same Apostle says: "How. . . shall they preach, unless they are sent?" [Rom. 10:15 ], let allwho, being prohibited or not sent, without having received authorityfrom the Apostolic See, or from the Catholic bishop of the place, shallpresume publicly or privately to usurp the duty of preaching * bemarked by the bond of excommunication; and unless they recover theirsenses, the sooner the better, let them be punished with anotherfitting penalty.

Chap. 4. The Pride of the Greeks Against the Latins *

435 Although we wish to cherish and honor the Greeks who in our daysare returning to the obedience of the Apostolic See, by sustainingtheir customs and rites in as far as we are able with the Lord, yet wedo not wish nor are we able to defer to them in these things whichengender danger to souls and which detract from ecclesiastical honor.For when the church of the Greeks with certain accomplices and theirprotectors withdrew itself from the obedience of the Apostolic See, theGreeks began to detest the Latins so much that among other things whichthey impiously committed to their dishonor, if at any time Latinpriests celebrated Mass on their altars, they themselves were unwillingto sacrifice on these (altars), before they washed them, as if defiledon account of this (sacrifice by the Latin priests); these same Greekspresumed with indiscreet boldness to rebaptize those baptized by theLatins, and up to this time, as we have learned, certain ones do notfear to do this. Therefore, wishing to remove such scandal from theChurch, on the recommendation of the Sacred Council, we strictlycommand that they do not presume such things in the future, conformingthemselves as obedient sons to the holy Roman Church, their mother, sothat there may be "one flock and one shepherd" [John 10:16]. If anyone,however, shall presume any such thing, struck by the sword ofexcommunication, let him be deposed from every office andecclesiastical favor.

Chap. 5. The Dignity of the Patriarchs *

436 Renewing the ancient privilege of the patriarchal sees, with theapproval of the sacred universal synod, we sanction that after theRoman Church, which by the ordering of the Lord before all others holdsthe first place of ordinary power as the mother and teacher of all thefaithful of Christ, the (Church of) Constantinople holds the first,Alexandria the second, Antioch the third, and Jerusalem the fourthplace.

Chap. 21.The Obligation of Making Confession and of its not

being Revealed by the Priest, and the Obligation of Receiving

the Sacrament at leastin Paschal Time.*

437 Let everyone of the faithful of both sexes, after he has arrived atthe years of discretion, alone faithfully confess all his sins at leastonce a year to his own priest, and let him strive to fulfill with allhis power the penance enjoined upon him, receiving reverently thesacrament of the Eucharist at least in Paschal time, unless by chanceon the advice of his own priest for some reasonable cause it shall bedecided that he must abstain from the precept temporarily; otherwiseboth while living let him be barred from entrance to the church, andwhen dying let him be deprived of Christian burial. Therefore, let thissalutary law be published frequently in the churches, lest anyoneassume a pretext of excuse in the blindness of ignorance. Moreover ifanyone from a just cause shall wish to confess his sins to anotherpriest, let him first ask and obtain permission from his own priest,since otherwise that one (the other priest) cannot absolve or bind him.Let the priest, however, be discreet and cautious, so that skilled bypractice "he may pour wine and oil" [ Luke 10:34] on the wounds of thewounded, diligently inquiring into both the circumstances of the sinnerand the sin, by which prudently he may understand what kind of advicehe ought to give to him, and, using various experiments to save thesick, what kind of a remedy he ought to apply.

438 Moreover, let him constantly take care, lest by word or signor any other way whatsoever he may at any time betray the sinner; butif he should need more prudent counsel, he should seek it cautiouslywithout any mention of the person, since he who shall presume to reveala sin entrusted to him in confession, we decree not only must bedeposed from priestly office but must also be thrust into a strictmonastery to do perpetual penance.

Chap. 41.The Continuation of Good Faith in Every Precept *

439 Since "everything . . . which is not from faith is a sin" [ Rom.14:23 ], by synodal judgment we define that no precept either canonicalor civil without good faith has any value, since that which cannot beobserved without mortal sin must in general be rejected by everyconstitution and custom. Therefore, it is necessary that he who laydown a rule at no time be conscious of anything wrong.

Chap. 62 . The Relics of the Saints *

440 Since, because certain ones expose the relics of saints for saleand exhibit them at random, the Christian religion has often suffereddetraction; so that it may not suffer detraction in the future, we haveordered by the present decree that from now on ancient relics may by nomeans be exhibited or exposed for sale outside a case. Moreover let noone presume that newly found relics be venerated publicly, unless firstthey have been approved by the authority of the Roman Pontiff

HONORIUS III 1216-1227

The Matter of the Eucharist *

[From the letter "Perniciosus valde" to Olaus, Archbishop

of Upsala Dec. 13, 1220]

441 An exceedingly pernicious abuse, as we have heard, has arisen inyour area, namely, that in the sacrifice water is being used in greatermeasure than wine; when according to the reasonable custom of thegeneral Church more of wine than of water should be used. And so toyour brotherhood through the apostolic writings we order that in thefuture you do not do this, and that you do not allow it to be done inyour province.

GREGORY IX 1227-1241

The Necessity of Preserving Theological Terminology and Tradition *

[From the letter "Ab Aegyptiis" to the theologians of Paris, July 7, 1228]

442 "Touched inwardly with sorrow of heart" [Gen. 6:6], "we are filledwith the bitterness of wormwood" [cf. Lam. 3:15], because as it hasbeen brought to our attention, certain ones among you, distended like askin by the spirit of vanity, are working with profane novelty to passbeyond the boundaries which thy fathers have set [cf. Prov. 22:28], theunderstanding of the heavenly page limited by the fixed boundaries ofexpositions in the studies of the Holy Fathers by inclining toward thephilosophical doctrine of natural things, which it is not only rash buteven profane to transgress; (they are doing this) for a show ofknowledge, not for any profit to their hearers; so that they seem to benot taught of God or speakers of God, but rather revealed as God. For,although they ought to explain theology according to the approvedtraditions of the saints and not with carnal weapons, "yet with(weapons) powerful for God to destroy every height exalting itselfagainst the knowledge of God and to lead back into captivity everyunderstanding unto the obedience of Christ" [cf. 2 Cor. 10:4 f.], theythemselves "led away by various and strange doctrines" [cf.Heb. 13:9]reduce the "head to the tail" [cf. Deut. 28:13, 44] and they force thequeen to be servant to the handmaid, that is, by earthly documentsattributing the heavenly, which is of grace, to nature. Indeed relyingon the knowledge of natural things more than they ought, returning "tothe weak and needy elements" of the world, which they served while theywere "little" and "serving them again" [ Gal. 4:9] as foolish in Christthey feed on "milk and not solid food" [ Heb. 5:12 f.], and they seemby no means to have established "the heart in grace" [cf. Heb. 13:9];and so despoiled of their rewards "plundered and wounded by theirnatural possessions * they do not reduce to memory that (saying) of theApostle which we believe they have already frequently read: "Avoidingthe profane novelties of words, and the oppositions of knowledgefalsely so called, which some seeking have erred concerning the faith"[cf.1 Tim. 6:20 f.]. "O foolish and slow of heart in all things" whichthe protectors of divine grace, namely "the prophets" the evangelistsand the apostles "have spoken" [cf.Luke 24:25], since nature in itselfcannot (work) anything for salvation unless it is helped by grace [seen. 105, 138]. Let presumers of this kind speak, who embracing thedoctrine of natural things offer the leaves and not the fruit of wordsto their hearers, whose minds as if fed with husks remain empty andvacant; and their soul cannot be "delighted in fatness" [ Is. 55:2],because thirsty and dry it cannot drink "from the waters of Siloerunning with silence" [cf.Is. 8:6] but rather from those which aredrawn from the philosophical torrents, of which it is said: "The morethey are drunk, the more the waters are thirsted for, because they donot bring satiety, but rather anxiety and labor. And while by extorted,nay rather distorted, expositions they turn the sacred words divinelyinspired to the sense of the doctrine of philosophers who are ignorantof God, "do they not place the ark of the covenant by Dagon" [ 1 Samuel5:2], and set up the image of Antiochus to be adored in the temple ofthe Lord? And while they try to add to faith by natural reason morethan they ought, do they not render it in a certain way useless andempty since "faith does not have merit for one to whom human reasonfurnishes proof?" * Finally, nature believes what is understood, butfaith by its freely given power comprehends what is believed by theintelligence, and bold and daring it penetrates where natural intellectis not able to reach. Will such followers of the things of nature, inwhose eyes grace seems to be proscribed, say that "the Word which wasin the beginning with God, was made flesh, and dwelt in us" [John 1] isof grace or of nature? As for the rest, God forbid that a "mostbeautiful woman" [ Song. 5:9], with "eyes painted with stiblic" [ 2Kings 9:30] by presumers, be adorned with false colors, and that shewho "girded with clothes" [ Ps. 44:10] and "adorned with jewels" [ Is.61:10 ] proceeds splendid as a queen, be clothed with stitchedsemi-girdles of philosophers, sordid apparel. God forbid that "cows illfavored" and consumed with leanness, which "give no mark of being fullwould devour the beautiful" [Gen. 41:18 ff.] and consume the fat.

443 Therefore, lest a rash and perverse dogma of this kind "as a cankerspreads" [ 2 Tim. 2:17], and infects many and makes it necessary that"Rachel bewail her lost sons" [Jer. 31:15], we order and strictlycommand by the authority of those present that, entirely forsaking thepoison mentioned above, without the leaven of worldly knowledge, thatyou teach theological purity, not "adulterating the word of God" [2Cor. 2:17] by the creations of philosophers, lest around the altar ofGod you seem to wish to plant a grove contrary to the teaching of theLord, and by a commingling of honey to cause the sacrifice of doctrineto ferment which is to be presented "with the unleavened bread ofsincerity and truth" [ 1 Cor. 5:8]. But content with the terminologyestablished by the Fathers, you should feed the minds of your listenerswith the fruit of heavenly words, so that after the leaves of the wordshave been removed, "they may draw from the fountains of the Savior" [Is. 12:3 ]; the clear and limpid waters which tend principally to this,that they may build up faith or fashion morals, and refreshed by thesethey may be delighted with internal richness. *

Condemnation of Various Heretics *

[From the form of anathema published Aug. 20, I229 MI

444 "We excommunicate and anathematize... all heretics": the Cathari,the Patareni, the Pauperes of Lyons, the Passagini, the Josephini, theArnoldistac, the Speronistae, and others, "by whatever names they maybe known; having different faces indeed, but "tails coupled to eachother" [ Judg. 15:4 ], because from vanity they come together at thesame point." *

The Matter and Form of Ordination *

[From the letter to Olaus, Bishop of Lyons, Dec. 9, 1232]

445 When a priest and deacon are ordained, they receive the impositionof a hand by corporal touch, by the rite introduced by the Apostles;and if this shall be omitted, it must not be partially repeated, but atan established time for conferring orders of this kind, what througherror was omitted must be carefully supplied. Moreover, the suspensionof hands over the head must be made, when the prayer of ordination isuttered over the head.

The Invalidity of Marriage Subject to Conditions *

[From fragments of the Decrees n. 104, about the years 1227-1234]

446 If conditions contrary to the nature of marriage are inserted, forexample, if one says to the other: "I contract marriage with you, ifyou avoid the generation of children," or "until I find another moreworthy by reason of reputation or riches," or, "if you surrenderyourself to adultery for money," the marriage contract, howeverfavorable it may be, is lacking in effect; although some conditionsappended in matrimony, if they are disgraceful or impossible, becauseof its esteem, are to be considered as not added.

The Matter of Baptism *

[From the letter "Cum, sicut ex" to Sigurd, Archbishop

of Nidaros, * July 8, 1241]

447 Since as we have learned from your report, it sometimeshappens because of the scarcity of water, that infants of your landsare baptized in beer, we reply to you in the tenor of those presentthat, since according to evangelical doctrine it is necessary "to bereborn from water and the Holy Spirit" [ John 3:5] they are not to beconsidered rightly baptized who are baptized in beer.

Usury *

[From a letter to brother R. in fragments of Decree

n. 69, of uncertain date]

448 He who loans a sum of money to one sailing or going tomarket, since he has assumed upon himself a risk, is [not] to beconsidered a usurer who will receive something beyond his lot. He alsowho gives ten solidi, so that at another time just as many measures ofgrain, wine, and oil may be payed back to him, and although these areworth more at the present time, it is probably doubtful whether at thetime of payment they will be worth more or less, for this reason shouldnot be considered a usurer. By reason of this doubt he also is excused,who sells clothing, grain, wine, oil, or other wares so that at a settime he receives for them more than they are worth at that time, if,however, he had not intended so to sell them at the time of thecontract.

CELESTINE IV 1241

INNOCENT IV 1243-1254

COUNCIL OF LYONS I 1245

Ecumenical XIII (against Frederick II)

He did not send out dogmatic decrees.

The Rites of the Greeks *

[From the letter "Sub Catholicae" to the Bishop of

Tusculum, of the Legation of the Apostolic

See among the Greeks, March 6, 1254]

449 1. And so concerning these matters our deliberation has resultedthus, that Greeks of the same kingdom in the anointings, which are madewith respect to baptism, should hold to and observe the custom of theRoman Church.--2. But the rite or custom which they are said to have,of anointing completely the bodies of those to be baptized may betolerated, if it cannot be given up or be removed without scandal,since, whether or not it be done, it makes no great difference withregard to the efficacy or effect of baptism.--3. Also it makes nodifference whether they baptize in cold or in hot water, since they aresaid to affirm that baptism has equal power and effect in each.

450 4. Moreover, let bishops alone mark the baptized on the foreheadwith chrism, because this anointing is not to be given except bybishops, since the apostles alone, whose places the bishops take, areread to have imparted the Holy Spirit by the imposition of the hand,which confirmation, or the anointing of the forehead represents.--5.Also all bishops individually in their own churches on the day of theLord's Supper can, according to the form of the Church, prepare chrismfrom balsam and olive oil. For the gift of the Holy Spirit is given inthe anointing with chrism. And particularly the dove, which signifiesthe Spirit Himself, is read to have brought the olive branch to theark. But if the Greeks should wish rather to preserve their own ancientrite in this, namely, that the patriarch together with the archbishopsand bishops, his suffragans and the archbishops with their suffragans,prepare chrism at the same time, let them be tolerated in such a customof theirs.

451 6. Moreover no one may merely be anointed with some unction bypriests or confessors for satisfaction of penance--7. But upon the sickaccording to the word of James the Apostle [ Jas. 5:4] let extremeunction be conferred.

452 8. Furthermore in the application of water, whether cold or hot ortepid, in the sacrifice of the altar, let the Greeks follow their owncustom if they wish, as long as they believe and declare that, when theform of the canon has been preserved, it is accomplished equally byeach (kind of water).--9. But let them not preserve the Eucharistconsecrated on the day of the Lord's Supper for a year on the pretextof the sick, that with it they may obviously communicate themselves. Itmay be permitted them, however, in behalf of the sick themselves, toconsecrate the body of Christ and to preserve it for fifteen days, butnot for a longer period of time, lest through its long preservation,perchance by a change in the species, it be rendered less suitable toreceive, although the truth and its efficacy always remain entirely thesame, and never by any length of time or the mutability of time do theygrow weak.--10. But in the celebration of solemn and other Masses, andconcerning the hour of celebrating these, as long as in the preparationand in the consecration they observe the form of words expressed andhanded down by the Lord, and (as long as) in celebrating they do notpass the ninth hour, let them be permitted to follow their own custom.

453 18. Moreover concerning fornication which an unmarried mancommits with an unmarried woman, there must not be any doubt at allthat it is a mortal sin, since the Apostle declares that "fornicatorsas adulterers are cast out from the kingdom of God" [ 1 Cor. 6:9].

454 19. In addition to this we wish and we expressly command thatthe Greek bishops in the future confer the seven orders according tothe custom of the Roman Church, since they are said to have neglectedor to have hitherto omitted three of the minor ones with respect tothose to be ordained. But let those who already have been so ordainedby them, because of their exceedingly great number, be kept in theorders thus received.

455 20. Because according to the Apostle "a woman if her husbandis dead is freed from the law of her husband" so "that she has the freepower of marrying whom she will in the Lord" [cf. Rom. 7:2; 1 Cor.7:39], let the Greeks in no measure reprehend second or third or evenlater marriages; nor should they condemn but rather approve thembetween persons who otherwise can licitly be united to one another inmarriage. Priests, however, should not by any means bless those whomarry a second time.

456 23. Finally, since Truth in the Gospel asserts that "ifanyone shall utter blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, neither in thislife nor in the future will it be forgiven him" [cf. Matt. 12:32], bythis it is granted that certain sins of the present be understoodwhich, however, are forgiven in the future life, and since the Apostlesays that "fire will test the work of each one, of what kind it is,"and " if any man's work burn, he shall suffer loss, but he himselfshall be saved, yet so as by fire" [ 1 Cor 3:13,15], and since thesesame Greeks truly and undoubtedly are said to believe and to affirmthat the souls of those who after a penance has been received yet notperformed, or who, without mortal sin yet die with venial and slightsin, can be cleansed after death and can be helped by the suffrages ofthe Church, we, since they say a place of purgation of this kind hasnot been indicated to them with a certain and proper name by theirteachers, we indeed, calling it purgatory according to the traditionsand authority of the Holy Fathers, wish that in the future it be calledby that name in their area. For in that transitory fire certainly sins,though not criminal or capital, which before have not been remittedthrough penance but were small and minor sins, are cleansed, and theseweigh heavily even after death, if they have been forgiven in this life.

457 24. Moreover, if anyone without repentance dies in mortal sin,without a doubt he is tortured forever by the flames of eternalhell.--25. But the souls of children after the cleansing of baptism,and of adults also who depart in charity and who are bound neither bysin nor unto any satisfaction for sin itself, at once pass quickly totheir eternal fatherland.

ALEXANDER IV 1254-1261

Errors of William of St.. Amour (concerning Mendicants) *

[From Constit. "Romanus Pontifex," October 5, 1256]

458 They have published, I say, and they have rushed forth into wickedfalsehoods out of an excessive passion of soul, rashly composing anexceedingly pernicious and detestable treatise. After this treatise wascarefully read, and opportunely and rigidly examined, and a completereport concerning it was made to us by these, because in it (there are)some perverse and wicked things: against the power and authority of theRoman Pontiff and of his bishops; some against those who overcome theworld with its riches by voluntary indigence, and for the sake of Godbeg in very strict poverty; others even against those who, ardentlyzealous for the salvation of souls and caring for sacred interests,bring about much spiritual progress in the Church of God and make muchfruit there;

459 moreover, certain statements against the salutary state of the pooror religious mendicants, as are the beloved sons, the Brother Preachersand Minor, who in the vigor of spirit after abandoning the world withits riches, aspire to their heavenly fatherland alone with all effort;and because also we find many other disagreements, certainly worthy ofconfutation and lasting confusion clearly contained; and because, too,this same treatise was a festering center of great scandal and matterof much disturbance, and induced a loss of souls, since it distractedthe faithful from ordinary devotion and the customary giving of almsand from conversion and entrance into religion,

We by the advice of our Brethren, by Apostolic authority havethought that this same book which begins thus: "Behold seeing they willcry from abroad," and which according to its title is called "a brieftract concerning the dangers of most recent times" as something wicked,criminal, and detestable, and the rules and documents handed down in itas wicked, false, and impious, must be rejected, and must be condemnedforever, and we rigidly command that whoever has that treatise willtake care to burn it and entirely destroy it immediately in whole andin any of its parts within eight days from the time at which he shallknow of such a rejection and condemnation of ours.

URBAN IV 1261-1264 CLEMENT IV 1265-1268

GREGORY X 1271-1276

COUNCIL OF LYONS II 1274

Ecumenical XIV (concerning the union of the Greeks)

Declaration Concerning the Procession of the Holy Spirit *

[The Most Exalted Trinity and the Catholic Faith]

460 In faithful and devout profession we declare that the Holy Spiritproceeds eternally from the Father and the Son, not as from twobeginnings, but from one beginning, not from two breathings but fromone breathing. The most holy Roman Church, the mother and teacher ofall the faithful, has up to this time professed, preached, and taughtthis; this she firmly holds, preaches, declares, and teaches; theunchangeable and true opinion of the orthodox Fathers and Doctors,Latin as well as Greek, holds this. But because some through ignoranceof the irresistible aforesaid truth have slipped into various errors,we in our desire to close the way to errors of this kind, with theapproval of the sacred Council, condemn and reject (those) who presumeto deny that the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and theSon; as well as (those) who with rash boldness presume to declare thatthe Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son as from twobeginnings, and not as from one.

Profession of Faith of Michael Palaeologus *

461 We believe that the Holy Trinity, the Father, and the Son, and theHoly Spirit, is one God omnipotent and entire Deity in the Trinity,coessential and consubstantial, coeternal and co-omnipotent, of onewill, power, and majesty, the creator of all creatures, from whom areall things, in whom are all things, through whom all things which arein the heavens and on the earth, visible, invisible, corporal, andspiritual. We believe that each individual Person in the Trinity is onetrue God, complete and perfect.

462 We believe that the same Son of God, the Word of God, iseternally born from the Father, consubstantial, co-omnipotent, andequal through all things to the Father in divinity, temporally bornfrom the Holy Spirit and Mary ever Virgin with a rational soul; havingtwo births, one eternal birth from the Father, the other temporal fromthe mother; true God and true man, proper and perfect in each nature,not adopted nor phantastic, but the one and only Son of God, in two andfrom two natures, that is divine and human, in the singleness of oneperson impassible and immortal in divinity, but in humanity for us andfor our salvation having suffered in the true passion of the flesh,died, and was buried, descended to hell, and on the third day aroseagain from the dead in the true resurrection of the flesh, on thefortieth day after the resurrection with the flesh in which He aroseand with His soul ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand ofGod the Father, whence

463 He will come to judge the living and the dead, and will return toeach one according to his works whether they were good or evil. Webelieve also that the Holy Spirit is complete and perfect and true God,proceeding from the Father and the Son, coequal and consubstantial,co-omnipotent, and coeternal through all things with the Father and theSon. We believe that this holy Trinity is not three Gods but one God,omnipotent, eternal, invisible, and unchangeable.

Variant Readings

464 We believe that the true Church is holy, Catholic, apostolic,and one, in which is given one holy baptism and true remission of allsins. We believe also in the true resurrection of this flesh, which nowwe bear, and in eternal life. We believe also that the one author ofthe New and the Old Testament, of the Law, and of the Prophets and theApostles is the omnipotent God and Lord. This is the true CatholicFaith, and this in the above mentioned articles the most holy RomanChurch holds and teaches. But because of diverse errors introduced bysome through ignorance and by others from evil, it (the Church) saysand teaches that those who after baptism slip into sin must not berebaptized, but by true penance attain forgiveness of their sins.Because if they die truly repentant in charity before they have madesatisfaction by worthy fruits of penance for (sins) committed andomitted, their souls are cleansed after death by purgatorical orpurifying punishments, as Brother John * has explained to us. And torelieve punishments of this kind, the offerings of the living faithfulare of advantage to these, namely, the sacrifices of Masses, prayers,alms, and other duties of piety, which have customarily been performedby the faithful for the other faithful according to the regulations ofthe Church. However, the souls of those who after having received holybaptism have incurred no stain of sin whatever, also those souls who,after contracting the stain of sin, either while remaining in theirbodies or being divested of them, have been cleansed, as we have saidabove, are received immediately into heaven. The souls of those who diein mortal sin or with original sin only, however, immediately descendto hell, yet to be punished with different punishments. The same mostholy Roman Church firmly believes and firmly declares that neverthelesson the day of judgment "all" men will be brought together with theirbodies "before the tribunal of Christ" "to render an account" of theirown deeds [Rom. 14:10 ].

465 The same holy Roman Church also holds and teaches that theecclesiastical sacraments are seven: namely, one is baptism, concerningwhich we have spoken above; another is the sacrament of confirmationwhich the bishops confer through the imposition of hands when anointingthe reborn; another is penance; another the Eucharist; another thesacrament of orders; another is matrimony; another extreme unction,which according to the doctrine of St. James is given to the sick. Thesame Roman Church prepares the sacrament of the Eucharist fromunleavened bread, holding and teaching that in the same sacrament thebread is changed into the body, and the wine into the blood of JesusChrist. But concerning matrimony it holds that neither one man ispermitted to have many wives nor one woman many husbands at the sametime. But she (the Church) says that second and * third marriagessuccessively are permissible for one freed from a legitimate marriagethrough the death of the other party, if another canonical impedimentfor some reason is not an obstacle.

466 Also this same holy Roman Church holds the highest andcomplete primacy and spiritual power over the universal Catholic Churchwhich she truly and humbly recognizes herself to have received withfullness of power from the Lord Himself in Blessed Peter, the chief orhead of the Apostles whose successor is the Roman Pontiff. And just asto defend the truth of Faith she is held before all other things, so ifany questions shall arise regarding faith they ought to be defined byher judgment. And to her anyone burdened with affairs pertaining to theecclesiastical world can appeal; and in all cases looking forward to anecclesiastical examination, recourse can be had to her judgment, andall churches are subject to her; their prelates give obedience andreverence to her. In her, moreover, such a plentitude of power reststhat she receives the other churches to a share of her solicitude, ofwhich many patriarchal churches the same Roman Church has honored in aspecial way by different privileges-its own prerogative always beingobserved and preserved both in general Councils and in other places.

INNOCENT V 1276 MARTIN IV 1281-1285

HADRIAN V 1276 HONORIUS IV 1285-1287

JOHN XXI 1276-1277 NICHOLAS IV 1288-1292

NICHOLAS III 1277-1280 ST. CELESTINE V 1294-(l295)

BONIFACE VIII 1294-1303

Indulgences *

[From the jubilee Bull "Antiquorum habet" Feb. 22, 1300]

467 A faithful report of the ancients holds that to those approachingthe honorable Basilica of the Prince of the Apostles are granted greatremissions of sins and indulgences. We..... confirm and by apostolicauthority approve all such remissions and indulgences, holding them alland individually valid and pleasing . . . .

The Unity and Power of the Church *

[From the Bull "Unam Sanctam" November 18, 1302]

468 With Faith urging us we are forced to believe and to hold the one,holy, Catholic Church and that, apostolic, and we firmly believe andsimply confess this (Church) outside which there is no salvation norremission of sin, the Spouse in the Canticle proclaiming: "One is mydove, my perfect one. One she is of her mother, the chosen of her thatbore her" [ Song. 6:8]; which represents the one mystical body whosehead is Christ, of Christ indeed, as God. And in this, "one Lord, onefaith, one baptism" [Eph. 4:5]. Certainly Noah had one ark at the timeof the flood, prefiguring one Church which perfect on one cubit had oneruler and guide, namely Noah outside which we read all living things onthe earth were destroyed. Moreover this we venerate and this alone, theLord in the prophet saying: "Deliver, 0 God, my soul from the sword; myonly one from the hand of the dog" [ Ps. 21:21]. For in behalf of thesoul, that is, in behalf of himself, the head itself and the body heprayed at the same time, which body he called the "Only one" namely,the Church, because of the unity of the spouse, the faith, thesacraments, and the charity of the Church. This is that "seamlesstunic" of the Lord [ John 19:23], which was not cut, but came forth bychance. Therefore, of the one and only Church (there is) one body, onehead, not two heads as a monster, namely, Christ and Peter, the Vicarof Christ and the successor of Peter, the Lord Himself saying to Peter:"Feed my sheep" [ John 21:17]. He said "My," and generally, notindividually these or those, through which it is understood that Heentrusted all to him. If, therefore, the Greeks or others say that theywere not entrusted to Peter and his successors, of necessity let themconfess that they are not of the sheep of Christ, since the Lord saysin John, "to be one flock and one Shepherd" [John 10:16].

469 And we are taught by evangelical words that in this power of hisare two swords, namely spiritual and temporal. . . . Therefore, each isin the power of the Church, that is, a spiritual and a material sword.But the latter, indeed, must be exercised for the Church, the former bythe Church. The former (by the hand) of the priest, the latter by thehand of kings and soldiers, but at the will and sufferance of thepriest. For it is necessary that a sword be under a sword and thattemporal authority be subject to spiritual power. . . . It is necessarythat we confess the more clearly that spiritual power precedes anyearthly power both in dignity and nobility, as spiritual mattersthemselves excel the temporal. . . . For, as truth testifies, spiritualpower has to establish earthly power, and to judge if it was not good.. . . Therefore, if earthly power deviates, it will be judged byspiritual power; but if a lesser spiritual deviates, by its superior;but if the supreme (spiritual power deviates), it can be judged by Godalone, not by man, as the Apostle testifies: "The spiritual man judgesall things, but he himself is judged by no one" [1 Cor. 2:15]. But thisauthority, although it is given to man and is exercised by man, is nothuman, but rather divine, and has been given by the divine Word toPeter himself and to his successors in him, whom the Lord acknowledgedan established rock, when he said to Peter himself: "Whatsoever youshall bind" etc. [ Matt. 16:19]. Therefore, "whosoever resists thispower so ordained by God, resists the order of God" [cf.Rom. 13:2],unless as a Manichaean he imagines that there are two beginnings, whichwe judge false and heretical, because, as Moses testifies, not "in thebeginnings" but "in the beginning God created the heaven and earth"[cf. Gen. 1:1]. Furthermore, we declare, say, define, and proclaim toevery human creature that they by necessity for salvation are entirelysubject to the Roman Pontiff.

BENEDICT XI 1303-1304

The Repeated Confession of Sins *

[From the order "Inter cunctas sollicitudines" Feb. 17, 1304]

470 . . . Although . . . it is not necessary to confess the same sins asecond time, nevertheless, because of the shame which is a large partof repentance, we consider it of benefit to repeat the confession ofthe same sins, we strongly enjoin the Brothers [Preachers and Minors]carefully to advise those confessing, and in their sermons exhort thatthey confess to their own priests at least once in a year, declaringthat without doubt this pertains to the advancement of souls.

CLEMENT V 1305-1314

COUNCIL OF VIENNE 1311-1312

Ecumenical XV (abolition of the Templars)

The Errors of the Beghards and the Beguines (the State

of Perfection) *

471 1. That man in the present life can acquire so great and such adegree of perfection that he will be rendered inwardly sinless, andthat he will not be able to advance farther in grace; for, as they say,if anyone could always advance, he could become more perfect thanChrist.

472 2. That it is not necessary for man to fast or to pray, afterhe has attained a degree of such perfection; because then hissensuality is so perfectly subject to the spirit and to reason that mancan freely grant to the body whatever it pleases.

473 3. That those who are in the aforementioned degree ofperfection and in that spirit of liberty are not subject to humanobedience, nor are they bound to any precepts of the Church, because(as they assert) "where the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty [2Cor. 3:17].

474 4. That man can so attain final beatitude according to everydegree of perfection in the present life, as he will obtain it in theblessed life.

475 5. That any intellectual nature in its own self is naturallyblessed, and that the soul does not need the light of glory raising itto see God and to enjoy Him beatifically.

476 6. That it is characteristic of the imperfect man to exercisehimself in acts of virtue, and the perfect soul gives off virtues byitself.

477 7. That a woman's kiss, since nature does not incline to this, is amortal sin; but the carnal act, since nature inclines to this, is not asin, especially when the one exercising it is tempted.

478 8. That in the elevation of the body of Jesus Christ they ought notto arise nor to show reverence to it, declaring that it would becharacteristic of the imperfection in them, if from the purity anddepth of their contemplations they should descend to such a degree asto think about other things regarding the minister [other text,mystery] or the sacrament of the Eucharist or the passion of thehumanity of Christ.

A judgment: We with the approval of the Sacred Council condemnand disapprove completely that sect together with its past errors,restraining more strictly lest anyone in the future hold, approve, ordefend them.

Usury *

[From the edict "Ex gravi ad nos"]

479 If anyone shall fall into that error, so that he obstinatelypresumes to declare that it is not a sin to exercise usury, we decreethat he must be punished as a heretic.

The Errors of Peter John Olivi (The Wounds of Christ,

the Union of the Soul and Body,. and Baptism *)

[From the edict "De Summa Trinitate et fide catholica"]

480 (The incarnation). Clinging firmly to the "foundation" of theCatholic faith "against which," as the Apostle testifies "no one isable to place anything different" [cf. 1 Cor. 3:11], we openlyacknowledge with holy mother Church that the only begotten Son of Godin all these things in which God the Father is, existing eternallytogether with the Father, parts of our nature as well as unity, fromwhich He Himself existing as true God in Himself became true man,namely, a human body capable of suffering and an intellective orrational soul, forming the body by Himself and essentially, assumed ittemporarily in the Virginal womb unto the unity of its substance andperson. And that the same Word of God in this assumed nature, forworking out the salvation of all, wished not only to be fastened to theCross and to die on it, but also, after His Spirit had been given up,permitted His side to be pierced with a lance, that in the streams ofwater and blood which flowed from it there might be formed the one andonly immaculate virgin, holy Mother Church, the Spouse of Christ, justas from the side of the first man asleep Eve was formed into a marriagewith him, that so truth should respond to a certain figure of the firstand ancient Adam "who," according to the Apostle, "is formed for thefuture" [cf.Rom. 5:14], in our new Adam, that, is, Christ. That is, Isay, the truth, made strong by the testimony of that very great eaglewhich the prophet Ezechiel saw flying around the other evangelicalanimals, namely of St. John, the Apostle and Evangelist, who narratingin his Gospel the condition and order of this sacrament said: "Butafter they were come to Jesus, when they saw that He was already dead,they did not break His legs. But one of the soldiers with a spearopened His side, and immediately there came out blood and water. And hethat saw it has given testimony and his testimony is true. And he knowsthat he speaks the truth, that you [also] may believe" [John 19:33-35].We, therefore, turning our attention to such remarkable testimony andto the common opinion of apostolic reflection of the Holy Fathers andthe Doctors in accord with which alone it is proper to declare thesethings, with the approval of the sacred council we declare that theabove mentioned Apostle and Evangelist John had kept the right order ofthe deed accomplished in the aforesaid, when he said that Christ"already dead, one of the soldiers opened His side with a lance."

481 [The soul as a form of the body]. Furthermore, with the approval ofthe above mentioned sacred council we reprove as erroneous and inimicalto the Catholic faith every doctrine or position rashly asserting orturning to doubt that the substance of the rational or intellectivesoul truly and in itself is not a form of the human body, defining, sothat the truth of sincere faith may be known to all, and the approachto all errors may be cut off, lest they steal in upon us, that whoevershall obstinately presume in turn to assert, define, or hold that therational or intellective soul is not the form of the human body initself and essentially must be regarded as a heretic.

482 Besides, one baptism which regenerates all who are baptized inChrist must be faithfully confessed by all just as "one God and onefaith" [Eph. 4:5], which celebrated in water in the name of the Fatherand of the Son and of the Holy Spirit we believe to be commonly theperfect remedy for salvation for adults as for children.

483 But because certain theological doctors are found to have contraryopinions as to how great the effect of baptism (is) in the case ofchildren, certain of these saying that through the power of baptismindeed sin is remitted to children, but grace is not conferred, othersasserting on the contrary that sin is remitted for them in baptism andvirtues and forming grace are infused as a habit [see n. 410], althoughnot for them at the time as a function, we, however, considering thegeneral efficacy of the death of Christ, which through baptism isapplied equally to all the baptized, with the approval of the sacredcouncil, consider the second opinion to be preferred, which says thatforming grace and virtue are conferred on children as on adults, asmore probable, more consonant and more in agreement with the words ofthe saints and the modern doctors of theology.

JOHN XXII 1316-1334

The Errors of the Fraticelli (the Church and the Sacraments) *

[Condemned in the law "Gloriosam Ecclesiarn," January 23, 1318]

484 As a report worthy of faith holds, the sons of the above mentionedrashness and impiety have been driven to this weakness of mind, thatthey think impiously in opposition to the most renowned and salutarytruth of the Christian faith; they contemn the sacraments of the Churchwhich should be venerated, and in an attack of blind fury they whoshould be crushed by it, press against the glorious primacy of theRoman Church, saying that it ought to be overthrown by all nations.

485 (1) Thus, the first error which breaks forth from their darkworkshop invents two churches, the one carnal, packed with riches,overflowing with riches [others, luxuries], stained with crimes whichthey declare the Roman prefect and other inferior prelates dominate;the other spiritual, cleansed by frugality, beautiful in virtue, boundby poverty, in which they only and their companions are held, and whichthey, because of the merit of their spiritual life, if any faith shouldbe applied to lies, rule.

486 (2) The second error, by which the conscience of the abovementioned insolent is stained, cries out that the venerable priests ofthe Church and other ministers of jurisdiction and order' are so devoidof authority that they cannot pass sentences, nor perform thesacraments nor instruct nor teach the subject people, imagining thatthese have been deprived of all ecclesiastical power, whom they see arefree of their own heresy; because only in themselves (as theythemselves vainly think), just as the sanctity of a spiritual life, soauthority remains; and in this matter they are following the error ofthe Donatists. . . .

487 (3) The third error of these men conspires with the error of theWaldensians, since both declare that an oath was to be taken in nocase, propounding that who happen to be bound by the sacredness of anoath are defiled by the contagion of mortal sin and are bound bypunishment.

488 (4) The fourth blasphemy of such wicked men, breaking forthfrom the poisoned fount of the Waldensian teachings pretends thatpriests rightly and even legitimately ordained according to the form ofthe Church, yet weighed down by any sins cannot consecrate or conferthe ecclesiastical sacraments. . . .

489 (5) The fifth error so blinds the minds of these that theydeclare that the Gospel of Christ has been fulfilled in them alone atthis time, because up to now (as they foolishly think) it has beenconcealed or indeed entirely extinct. . . .

490 There are many other things which these very presumptuous men aresaid to babble against the venerable sacrament of matrimony; manythings which they foolishly believe concerning the course of time andthe end of time; many things which they propagate with lamentablevanity concerning the coming of the Antichrist which they declare evennow to be close at hand. All these things, because we recognize them aspartly heretical, partly senseless, partly fabulous, we decree must becondemned together with their authors rather than pursued or refutedwith a pen. . . .

The Errors of John of Pouilly ("Confession and the Church") *

[Examined and condemned in the edict "Vas electionis," July 21, 1321]

491 (1). That they who have confessed to brothers having thegeneral permission of hearing confessions are bound to confess againthose same sins which have been confessed, to their own priest.

492 (2). That under the existing law "everyone of each sex" publishedin the General Council [Later. IV. see n. 437] the Roman Pontiff cannotbring it about that parishioners be not bound to confess all their sinsonce a year to their own priest, who, it says, is the parish curate;indeed neither could God do this, because, as it says, this involvescontradiction.

493 (3). That the Pope cannot give the general power of hearingconfessions, indeed neither can God, without the one who has confessedto one having general power being bound to confess these same sinsagain to his own priest, who, it says, as we have already indicated, isthe parish curate. . . .

All the above mentioned articles and each one of them we, byapostolic authority, condemn and reprove as false and erroneous anddeviating from sound authority . . . . declaring that the true andCatholic doctrine is contrary to them.

Hell and Limbo(?)*

[From the letter "Nequaquam sine dolore" to the Armenians,

Nov. 21, 1321]

493a It (The Roman Church) teaches. . . . . that the souls . . . . . ofthose who die in mortal sin, or with only original sin descendimmediately into hell; however, to be punished with different penaltiesand in different places.

The Poverty of Christ*

[From the edict "Cum inter nonnullos," Nov. 13, 1323]

494 Since among some learned men it often happens that doubt is againraised as to whether should be branded as heretical to affirmpersistently that our Redeemer and Lord Jesus Christ and His apostlesdid not possess anything either in particular or even in common, eventhough there are different and adverse opinions on that question, we,in a desire to put an end to this controversy, declare on the advice ofour brethren by this perpetual edict that a persistent assertion ofthis kind shall henceforth be branded as erroneous and heretical, sinceit expressly contradicts Sacred Scripture, which in many passagesasserts that they did have some possessions; and since with regard tothe aforementioned it openly submits that Sacred Scripture itself, bywhich surely the articles of orthodox faith are approved, contains aferment of falsehood and consequently, in so far as in it lies,completely voiding the faith of Scripture it renders the Catholicfaith, by destroying its approval, doubtful and uncertain. Moreover, inthe future to affirm persistently that the right to use these samepossessions which Sacred Scripture testifies that they had was by nomeans appropriate to our aforesaid Redeemer and His apostles, and thatthey did not have the right to sell or to donate them or to acquireothers by means of them, which, nevertheless, Sacred Scripturetestifies that they did according to the aforesaid or submits expresslythat they could have done, since such an assertion evidently includesuse and deeds on their part, in the aforesaid, it is not just; sincesurely it is wicked, contrary to Sacred Scripture, and to Catholicdoctrine about the use, actions, or deeds on the part of our Redeemer,the Son of God, we declare on the advice of our brethren that thepersistent assertion shall henceforth be worthily branded as erroneousand heretical.

Errors of Marsilius of Padua and John of Jandun

(The Constitution of the Church) *

[Examined and condemned in the edict "Licet iuxta doctrinam" Oct. 23, 1327]

495 (1) That what we read about Christ in the Gospel of St. Matthew,that He Himself paid tribute to Caesar, when He ordered the staterwhich had been taken from the mouth of the fish [cf.Matt. 17:26] to begiven to those who sought a drachma, He did this not with condescensionout of liberality or piety, but forced by necessity.

[ Thence according to the Bull they concluded ]:

That all temporal affairs of the Church are subject to the emperor and he can accept these things as his own.

496 (2) That blessed Peter the Apostle had no more authority than theother Apostles had nor was he the head of the other apostles. Likewisethat God did not send forth any head of the Church, nor did He makeanyone His vicar.

497 (3) That it pertains to the emperor to correct, to appoint, to depose, and to punish the pope.

498 (4) That all priests, whether the pope or archbishop or a simplepriest, are by the institution of Christ equal in authority andjurisdiction. (5) That the whole Church joined together can punish noman by 499 forced punishment, unless the emperor permits this.

500 We declare by sentence the above mentioned articles..... to becontrary to Sacred Scripture and enemies of the Catholic faith,heretics, or heretical and erroneous,and also that the above mentionedMarsilius and John, will be heretics-rather they will be manifest andnotorious archheretics.

Errors of Eckart (The Son of God, etc.) *

[Examined and condenined in the edict "In agro dominico," Mar. 27, 1329]

501 (1) And when asked why God did not create the world first, heanswered that God was not able to create the world first, * because Hecannot make things before He is; therefore, as soon as God was, Heimmediately created the world.

502 (2) Likewise it can be granted that the world existed from eternity.

503 (3) Likewise at the same time and once, when God was, when He begotthe Son coeternal with Himself, through all things coequal God, He alsocreated the world.

504 (4) Likewise in every work, even evil, evil I say, as of punishmentand of sin, the glory of God is manifested and reflects equally.

505 (5) Likewise he who blames anyone, in the blame itself by the sinof blaming praises God, and the more he blames and the more gravely hesins, the more he praises God.

506 (6) Likewise anyone by blaspheming God Himself, praises God.

507 (7) Also he seeking anything here or there seeks evil andbadly be cause he seeks the denial of good and the denial of God, andhe prays God to be denied to him.

508 (8) In those men who do not seek after wealth, or honors, orutility, or interior devotion, or sanctity or reward, or the kingdom ofheaven, but renounce all these things even that which is theirs, God ishonored.

509 (9) Recently I have considered whether I would wish toreceive or to wish for anything from God; I wish to deliberateexceedingly well about this, because when I was receiving from God,then I was under Him or below Him, as a servant or slave, and He [was]as a master in giving, and thus we ought not to be in eternal life.

510 (10) We are transformed entirely in God, and we are changedinto Him; in a similar manner as in the sacrament the bread is changedinto the body of Christ; so I am changed into Him because He Himselfmakes me to be one with Him, not like (to Him); through the living Godit is true that there is no distinction there.

511 (11) Whatever God the Father gave to His only begotten Son inhuman nature, all this He has given to me; here I except nothing,neither union, nor sanctity, but He has given all to me as to Himself.

512 (12) Whatever Sacred Scripture says about Christ, all this also is verified with respect to every good and divine man.

513 (13) Whatever is proper to divine nature, all this is proper to thejust and divine man; because of this that man operates whatever Godoperates, and together with God he created heaven and earth, and he isthe generator of the eternal Word, and God without such a man does notknow how to do anything.

514 (14) A good man ought so to conform his will to the divinewill that he himself wishes whatever God wishes; because God wishes meto have sinned in some way, I would not wish that I had not committedsins, and this is true repentance.

515 (15) If man had committed a thousand mortal sins, if such a manwere rightly disposed, he ought not to wish that he had not committedthem.

516 (16) God properly does not prescribe an exterior act.

517 (17) An exterior act is not properly good or divine, neither does God properly operate it or produce it.

518 (18) We bring forth the fruit not of exterior actions which do notmake us good, but of interior actions which the Father abiding in usdoes and operates.

519 (19) God loves souls, not works outside.

520 (20) A good man is the only begotten Son of God.

521 (21) A noble man is that only begotten Son of God whom the Father has begotten from eternity.

522 (22) The Father begot me His son and the same Son. WhateverGod does, this is one; because of this He Himself begot me His Sonwithout any distinction.

523 (23) God is one in all ways and according to every reason, so thatin Himself He cannot find any multitude in intellect or outsideintellect; for he who sees two, or sees a distinction, does not seeGod, for God is one beyond the above number, neither is He counted one[read: number I with anyone. It follows, therefore, that no distinctioncan exist or be understood in God Himself.

524 (24) Every distinction is foreign to God, either in nature or inperson; it is proved that nature itself is one and this oneness, andany person is one and the oneness which is nature.

525 (25) When it is said: "Simon, do you love me more than these?"[John 21:15 f.], the sense is: That is, more than those and indeed wellbut not perfectly. For in thefirst and the second and more and lessthereis both a degree and a rank; in oneness, however, there is nodegree nor rank. Therefore, he who loves God more than his neighbor,(loves) indeed well but not yet perfectly.

526 (26) All creatures are one pure nothing; I do not say that they aresomething ordinary or anything, but that they are one pure nothing.

In addition there is an objection against the above said Eckart, because he preached two other articles under these words:

527 (1) Something is in the soul which is uncreated and incapable ofcreation; if the entire soul were such, it would be uncreated andincapable of creation, and this is the intellect.

528 (2) That God is not good nor better nor best; so I speak badly whenever I call God good, as if I should call white black.

529 . . . We condemn and expressly disapprove the first fifteenarticles and also the two last ones as "heretical," but the elevenothers already mentioned as "evil-sounding, rash, and suspected ofheresy," and no less any books or works of this Eckart containing theabove mentioned articles or any one of them.

BENEDICT XII 1334-1342

The Beatific Vision of God and the Last Days *

[From the edict "Benedictus Deus," Jan. 29, 1336]

530 By this edict which will prevail forever, with apostolic authoritywe declare: that according to the common arrangement of God, souls ofall the saints who departed from this world before the passion of ourLord Jesus Christ; also of the holy apostles, the martyrs, theconfessors, virgins, and the other faithful who died after the holybaptism of Christ had been received by them, in whom nothing was to bepurged, when they departed, nor will there be when they shall departalso in the future; or if then there was or there will be anything tobe purged in these when after their death they have been purged; andthe souls of children departing before the use of free will, reborn andbaptized in that same baptism of Christ, when all have been baptized,immediately after their death and that aforesaid purgation in those whowere in need of a purgation of this kind, even before the resumption oftheir bodies and the general judgment after the ascension of ourSavior, our Lord Jesus Christ, into heaven, have been, are, and will bein heaven, in the kingdom of heaven and in celestial paradise withChrist, united in the company of the holy angels, and after the passionand death of our Lord Jesus Christ have seen and see the divine essenceby intuitive vision, and even face to face, with no mediating creature,serving in the capacity of an object seen, but divine essenceimmediately revealing itself plainly, clearly, and openly, to them, andseeing thus they enjoy the same divine essence, and also that from suchvision and enjoyment their souls, which now have departed, are trulyblessed and they have eternal life and rest; and also [the souls] ofthose who afterwards will depart, will see that same divine essence,and will enjoy it before the general judgment; and that such vision ofthe divine essence and its enjoyment makes void the acts of faith andhope in them, inasmuch as faith and hope are proper theologicalvirtues; and that after there has begun or will be such intuitive andface-to-face vision and enjoyment in these, the same vision andenjoyment without any interruption [intermission] or departure of theaforesaid vision and enjoyment exist continuously and will continueeven up to the last judgment and from then even unto eternity.

531 Moreover, we declare that according to the common arrangement ofGod, the souls of those who depart in actual mortal sin immediatelyafter their death descend to hell where they a-re tortured by infernalpunishments, and that nevertheless on the day of judgment all men withtheir bodies will make themselves ready to render an account of theirown deeds before the tribunal of Christ, "so that everyone may receivethe proper things of the body according as he has done whether it begood or evil" [ 2 Cor. 5:10].

Errors of the Armenians *

[From the book "lam dudum" sent to the Armenians in the year 1341]

532 (4) Also that the Armenians say and hold that the personal sin ofour first parents themselves was so serious that all of their childrenpropagated from their seed up to the passion of Christ have beendeservedly condemned for the aforesaid personal sin, and they have beenthrust into hell after death, not because they themselves havecontracted some original sin from Adam, since they say that childrenhave no original sin at all, neither before the passion of Christ norafter, but that the aforementioned condemnation before the passion ofChrist followed them by reason of the gravity of the personal sin whichAdam and Eve committed by transgressing the divine precept which hadbeen given to them; but after the passion of our Lord, by which the sinof our first parents was erased, the children who are born from thesons of Adam are not subject to this condemnation, nor are they to bethrust into hell by reason of the aforesaid sin, because Christ erasedentirely the sin of our first parents in His passion.

533 (5) Also that a certain teacher of the Armenians called Mechitriz,which is interpreted the paraclete, has again introduced and taughtthat the human soul of the son is propagated from the soul of hisfather, as the body from his body; and also one angel from another,because since a human soul is rational and an angel is of intellectualnature, they are in a way spiritual lights, and from themselves theypropagate other spiritual lights.

534 (6) Also the Armenians say that the souls of children who are bornfrom Christian parents after the passion of Christ, if they die beforethey are baptized, go to a terrestial Paradise in which Adam was beforesin; but the souls of children who are born after the passion of Christfrom non-Christian parents and who die without baptism go to the placewhere the souls of their parents are.

535 (17) Also that the Armenians commonly believe and hold that inanother world there is no purgation of souls, because, as they say, ifa Christian confesses his sins, all his sins and the punishments of hissins are forgiven him. They do not even pray for the dead, that theirsins may be forgiven them in another world, but in general they prayfor all the dead, as for blessed Mary, the apostles. . . .

536 (18) Also that the Armenians believe and hold that Christ descendedfrom heaven and became incarnate for the salvation of men, not onaccount of the fact that the sons propagated from Adam and Eve aftertheir sin contracted from them original sin, from which through theincarnation and death of Christ they will be saved, since they say thatno such sin exists in the sons of Adam; but they say that Christ forthe salvation of man became incarnate and suffered, because through Hispassion the sons of Adam who preceded the aforesaid passion have beenfreed from hell in which they were, not because of original sin whichwas in them, but because of the gravity of the personal sin of ourfirst parents. They also believe that Christ for the salvation ofchildren who were born after His passion became incarnate and suffered,because by His passion He entirely destroyed hell. . . .

537 (19) In such a degree they (the Armenians) say that (the aforesaid)concupiscence of the flesh is a sin and evil, that even Christianparents when they lie together in marriage commit a sin . . . . becausethey say that the marriage act and even matrimony itself is a sin. . . .

538 (40) Some indeed say that bishops and priests of the Armenians donothing toward the remission of sins either principally orministerially, but God alone remits sins; neither bishops nor priestsare employed to perform the aforesaid remission of sins, except thatthey have received the power of speaking from God, and so when theyabsolve they say: "May God forgive you your sins" or, "I forgive youyour sins on earth and God forgives you in heaven."

539 (42) Also the Armenians hold and say that the passion ofChrist alone, without any other gift of God, even grace, suffices forthe remission of sins; they do not say that sanctifying grace isrequired for the granting of remission of sins, nor that in thesacraments of the new law sanctifying grace is given.

540 (48) Also the Armenians say and hold that, if theArmenians commit any crime whatsoever once, certain ones excepted,their church can absolve them, as far as the fault and the punishmentof the aforesaid sins are concerned; but, if afterwards anyone shouldcommit the aforesaid sins again, he could not be absolved by theirchurch.

541 (49) Also they say that if any one . . . takes a third [wife] or afourth, one after another, he cannot be absolved by their church,because they say that such a marriage is fornication. . . .

542 (58) Also the Armenians hold and say that for what is true baptism,these three things are required: namely water, chrism . . . and theEucharist, so that if anyone should baptize another in water whilesaying: "I baptize you in the name of the Father and of the Son and ofthe Holy Spirit, Amen" and afterwards he should not be anointed withthe (aforesaid) chrism, he would not be baptized. . . .

543 (64) Also the Catholicon of lesser Armenia says thatthe sacrament of confirmation is of no value, and if it has any valuehe himself has given permission to his priests that they confer thesame sacrament.

544 (67) Also that the Armenians do not say that, after theaforesaid words of the consecration of bread and wine are said, thetransubstantiation of bread and wine into the true body and blood ofChrist, which was born of the Virgin Mary, suffered, and arose again,is accomplished; but they hold that this sacrament is an example orlikeness or figure of the true body and blood of the Lord . . . onaccount of which they do not call the sacrament of the Altar the bodyand blood of the Lord, but a victim or sacrifice or communion. . . .

545 (68) Also the Armenians say and hold that if an ordainedpriest or bishop commits fornication, even in secret, he loses thepower of consecrating and of administering all the sacraments.

546 (70) Also the Armenians do not say nor hold that the sacrament ofthe Eucharist worthily received operates in him who receives remissionof sin, or the relaxation of punishments due to sin, or that through itthe grace of God or its increase is granted; but . . . the body ofChrist enters into his body and is changed into him as other foods arechanged in the one who has been fed. . . .

547 (92) Also that among the Armenians there are only three orders,namely the offices of acolyte, deacon, and priest, which orders thebishops confer after money has been promised or received. And in thesame manner the aforesaid orders of the priesthood and diaconate areconfirmed, that is, through the imposition of the hands, by sayingcertain words, with this change only, that in the ordination of thedeacon the order of diaconate is expressed, and in the ordination ofthe priest the order of the priesthood. For no bishop among them canordain another bishop except the Catholicon alone. . . .

548 (95) Also that the Catholicon of lesser Armenia gave power to acertain priest that he might be able to ordain to the diaconate thoseof his subjects whom he wished.

549 (109) Also that among the Armenians no one is punished for anyerror whatsoever which he may hold. . . . [117 numbers are extant].

CLEMENT VI 1342-1352

550 The Satisfaction of Christ, the Treasure of the Church,

Indulgences *

[From the Bull of jubilee, "Unigenitus Dei Filius," Jan. 25, 1343]

The only begotten Son of God . . . "made unto us from God,wisdom, justice, sanctification and redemption" [1 Cor. 3], "neither bythe blood of goats or of calves, but by His own blood entered once intothe holies having obtained eternal redemption" [Heb. 9:12]. "For notwith corruptible things as gold or silver, but with the precious bloodof His very (Son) as of a lamb unspotted and unstained He has redeemedus" [cf.1 Pet. 1:18-19], who innocent, immolated on the altar of theCross is known to have poured out not a little drop of blood, whichhowever on account of union with the Word would have been sufficientfor the redemption of the whole human race, but copiously as a kind offlowing stream, so that "from the soles of His feet even to the top ofHis Head no soundness was found in Him" [ Is. 1:6]. Therefore, howgreat a treasure did the good Father acquire from this for the Churchmilitant, so that the mercy of so great an effusion was not rendereduseless, vain or superfluous, wishing to lay up treasures for His sons,so that thus the Church is an infinite treasure to men, so that theywho use it, become the friends of God [ Wis. 7:14].

551 Indeed this treasure . . . through blessed Peter, the keeper of thekeys of heaven and his successors, his vicars on earth, He hascommitted to be dispensed for the good of the faithful, both fromproper and reasonable causes, now for the whole, now for partialremission of temporal punishment due to sins, in general as inparticular (according as they know to be expedient with God), to beapplied mercifully to those who truly repentant have confessed.

552 Indeed, to the mass of this treasure the merits of the BlessedMother of God and of all the elect from the first just even to thelast, are known to give their help; concerning the consumption or thediminution of this there should be no fear at any time, because of theinfinite merits of Christ (as was mentioned before) as well as for thereason that the more are brought to justification by its application,the greater is the increase of the merits themselves.

Errors (philosophical) of Nicholas of Autrecourt *

[Condemned and publicly recalled by him in the year 1347]

553 1 . . . That through natural appearances no certainty, as it were,be had regarding things; yet that measure can be had in a short time,if men turn their intellect to things and not to the intellect ofAristotle and his commentator.

554 2 . . . That clearly from the above mentioned evidence fromone matter another matter cannot be inferred or concluded, or from thenonexistence of one, the nonexistence of another.

555 3 . . . That the propositions: "God is" and "God isnot" signify entirely the same thing, although in a different way.

556 9 . . .That the certainty of evidence does not have degrees.

557 10 . . . That we do not have from our soul the certainty of evidence concerning another material substance.

558 11 . . . That with the certainty of faith excepted there wasnot another certainty except the certainty of the first principle, orthat which can be resolved into the first principle.

559 14 . . . That we do not know clearly that other things can be fromGod because of some effect--that some cause works efficiently which isnot God--that some efficient cause is or can be natural.

560 15 . . . That we do not know clearly whether any effect is or can be produced naturally.

561 17 . . . That we do not know clearly that in any production the subject concurs.

562 21 . . . That in any demonstrated matter whatever no one knows clearly that in truth it surpasses all others in nobility.

563 22 . . . That in any demonstrated matter no one knows clearly thatthis thing is not God, if by God we understand the most noble substance.

564 25 . . . That one does not know clearly that in truth it can bereasonably conceded, "if any matter has been produced, God has beenproduced."

565 26 . . . That it cannot be shown clearly that in truth any matter at all is eternal.

566 30 . . . That these consequences are not clear: "An act ofunderstanding exists; therefore intelligence exists. An act of willingexists, therefore will exists."

567 31 . . . That it cannot be shown clearly that in truth all things which are apparent are true.

568 32 . . .That God and the creature are not something.

569 40 . . .That whatever exists in the universe is better that, than not that.

570 53 . . .That this is the first principle and not another: "If something is, it is something."

The Primacy of the Roman Pontiff*

[From the letter "Super quibusdam" to the Consolator,

the Catholicon of the Armenians, Sept. 20, 1351]

570a 3 . . . We ask: In the first place, whether you and the Church ofthe Armenians which is obedient to you, believe that all those who inbaptism have received the same Catholic faith, and afterwards havewithdrawn and will withdraw in the future from the communion of thissame Roman Church, which one alone is Catholic, are schismatic andheretical, if they remain obstinately separated from the faith of thisRoman Church.

570b In the second place, we ask whether you and the Armenians obedientto you believe that no man of the wayfarers outside the faith of thisChurch, and outside the obedience of the Pope of Rome, can finally besaved.

570c But in the second chapter . . . we ask:

First, whether you have believed, believe, or are prepared tobelieve with the Church of the Armenians which is obedient to you, thatblessed Peter received complete power of jurisdiction over all faithfulChristians from our Lord Jesus Christ; and that every power ofjurisdiction, which in certain lands and provinces and in differentparts of the world especially and particularly Jude Thaddeus and theother Apostles had, was completely subject to the authority and powerwhich blessed Peter received from our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, overwhomsoever are believers in Christ in all parts of the world, and thatno apostle or any other one whosoever received that very complete powerover all Christians except Peter alone.

570d In the second place, whether you have believed, have held, or areprepared to believe and to hold with the Armenians subject to you thatall the Roman Pontiffs, who succeeding blessed Peter have enteredcanonically and will enter canonically, have succeeded blessed Peterthe Roman Pontiff and will succeed in the same plentitude in thejurisdiction of power over the complete and universal body of themilitant church which blessed Peter himself received from our LordJesus Christ.

570e In the third place, if you and the Armenians subject to you havebelieved and do believe that the Roman Pontiffs who have been and wewho now are the Roman Pontiff and, those who in future will besuccessively as legitimate vicars of Christ and full of power in thehighest degree, have received immediately from Christ Himself over thecomplete and universal body of the church militant, every jurisdictionof power which Christ as fitting head had in human life.

570f In the fourth place, if you have believed and now believe that allthe Roman Pontiffs who have been and we who are, and others who will bein the future from the plentitude of past power and authority have beenable, are able, and will be able directly by our own power and theirsboth to judge all those subject to our jurisdiction and theirs, and toestablish and delegate ecclesiastical judges to judge whomsoever wewish.

570g In the fifth place, if you have believed and now believe that tosuch an extent has been, is, and will be both pre-eminent authoritytogether with juridical power of the Roman Pontiffs who have been, ofus who are, and of those who in future will be, has been, is, and willbe so extensive, that by no one have they been, can we be, or will theyin the future be able to be judged; but they have been, we are, andthey will be reserved for judgment by God alone; and that from oursentences and judgments it has not been possible nor will it bepossible for an appeal to be made to any judges.

570h In the sixth place, if you have believed and still believe thatthe plentitude of the power of the Roman Pontiff extends so far that itis possible to transfer patriarchs, the Catholicon, the archbishops,bishops, abbots, and whatsoever other prelates from the offices inwhich they have been established to other offices of greater or lesserjurisdiction, or, as their sins demand, to demote, to depose,excommunicate, or to surrender them to Satan.

570i In the seventh place, if you have believed and still believe thatthe Pontifical authority cannot or ought not to be subject to anyimperial or regal or other secular power, in so far as pertains to ajudicial institution, to correction or to deposition.

570k In the eighth place, if you have believed and now believe that theRoman Pontiff alone is able to establish sacred general canons, togrant plenary indulgences to those who visit the thresholds of theApostles, Peter and Paul, or to those who go to the Holy Land, or toany of the faithful who are truly and fully repentant and haveconfessed.

570l In the ninth place, if you have believed and do believe thatall who have raised themselves against the faith of the Roman Churchand have died in final impenitence have been damned and have descendedto the eternal punishments of hell.

570m In the tenth place, if you have believed and still believe thatthe Roman Pontiff regarding the administration of the sacraments of theChurch, can tolerate and even permit different rites of the Church ofChrist, in order that they may be saved, provided that those mattersare always preserved which belong to the integrity and necessity of thesacraments.

570o In the eleventh place, if you have believed and now believe thatthe Armenians, who are obedient to the Roman Pontiff in different partsof the world and who observe studiously and with devotion the forms andrites of the Roman Church in the administration of the sacraments andin ecclesiastical duties, fasts, and other ceremonies do well, and bydoing this merit eternal life.

570p In the twelfth place, if you have believed and now believe that noone can be transferred from episcopal offices to the archiepiscopal,patriarchal, or to the Catholicon by his own authority, nor even by theauthority of any secular leader whomsoever, whether he be king oremperor, or any one also distinguished by any such power or earthlyoffice.

570q In the thirteenth place if you have believed, and still believethat the Roman Pontiff alone, when doubts arise regarding the Catholicfaith, through authentic decision can impose the limit to which allmust inviolably adhere, and that whatever by the authority of the keyshanded to him by Christ, he determines to be true is true and Catholic,and what he determines to be false and heretical, must be so regarded.

In the fourteenth place, if you have believed and now believethat the New and Old Testaments in all their books, which the authorityof the Roman Church has given to us, contain undoubted truth in allthings.

P urgatory*

[From the same letter to Consolator]

570s We ask if you have believed and now believe that there is apurgatory to which depart the souls of those dying in grace who havenot yet made complete satisfaction for their sins. Also, if you havebelieved and now believe that they will be tortured by fire for a timeand that as soon as they are cleansed, even before the day of judgment,they may come to the true and eternal beatitude which consists in thevision of God face to face and in love.

The Matter and Minister of Confirmation*

[From the same letter to Consolator]

571 (12) You have given responses which influence us to ask thefollowing from you: first, concerning the consecration of chrism,whether you believe that the chrism can rightly and deservedly beconsecrated by no priest who is not a bishop.

572 Second, whether you believe that the sacrament of confirmationcannot ordinarily be administered by any other than by the bishop byvirtue of his office.

573 Third, whether you believe that by the Roman Pontiffalone, having a plentitude of power, the administration of thesacrament of confirmation can be granted to priests who are not bishops.

574 Fourth, whether you believe that those confirmed by any priestswhatsoever, who are not bishops and who have not received from theRoman Pontiff any commission or concession regarding this, must beanointed again by a bishop or bishops.

The Errors of the Armenians

[From the same letter to Consolator]

574a (15) After all the above mentioned, we are forced to wonderstrongly that in a certain letter, which begins, "To the honorableFathers in Christ," you retract fourteen chapters from the firstfifty-three chapters. First, that the Holy Spirit proceeds from theFather and the Son. Third, that children contract original sin fromtheir first parents. Sixth, that souls separated from their bodies,when entirely cleansed, clearly see God. Ninth, that the souls of thosedeparting in mortal sin descend into hell. Twelfth, that baptismdestroys original and actual sins. Thirteenth, that Christ did notdestroy a lower hell by descending into hell. Fifteenth, that theangels were created good by God. Thirtieth, that the pouring out of theblood of animals works no remission of sins. Thirty-second, those whoeat of fish and oil on the days of fasts, shall not judge.Thirty-ninth, that having been baptized in the Catholic Church, if theybecome unfaithful and afterwards are converted, they must not bebaptized again. Fortieth, that children can be baptized before theeighth day and that baptism cannot be by any liquid other than purewater. Forty-second, that the body of Christ after the words ofconsecration is the same in number as the body born from the Virgin andimmolated on the Cross. Forty-fifth, that no one even a saint canconsecrate the body of Christ, unless he is a priest. Forty-sixth, thatit is necessary for salvation to confess all mortal sins perfectly anddistinctly to one's own priest or with his permission (to anotherpriest).

INNOCENT VI 1352-1362

URBAN V 1362-1370

Errors of Dionysius Foullechat (Perfection and Poverty) *

[Condemned in the order "Ex suprernae clementiae dono," Dec. 23, 1368]

575 (1) This blessed, indeed most blessed and sweetest law, namely, thelaw of love, takes away all propriety and power,--false, erroneous,heretical.

576 (2) The actual renunciation of sincere will and temporal powersshows and produces the most perfect state of dominionorauthority-false, erroneous, heretical.

577 (3) That Christ did not renounce such possession and right intemporal things is not held according to the New Law, but rather theopposite false, erroneous, heretical.

GREGORY XI 1370-1378

Errors of Peter of Bonageta and of John of Lato

(The Most Holy Eucharist) *

[Examined and condemned by the Inquisitors according

to the mandate of the Pontiff]

578 (1) That if a consecrated host fall or is cast into a sewer,into mud, or some disgraceful place, that, while the species remain,the body of Christ ceases to be under them and the substance of breadreturns.

579 (2) That if the consecrated host is gnawed by a mouse or isconsumed by an animal, that, while the so-called species remains, thebody of Christ ceases to be under them and the substance of breadreturns.

580 (3) That if the consecrated host is consumed by a just man orby a sinner, that while the species is being crushed by the teeth,Christ is snatched up to heaven and He is not cast into the stomach ofman.

URBAN VI 1378-1389 INNOCENT VII 1404-1406

BONIFACE IX 1389-1404 GREGORY XII 1406-1415

MARTIN V 1417-1431

COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE 1414-1418

Ecumenical XVI (against Wycliffe, Hus, etc.)

SESSION VIII (May 4, 1415)

Errors of John Wycliffe *

[Condemned in Council and by the Bulls "Inter Cunctas"

and "In eminentis" Feb. 22, 1418]

581 1. In the sacrament of the altar the material substance of bread and likewise the material substance of wine remain.

582 2. In the same sacrament the accidents of the bread do not remainwithout a subject. The sacrament Christ is not identically and reallywith His

583 3. In the same sacrament Christ is not identically and really with His own bodily presence.

584 4. If a bishop or priest is living in mortal sin, he does not ordain, nor consecrate, nor perform, nor baptize.

585 5. it is not established in the Gospel that Christ arranged the Mass.

586 6. God ought to obey the devil.

587 7. If man is duly contrite, every exterior confession on his part is superfluous and useless.

588 8. If the pope is foreknown and evil, and consequently a member ofthe devil, he does not have power over the faithful given to him byanyone, unless perchance by Caesar.

589 9. After Urban VI no one should be received as pope, unless he live according to the customs of the Greeks under their laws.

590 10. It is contrary to Sacred Scripture that ecclesiastical men have possessions.

591 11. No prelate should excommunicate anyone, unless first he knowsthat he has been excommunicated by God; and he who so excommunicatesbecomes, as a result of this, a heretic or excommunicated.

592 12. A prelate excommunicating a cleric who has appealed tothe king, or to a council of the kingdom, by that very act is a traitorof the king and the kingdom.

593 13. Those who cease to preach or to hear the word of God because ofthe excommunication of men, are themselves excommunicated, and in thejudgment of God they will be considered traitors of Christ.

594 14. It is permissible for any deacon or priest to preach the wordof God without the authority of the Apostolic See or a Catholic bishop.

595 15. No one is a civil master, no one a prelate, no one a bishop, as long as he is in mortal sin.

596 16. Temporal rulers can at their will take away temporal goods fromthe Church, when those who have possessions habitually offend, that is,offend by habit, not only by an act.

597 17. People can at their will correct masters who offend.

598 18. The tithes are pure alms and parishioners can take these away at will because of the sins of their prelates.

599 19. Special prayers applied to one person by prelates or religiousare not of more benefit to that person than general (prayers), allother things being equal.

600 20. One bringing alms to the Brothers is excommunicated by that very thing.

601 21. If anyone enters any private religious community of any kind,of those having possessions or of the mendicants, he is rendered unfitand unsuited for the observance of the laws of God.

602 22. Saints, instituting private religious communities, have sinned by instituting them.

603 23. Religious living in private religious communities are not of the Christian religion.

604 24. Brothers are bound to acquire their food by the labor of hands and not by begging.

605 25. All are simoniacs who oblige themselves to pray for others who assist them in temporal matters.

606 26. The prayer for the foreknown is of avail to no one.

607 27. All things happen from absolute necessity.

608 28. The confirmation of youths, ordination of clerics, andconsecration of places are reserved to the pope and bishops on accountof their desire for temporal gain and honor.

609 29. Universities, studies, colleges, graduations, and officesinstruction in the same have been introduced by a vain paganism; theyare of as much value to the Church as the devil.

610 30. The excommunication of the pope or of any prelate whatsoever isnot to be feared, because it is the censure of the Antichrist.

611 31. Those who found cloisters sin and those who enter (them) are diabolical men.

612 32. To enrich the clergy is contrary to the rule of Christ.

613 33. Sylvester, the Pope, and Constantine, the Emperor, erred in enriching the Church.

614 34. All of the order of mendicants are heretics, and those who give alms to them are excommunicated.

615 35. Those entering religion or any order, by that very fact areunsuited to observe divine precepts, and consequently to enter thekingdom of heaven, unless they apostatize from these.

616 36. The pope with all his clergy who have possessions are heretics,because they have possessions; and all in agreement with these, namelyall secular masters and other laity.

617 37. The Roman Church is a synagogue of Satan, and the pope is not the next and immediate vicar of Christ and His apostles.

618 38. The decretal letters are apocryphal and they seduce from the faith of Christ, and the clergy who study them are foolish.

619 39. The emperor and secular masters have been seduced by the devil to enrich the Church with temporal goods.

620 40. The election of the pope by cardinals was introduced by the devil.

621 41. It is not necessary for salvation to believe that the Roman Church is supreme among other churches.

622 42. It is foolish to believe in the indulgences of the pope and bishops.

623 43. Oaths are illicit which are made to corroborate human contracts and civil commerce.

624 44. Augustine, Benedict, and Bernard have been damned, unlessthey repented about this, that they had possessions and instituted andentered religious communities; and thus from the pope to the lastreligious, all are heretics.

625 45. All religious communities without distinction have been introduced by the devil.

See the theological censures of these 45 articles to be proposed to the Wycliffites and Hussites,n.. 11 (661 below).

SESSION XIII (June 15, 1415)

Definition of Communion under One Species *

626 Since in some parts of the world certain ones have rashly presumedto assert that Christian people should receive the sacrament of theEucharist under both species of bread and wine, and since they givecommunion to the laity indiscriminately, not only under the species ofbread, but also under the species of wine, after dinner or otherwisewhen not fasting, and since they pertinaciously assert that communionshould be enjoyed contrary to the praiseworthy custom of the Churchreasonably approved which they try damnably to disprove as a sacrilege,it is for this reason that this present Council . . . declares,decides, and defines, that, although Christ instituted that venerablesacrament after supper and administered it to His disciples under bothspecies of bread and wine; yet, notwithstanding this, the laudableauthority of the sacred canons and the approved custom of the Churchhave maintained and still maintain that a sacrament of this kind shouldnot be consecrated after supper, nor be received by the faithful whoare not fasting, except in case of sickness or of another necessitygranted or admitted by law or Church; and although such a sacrament wasreceived by the faithful under both species in the early Church, yetsince then it is received by those who consecrate under both speciesand by the laity only under the species of bread [another reading: Andsimilarly, although this sacrament was received by the faithful in theearly Church under both species, nevertheless this custom has beenreasonably introduced to avoid certain dangers and scandals, namely,that it be received by those who consecrate it under both species, andby the laity only under the species of bread], since it must bebelieved most firmly and not at all doubted that the whole body ofChrist and the blood are truly contained under the species of bread aswell as under the species of wine. Therefore, to say that to observethis custom or law is a sacrilege or illicit must be considerederroneous, and those pertinaciously asserting the opposite of the abovementioned must be avoided as heretics and should be severely punished,either by the local diocesan officials or by the inquisitors ofheretical depravity.

SESSION XV (July 6, 1415)

Errors of John Hus*

[Condemned in the Council and by the above mentioned

Bulls in 1418]

627 1. One and only is the holy universal Church which is the aggregate of the predestined.

628 2. Paul never was a member of the devil, although he did certain acts similar to the acts of those who malign the Church.

629 3. The foreknown are not parts of the Church, since no part of itfinally will fall away from it, because the charity of predestinationwhich binds it will not fall away.

630 4. Two natures, divinity and humanity, are one Christ. *

631 5. The foreknown, although at one time he is in grace according tothe present justice, yet is never a part of the holy Church; and thepredestined always remains a member of the Church, although at times hemay fall away from additional grace, but not from the grace ofpredestination.

632 6. Assuming the Church as the convocation of the predestined,whether they were in grace or not according to the present justice, inthat way the Church is an article of faith.

633 7. Peter is not nor ever was the head of the Holy Catholic Church.

634 8. Priests living criminally in any manner whatsoever, defile thepower of the priesthood, and as unfaithful sons they think unfaithfullyregarding the seven sacraments of the Church, the keys, the duties, thecensures customs, ceremonies, and sacred affairs of the Church, itsveneration of relics, indulgences, and orders.

635 9. The papal dignity has sprung up from Caesar, and the perfectionand institution of the pope have emanated from the power of Caesar

636 10. No one without revelation would have asserted reasonablyregarding himself or anyone else that he was the head of a particularchurch nor is the Roman Pontiff the head of a particular Roman Church.

637 11. It is not necessary to believe that the one whosoever is theRoman Pontiff, is the head of any particular holy church, unless Godhas predestined him.

638 12. No one takes the place of Christ or of Peter unless he followshim in character, since no other succession is more important, and nototherwise does he receive from God the procuratorial power, because forthat office of vicar are required both conformity in character and theauthority of Him who institutes it.

639 13. The pope is not the true and manifest successor of Peter, thefirst of the other apostles, if he lives in a manner contrary to Peter;and if he be avaricious, then he is the vicar of Judas Iscariot. Andwith like evidence the cardinals are not the true and manifestsuccessors of the college of the other apostles of Christ, unless theylive in the manner of the apostles, keeping the commandments andcounsels of our Lord Jesus Christ.

640 14. Doctors holding that anyone to be emended byecclesiastical censure, if he is unwilling to be corrected, must behanded over to secular judgment, certainly are following in this thepriests, scribes, and pharisees, who, saying that "it is notpermissible for us to kill anyone" (John 18:31), handed over to secularjudgment Christ Himself, who did not wish to be obedient to them in allthings, and such are homicides worse than Pilate.

641 15. Ecclesiastical obedience is obedience according tothe invention of the priest of the Church, without the expressedauthority of Scripture.

642 16. The immediate division of human works is: that they are eithervirtuous or vicious, because, if a man is vicious and does anything,then he acts viciously; and if he is virtuous and does anything, thenhe acts virtuously; because as vice, which is called a crime or mortalsin, renders the acts of man universally vicious, so virtue vivifiesall the acts of the virtuous man.

643 17. Priests of Christ, living according to His law and having aknowledge of Scripture and a desire to instruct the people, ought topreach without the impediment of a pretended excommunication. But ifthe pope or some other prelate orders a priest so disposed not topreach, the subject is not obliged to obey.

644 18. Anyone who approaches the priesthood receives the duty of apreacher by command, and that command he must execute, without theimpediment of a pretended excommunication.

645 19. By ecclesiastical censures of excommunication,suspension, and interdict, the clergy for its own exaltation suppliesfor itself the lay populace, it multiplies avarice, protectswickedness, and prepares the way for the Antichrist. Moreover, the signis evident that from the Antichrist such censures proceed, which intheir processes they call fulminations, by which the clergy principallyproceed against those who uncover the wickedness of the Antichrist, whowill make use of the clergy especially for himself.

646 20. If the pope is wicked and especially if he is foreknown, thanas Judas, the Apostle, he is of the devil, a thief, and a son ofperdition, and he is not the head of the holy militant Church, since heis not a member of it.

647 21. Thegrace of predestination is a chain by which the body of theChurch and any member of it are joined insolubly to Christ the Head.

648 22. The pope or prelate, wicked and foreknown, is equivocally pastor and truly a thief and robber.

649 23. The pope should not be called "most holy" even according to hisoffice, because otherwise the king ought also to be called "most holy"according to his office, and torturers and heralds should be calledholy, indeed even the devil ought to be called holy, since he is anofficial of God.

650 24. If the pope lives in a manner contrary to Christ, even if heshould ascend through legal and legitimate election according to thecommon human constitution, yet he would ascend from another place thanthrough Christ, even though it be granted that he entered by anelection made principally by God; for Judas Iscariot rightly andlegitimately was elected by God, Jesus Christ, to the episcopacy, andyet he ascended from another place to the sheepfold of the sheep.

651 25. The condemnation of the forty-five articles of John Wycliffemade by the doctors is irrational and wicked and badly made; the causealleged by them has been feigned, namely, for the reason that "no oneof them is a Catholic but anyone of them is either heretical,erroneous, or scandalous."

652 26. Not for this reason, that the electors, or a greater part ofthem, agreed by acclamation according to the observance of men uponsome person, is that person legitimately elected; nor for this reasonis he the true and manifest successor or vicar of the Apostle Peter, orin the ecclesiastical office of another apostle. Therefore, whetherelectors have chosen well or badly, we ought to believe in the works ofthe one elected; for, by the very reason that anyone who operates forthe advancement of the Church in a manner more fully meritorious, hasfrom God more fully the faculty for this.

653 27. For there is not a spark of evidence that there should be onehead ruling the Church in spiritual affairs, which head always livesand is preserved with the Church militant herself.

654 28. Christ through His true disciples scattered through the world would rule His Church better without such monstrous heads.

655 29. The apostles and faithful priests of the Lord strenuously innecessities ruled the Church unto salvation, before the office of thepope was introduced; thus they would be doing even to the day ofjudgment, were the pope utterly lacking.

656 30. No one is a civil master, no one is a prelate, no one is a bishop while he is in mortal sin [see n. 595].

See the theological censures of these thirty articles among"Questions of Wycliffe and Hus to be proposed"n. 11 ( 661 below ).

Questions to be Proposed to the Wycliffites and Hussites *

[From the Bull above mentioned "Inter Cunctas," Feb. 22, 1418]

Articles1-4, 9-10 treat of communions with said heretics.

657 5. Likewise, whether he believes, holds, and declares, thatevery general Council, including that of CONSTANCE, represents theuniversal Church.*

658 6. Likewise, whether he believes that what the sacred Councilof Constance, which represents the Catholic Church, has approved anddoes approve in favor of faith, and for the salvation of souls, must beapproved and maintained by all the faithful of Christ; and that what(the Council) has condemned and does condemn to be contrary to faithand good morals, this must be believed and proclaimed by the same asconsidered worthy of condemnation.

659 7. Likewise, whether he believes that the condemnations of JohnWycliffe, John Hus, and Jerome of Prague, made by the sacred generalCouncil of CONSTANCE, concerning their persons, books, and documentshave been duly and justly made, and that they must be considered andfirmly declared as such by every Catholic whatsoever.

660 8. Likewise, whether he believes, holds, and declares, that JohnWycliffe of England, John Hus of Bohemia, and Jerome of Prague havebeen heretics and are to be considered and classed as heretics, andthat their books and doctrines have been and are perverse; and becauseof these books and these doctrines and their obstinacy, they have beencondemned as heretics by the sacred Council of CONSTANCE.

661 11. Likewise, let the especially learned person be asked, whetherhe believes that the decision of the sacred Council of CONSTANCE passedconcerning the forty-five articles of John Wycliffe and the thirty ofJohn Hus described above, would be true and Catholic: namely, that theabove mentioned forty-five articles of John Wycliffe and the thirty ofJohn Hus are not Catholic, but some of them are notedly heretical, someerroneous, others audacious and seditious, others offensive to the earsof the pious.

662 12. Likewise, whether he believes and maintains that in no case one may take an oath.

663 13. Likewise, whether he believes that by the order of ajudge an oath must be uttered regarding truth, or anything elsesuitable for a cause be allowed, even if it must be done for thepurification of infamy.

664 14. Likewise whether he believes, that perjury knowingly committed,for whatever cause or occasion, for the conservation of one's ownbodily life or that of another, even in favor of faith, is a mortal sin.

665 15. Likewise, whether he believes that anyone deliberatelydespising the rite of the Church, the ceremonies of exorcism andcatechism, of consecrated baptismal water, sins mortally.

666 16. Likewise, whether he believes, that after the consecration bythe priest in the sacrament of the altar under the semblance of breadand wine, it is not material bread and material wine, but the sameChrist through all, who suffered on the Cross and sitteth at the right(hand) of the Father.

667 17. Likewise, whether he believes and maintains that after theconsecration by the priest, under the sole species of bread only, andaside from the species of wine, it is the true body of Christ and theblood and the soul and the divinity and the whole Christ, and the samebody absolutely and under each one of these species separately.

668 18. Likewise, whether he believes that the custom of givingcommunion to lay persons under the species of bread only, which isobservedby the universal Church, and approved by the sacred Council ofCONSTANCE, must be preserved, so that it be not allowed to condemn thisor to change it at pleasure without the authority of the Church, andthat those who obstinately pronounce the opposite of the aforesaidshould be arrested and punished as heretics or as suspected of heresy.

669 19. Likewise, whether he believes that a Christian who rejects thereception of the sacraments of confirmation, or extreme unction, or thesolemnization of marriage sins mortally.

670 20. Likewise, whether he believes that a Christian in addition tocontrition of heart is obligated out of necessity for salvation toconfess to a priest only (the priest having the proper faculties), andnot to a layman or laymen however good and devout.

671 21. Likewise, whether he believes, that the priest in casespermitted to him can absolve from sins a sinner who has confessed andbecome contrite' end enjoin a penance upon him.

672 22. Likewise, whether he believes that a bad priest, employing theproper matter and form and having the intention of doing what theChurch does, truly consecrates, truly absolves, truly baptizes, trulyconfers the other sacraments.

673 23. Likewise, whether he believes that blessed Peter was thevicar of Christ, possessing the power of binding and loosing on earth.

674 24. Likewise, whether he believes that the pope canonicallyelected, who lived for a time, after having expressed his own name, isthe successor of the blessed Peter, having supreme authority in theChurch of God.

675 25. Likewise, whether he believes that the authority ofjurisdiction of the pope, archbishop, and bishop in loosing and bindingis greater than the authority of the simple priest, even if he has thecare of souls.

676 26. Likewise, whether he believes that the pope, for apious and just reason, especially to those who visit holy places and tothose who extend their helping hands can grant indulgences for theremission of sins to all Christians truly contrite and having confessed.

677 27. And whether he believes that from such a concession they whovisit these very churches and they who lend helping hands can gainindulgences of this kind.

678 28. Likewise, whether he believes that individual bishops can grantindulgences of this kind to their subjects according to the limitationof the sacred canons.

679 29. Likewise, whether he believes or maintains that itis lawful that the relics and images of the saints be venerated by thefaithful of Christ.

680 30. Likewise, whether he believes that objects of religiousveneration approved by the Church were duly and reasonably introducedby the holy Fathers.

681 31. Likewise, whether he believes that a pope or another prelate,the proper titles of the pope for the time having been expressed, orwhether their vicars can excommunicate their ecclesiastical or secularsubject for disobedience or contumacy, so that such a one should beconsidered as excommunicated.

682 32. Likewise, whether he believes that with the growingdisobedience or contumacy of the excommunicated, the prelates or theirvicars in spiritual matters have the power of oppressing and ofoppressing him again, of imposing interdict and of invoking the seculararm; and that these censures must be obeyed by his inferiors.

683 33. Likewise, whether he believes that the pope and other prelatesand their vicars in spiritual matters have the power of excommunicatingpriests and disobedient and contumacious lay men and of suspending themfrom office, benefaction, entrance to a church, and the administrationof the sacraments of the Church.

684 34. Likewise, whether he believes that it is permissible forecclesiastical personages to hold possessions and temporal goods ofthis world without sin.

685 35. Likewise, whether he believes that it is not permissible forthe laity to take away these temporal goods by their own power; that onthe contrary, if they do take them away, seize, and lay hold on theseecclesiastical goods, they are to be punished as sacrilegious persons,even if the ecclesiastical personages possessing goods of this kindwere living bad lives.

686 36. Likewise, whether he believes that a seizure and an attack ofthis kind thoughtlessly or violently committed or wrought against anypriest whatsoever, even though living an evil life, leads to sacrilege.

687 37. Likewise, whether he believes that it is permissible for thelaity of both sexes, namely men and women, freely to preach the word ofGod.

688 38. Likewise, whether he believes that it be freely permitted toindividual priests to preach the word of God, wheresoever, andwhenever, and to whomsoever it may be pleasing, even though they arenot sent.

689 39. Likewise, whether he believes that all mortal sins, particularly manifest, should be publicly corrected and eradicated.

Condemnation of the Proposition Concerning Tyrannicide*

690 The holy Synod, July 6, 1415 declares and defines this opinion:"Any tyrant can lawfully and meritoriously be killed and ought so to bekilled by any vassal or subject of his, even by secret plots, andsubtle flattery and adulation, regardless of any oath of fealty or anypact made with him,without waiting for an opinion or command of anyjudge whatsoever", . . . is erroneous in faith and morals, and it (theSynod) condemns and rejects it as heretical, scandalous, and asoffering a way to frauds, deceptions, lies, treasons, and false oaths.In addition it declares decrees, and defines that those whopersistently sow this most pernicious doctrine are heretics . . . .

EUGENIUS IV 1431-1447

COUNCIL OF FLORENCE 1438-1445

Ecumenical XVII (Union with the Greeks, Armenians, Jacobites)

Decree for the Greeks *

[From the Bull "Laetentur coeli," July 6, 1439]

691 [The procession of the Holy Spirit] In the name of the HolyTrinity, of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, withthe approbation of this holy general Council of Florence we define thatthis truth of faith be believed and accepted by all Christians, andthat all likewise profess that the Holy Spirit is eternally from theFather and the Son and has His essence and His subsistent being bothfrom the Father and the Son, and proceeds from both eternally as fromone principle and one spiration; we declare that what the holy Doctorsand Fathers say, namely, that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Fatherthrough the Son, tends to this meaning, that by this it is signifiedthat the Son also is the cause, according to the Greeks, and accordingto the Latins, the principle of the subsistence of the Holy Spirit, asis the Father also. And since all that the Father has, the Fatherhimself, in begetting, has given to His only begotten Son, with theexception of Fatherhood, the very fact that the Holy Spirit proceedsfrom the Son, the Son himself has from the Father eternally, by whom Hewas begotten also eternally. We define in addition that the explanationof words "Filioque" for the sake of declaring the truth and alsobecause imminent necessity has been lawfully and reasonably added tothe Creed.

692 We have likewise defined that the body of Christ is truly effectedin and unleavened or leavened wheaten bread; and that priests ought toeffect the body of our Lord in either one of these, and each one namelyaccording to the custom of his Church whether that of the West or ofthe East

693 [ De novissimis] * It has likewise defined, that, if those trulypenitent have departed in the love of God, before they have madesatisfaction by the worthy fruits of penance for sins of commission andomission, the souls of these are cleansed after death by purgatorialpunishments; and so that they may be released from punishments of thiskind, the suffrages of the living faithful are of advantage to them,namely, the sacrifices of Masses, prayers, and almsgiving, and otherworks of piety, which are customarily performed by the faithful forother faithful according to the institutions of the Church. And thatthe souls of those, who after the reception of baptism have incurred nostain of sin at all, and also those, who after the contraction of thestain of sin whether in their bodies, or when released from the samebodies, as we have said before, are purged, are immediately receivedinto heaven, and see clearly the one and triune God Himself just as Heis, yet according to the diversity of merits, one more perfectly thananother. Moreover, the souls of those who depart in actual mortal sinor in original sin only, descend immediately into hell but to undergopunishments of different kinds [see n.464].

694 We likewise define that the holy Apostolic See, and the RomanPontiff, hold the primacy throughout the entire world; and that theRoman Pontiff himself is the successor of blessed Peter, the chief ofthe Apostles, and the true vicar of Christ, and that he is the head ofthe entire Church, and the father and teacher of all Christians; andthat full power was given to him in blessed Peter by our Lord JesusChrist, to feed, rule, and govern the universal Church; just as iscontained in the acts of the ecumenical Councils and in the sacredcanons.

Decree for the Armenians *

[From the Bull "Exultate Deo," Nov. 22, 1439]

695 In the fifth place we have reduced under this very brief formulathe truth of the sacraments of the Church for the sake of an easierinstruction of the Armenians, the present as well as the future. Thereare seven sacraments of the new Law: namely, baptism, confirmation,Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony, whichdiffer a great deal from the sacraments of the Old Law. For those ofthe Old Law did not effect grace, but only pronounced that it should begiven through the passion of Christ; these sacraments of ours containgrace, and confer it upon those who receive them worthily. Of these thefive first ones are ordained for the spiritual perfection of each andevery one in himself, the last two for the government and increase ofthe entire Church. For, through baptism we are spiritually reborn;through confirmation we increase in grace, and are made strong infaith; reborn, however, we are strengthened and nourished by the divinesustenance of the Eucharist. But if through sin we incur the disease ofthe soul, through penance we are spiritually healed; spiritually andcorporally, according as is expedient to the soul, through extremeunction; through orders the Church is truly governed and spirituallypropagated; through matrimony corporally increased. All thesesacraments are dispensed in three ways, namely, by things as thematter, by words as the form, and by the person of the ministerconferring the sacrament with the intention of doing as the Churchdoes; if any of these is lacking the sacrament is not fulfilled. Amongthese sacraments there are three, baptism, confirmation, and orders,which imprint an indelible sign on the soul, that is, a certaincharacter distinctive from the others. Hence they should not berepeated in the same person. The remaining four do not imprint a signand admit of repetition.

696 Holy baptism, which is the gateway to the spiritual life,holds the first place among all the sacraments; through it we are mademembers of Christ and of the body of the Church. And since deathentered into the universe through the first man, "unless we are born ofwater and the Spirit, we cannot," as the Truth says, "enter into thekingdom of heaven" (cf.John 3:5). The matter of this sacrament is realand natural water; it makes no difference whether cold or warm. Theform is:I baptize thee i n the name of the Father and of the Son and ofthe Holy Ghost.Yet we do not deny that through these words: Sucha(this) servant of Christ is baptized in the name of the Father and ofthe Holy Ghost* or:Such a one is baptized by my hands in the name ofthe Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost,a true baptism isadministered since the principal causes, from which baptism has itspower is the Holy Trinity; the instrumental cause, however, is theminister, who bestows the sacrament externally; if the act which isperformed through the minister himself, is expressed with theinvocation of the Holy Trinity, the sacrament is effected. The ministerof this sacrament is a priest, who is competent by office to baptize.In case of necessity, however, not only a priest or a deacon, but evena layman or a woman, yes even a pagan and a heretic can baptize, solong as he preserves the form of the Church and has the intention ofdoing as the Church does. The effect of this sacrament is the remissionof every sin, original and actual, also of every punishment which isdue to the sin itself. Therefore, no satisfaction must be enjoined forpast sins upon those who immediately attain to the kingdom of heavenand the vision of God.

697 The second sacrament is confirmation; its matter is the chrismprepared from the oil, which signifies the excellence of conscience,and from the balsam, which signifies the fragrance of a goodreputation, and is blessed by a bishop. The form is:I sign thee withthe sign of the cross and I confirm thee with the chrism of salvation,in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.Theordinary minister is a bishop. And although a simple priest has thepower in regard to other anointings only a bishop can confer thissacrament, because according to the apostles, whose place the bishopshold, we read that through the imposition of hands they conferred theHoly Spirit, just as the lesson of the Acts of the Apostles reveals:"Now, when the apostles, who were in Jerusalem, had heard that theSamaria had received the word of God, they sent unto them Peter andJohn. Who, when they were come, prayed for them that they might receivethe Holy Ghost. For He was not as yet come upon any of them: but theywere only baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid theirhands upon them; and they received the Holy Ghost" [Acts 8:14 ff.]. Butin the Church confirmation is given in place of this imposition ofhands. Nevertheless we read that at one time, by dispensation of theApostolic See for a reasonable and urgent cause, a simple priestadministered this sacrament of confirmation after the chrism had beenprepared by the bishop. The effect of this sacrament, because in it theHoly Spirit is given for strength, was thus given to the Apostles onthe day of Pentecost, so that the Christian might boldly confess thename of Christ. The one to be confirmed, therefore, must be anointed onthe forehead, which is the seat of reverence, so that he may not beashamed to confess the name of Christ and especially His Cross, whichis indeed a "stumbling block to the Jews and unto the Gentilesfoolishness" [cf.1 Cor. 1:23] according to the Apostle; for whichreason one is signed with the sign of the Cross.

698 The third is the sacrament of the Eucharist, its matter iswheat bread and wine of grape, with which before consecration a veryslight amount of water should be mixed. Now it is mixed with waterbecause according to the testimonies of the holy Fathers and Doctors ofthe Church in a disputation made public long ago, it is the opinionthat the Lord Himself instituted this sacrament in wine mixed withwater; and, moreover, this befits the representation of the Lord'spassion. For blessed Alexander, * the fifth Pope after blessed Peter,says: "In the offerings of the sacraments which are offered to the Lordwithin the solemnities of Masses, let only bread and wine mixed withwater be offered as a sacrifice. For either wine alone or water alonemust not be offered in the chalice of the Lord, but both mixed, becauseit is read that both, that is, blood and water, flowed from the side ofChrist." Then also, because it is fitting to signify the effect of thissacrament, which is the union of the Christian people with Christ. Forwater signifies the people, according to the passage in the Apocalypse:"the many waters . . . are many people" [cf.Rev. 17:15]. And Julius, *the second Pope after blessed Sylvester, says: "The chalice of the Lordaccording to the precept of the canons, mixed with wine and water,ought to be offered, because we see that in water the people areunderstood' but in wine the blood of Christ is shown. Therefore, whenwine and water are mixed in the chalice the people are made one withChrist, and the multitude of the faithful is joined and connected withHim in whom it believes." Since, therefore, the holy Roman Churchtaught by the most blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, as well as all therest of the churches of the Latins and the Greeks, in which the lightsof all sanctity and doctrine have shown, have so preserved this fromthe beginning of the nascent church and are now preserving it, it seemsvery unfitting that any other region differ from this universal andreasonable observance. We order, therefore, that the Armeniansthemselves also conform with all the Christian world, and that theirpriests mix a little water with the wine in the offering of thechalice, as has been said. The words of the Savior, by which Heinstituted this sacrament, are the form of this sacrament; for thepriest speaking in the person of Christ effects this sacrament. For bythe power of the very words the substance of the bread is changed intothe body of Christ, and the substance of the wine into the blood; yetin such a way that Christ is contained entire under the species ofbread, and entire under the species of wine. Under any part also of theconsecrated host and consecrated wine, although a separation has takenplace, Christ is entire. The effect of this sacrament which He operatesin the soul of him who takes it worthily is the union of man withChrist. And since through grace man is incorporated with Christ and isunited with His members, it follows that through this sacrament graceis increased among those who receive it worthily; and every effect thatmaterial food and drink accomplish as they carry on corporal life, bysustaining, increasing, restoring, and delighting, this the sacramentdoes as it carries on spiritual life, in which, as Pope Urban says, werenew the happy memory of our Savior, are withdrawn from evil, aregreatly strengthened in good, and proceed to an increase of the virtuesand the graces.

699 The fourth sacrament is penance, the matter of which is, as itwere, the acts of the penitent, which are divided into three parts. Thefirst of these is contrition of heart, to which pertains grief for asin committed together with a resolution not to sin in the future. Thesecond is oral confession, to which pertains that the sinner confessintegrally to his priest all sins of which he has recollection. Thethird is satisfaction for sins according to the decision of the priest,which is accomplished chiefly by prayer, fasting, and alms. The wordsof absolution which the priest utters when he says: Ego te absolvoetc.,are the form of this sacrament, and the minister of this sacrament isthe priest who has either ordinary authority for absolving or has it bythe commission of a superior. The effect of this sacrament isabsolution from sins.

700 The fifth sacrament is extreme unction, whose matter is theolive oil blessed by the bishop. This sacrament should be given only tothe sick of whose death there is fear; and he should be anointed in thefollowing places: on the eyes because of sight, on the ears because ofhearing, on the nostrils because of smell, on the mouth because oftaste and speech, on the hands because of touch, on the feet because ofgait, on the loins because of the delight that flourishes there. Theform of this sacrament is the following: Per istam sanctam unctionem etsuam piissimam misericordiam indulgeat tibi Dominus, quidquid pervisum, etc. (Through this holy anointing and his most kind mercy maythe Lord forgive you whatever through it, etc.). And similarly on theother members. The minister of this sacrament is the priest. Now theeffect is the healing of the mind and, moreover, in so far as it isexpedient, of the body itself also. On this sacrament blessed James,the Apostle says: "Is any man sick among you? Let him bring in thepriests of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him withoil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith shall save thesick man; and the Lord shall raise him up: and if he be in sins, theyshall be forgiven him" [Jas. 5:14, 15].

701 The sixth sacrament is that of order, the matter of which is thatthrough whose transmission the order is conferred: * just as thepriesthood is transmitted through the offering of the chalice with wineand of the paten with bread; the diaconate, however, by the giving ofthe book of the Gospels; but the subdiaconate by the giving of theempty chalice with the empty paten superimposed; and similarly withregard to the others by allotment of things pertaining to theirministry. The form of such priesthood is: Accipe potestatem offerendisacrificium in ecclesia pro vivis et mortuis, in nomine Patris et Filiiet Spiritus Sancti.And thus with regard to the forms of the otherorders, as is contained extensively in the Roman pontifical. Theordinary minister of this sacrament is the bishop. The effect isincrease of grace, so that the one ordained be a worthy minister.

702 The seventh is the sacrament of matrimony, which is the signof the joining of Christ and the Church according to the Apostle whosays: "This is a great sacrament; but I speak in Christ and in thechurch" [Eph. 5:32]. The efficient cause of matrimony is regularlymutual consent expressed by words in person. Moreover, there isallotted a threefold good on the part of matrimony. First, the progenyis to be accepted and brought up for the worship of God. Second, thereis faith which one of the spouses ought to keep for the other. Third,there is the indivisibility of marriage, because it signifies theindivisible union of Christ and the Church. Although, moreover, theremay be a separation of the marriage couch by reason of fornication,nevertheless, it is not permitted to contract another marriage, sincethe bond of a marriage legitimately contracted is perpetual.

A Decree in Behalf of the Jacobites *

[From the Bull "Cantata Domino," February 4, Florentine style,

1441, modern, 1442]

703 The sacrosanct Roman Church, founded by the voice of our Lord andSavior, firmly believes, professes, and preaches one true Godomnipotent, unchangeable, and eternal, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; onein essence, three in persons; Father unborn, Son born of the Father,Holy Spirit proceeding from Father and Son; that the Father is not Sonor Holy Spirit, that Son is not Father or Holy Spirit; that Holy Spiritis not Father or Son; but Father alone is Father, Son alone is Son,Holy Spirit alone is Holy Spirit. The Father alone begot the Son of Hisown substance; the Son alone was begotten of the Father alone; the HolySpirit alone proceeds at the same time from the Father and Son. Thesethree persons are one God, and not three gods, because the three haveone substance, one essence, one nature, one divinity, one immensity,one eternity, and all these things are one where no opposition ofrelationship interferes . *

704 "Because of this unity the Father is entire in the Son,entire in the Holy Spirit; the Son is entire in the Father, entire inthe Holy Spirit, the Holy Spirit is entire in the Father, entire in theSon. No one either excels another in eternity, or exceeds in magnitude,or is superior in power. For the fact that the Son is of the Father iseternal and without beginning. and that the Holy Spirit proceeds fromthe Father and the Son is eternal and without beginning.''*Whatever theFather is or has, He does not have from another, but from Himself; andHe is the principle without principle. Whatever the Son is or has, Hehas from the Father, and is the principle from a principle. Whateverthe Holy Spirit is or has, He has simultaneously from the Father andthe Son. But the Father and the Son are not two principles of the HolySpirit, but one principle, just as the Father and the Son and the HolySpirit are not three principles of the creature, but one principle.

705 Whoever, therefore, have adverse and contrary opinions theChurch disapproves and anathematizes and declares to be foreign to theChristian body which is the Church. Hence it condemns Sabellius whoconfuses the persons and completely takes away their real distinction.It condemns the Arians, the Eunomians, the Macedonians who say thatonly the Father is the true God, but put the Son and the Holy Spirit inthe order of creatures. It condemns also any others whatsoever whoplace grades or inequality in the Trinity.

706 Most strongly it believes, professes, and declares that the onetrue God, Father and Son and Holy Spirit, is the creator of all thingsvisible and invisible, who, when He wished, out of His goodness createdall creatures, spiritual as well as corporal; good indeed, since theywere made by the highest good, but changeable, since they were madefrom nothing, and it asserts that nature is not evil, since all nature,in so far as it is nature, is good. It professes one and the same Godas the author of the Old and New Testament, that is, of the Law and theProphets and the Gospel, since the saints of both Testaments havespoken with the inspiration of the same Holy Spirit, whose books, whichare contained under the following titles it accepts and venerates. [Thebooks of the canon follow, cf.n. 784; EB n. 32].

707 Besides it anathematizes the madness of the Manichaeans, who haveestablished two first principles, one of the visible, and another ofthe invisible; and they have said that there is one God of the NewTestament, another God of the Old Testament.

708 It believe, professes, and proclaims that one person of theTrinity, true God, Son of God born from the Father, consubstantial andcoeternal with the Father, in the plenitude of time which theinscrutable depth of divine counsel has disposed for the salvation ofthe human race, assumed true and complete human nature from theimmaculate womb of the Virgin Mary, and joined with itself in the unityof person, with such unity that whatever is of God there, is notseparated from man, and whatever is of man, is not divided from theGodhead; He is one and the same undivided, both natures, God and man,remaining in their own peculiar properties, God and man, Son of God andSon of man, equal to the Father according to divinity, less than theFather according to humanity, immortal and eternal from the nature ofdivinity, passible and temporal from the condition of assumed humanity.

709 It firmly believes, professes, and proclaims that the Son of God inthe assumed humanity was truly born of the Virgin, truly suffered,truly died and was buried, truly rose again from the dead, ascendedinto heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father, and will come atthe end of time to judge the living and the dead.

710 It, moreover, anathematizes, execrates, and condemns every heresythat suggests contrary things. And first it condemns Ebion, Cerinthus,Marcion, Paul of Samosata, Photinus, and all similar blasphemers, who,being unable to accept the personal union of humanity with the Word,denied that our Lord Jesus Christ was true God, proclaiming Him pureman, who was called divine man by reason of a greater participation indivine grace, which He had received by merit of a more holy life. Itanathematizes also Manichaeus with his followers, who, thinking vainlythat the Son of God had assumed not a true but an ephemeral body,entirely do away with the truth of the humanity in Christ. And alsoValentinus who asserts that the Son of God took nothing from the VirginMary, but assumed a heavenly body and passed through the womb of theVirgin just as water flows and runs through an aqueduct. Arius also,who asserted that the body assumed from the Virgin lacked a soul, andwould have the Godhead in place of the soul. Also Apollinaris, who,understanding that there was no true humanity if in Christ the soul isdenied as giving the body form, posited only a sensitive soul, but heldthat the Godhead of the Word took the place of a rational soul. It alsoanathematizes Theodore of Mopsuestia and Nestorius who assert thathumanity was united with the Son of God through grace, and hence thereare two persons in Christ, just as they confess that there are twonatures, since they were unable to understand that the union ofhumanity with the Word was hypostatic, and so refused to accept thesubsistence of God. For according to this blasphemy, the Word was notmade flesh, but the Word through grace lived in the flesh; that is, Hewas made not the Son of God, but rather the Son of God lived in man. Itanathematizes also, execrates, and condemns Eutyches the archimandrite;since he believed according to the blasphemy of Nestorius that thetruth of the Incarnation is excluded, and therefore it is fitting thathumanity was so united to the Word of God that the person of theGodhead and of humanity were one and the same, and also, he could notgrasp the unity of person as long as a plurality of natures existed,just as he established that there was one person of the Godhead andhumanity in Christ, so he asserted that there was one nature, meaningthat before the union there was a duality of natures, but in theassumption they passed over into one nature, with the greatestblasphemy and impiety granting either that humanity was turned intoGodhead, or Godhead into humanity. It also anathematizes, execrates,and condemns Macarius of Antioch and all who hold similar views;although he had a correct understanding of the duality of natures andthe unity of person, yet he erred greatly concerning the operations ofChrist when he said that in Christ there was one operation and one willon the part of both natures. All these, together with their heresies,the Holy Roman Church anathematizes, affirming that there are two willsand two operations in Christ.

711 It firmly believes, professes, and teaches that no oneconceived of man and woman was ever freed of the domination of theDevil, except through the merit of the mediator between God and men,our Lord Jesus Christ; He who was conceived without sin, was born anddied, through His death alone laid low the enemy of the human race bydestroying our sins, and opened the entrance to the kingdom of heaven,which the first man by his own sin had lost with all succession; andthat He would come sometime, all the sacred rites of the Old Testament,sacrifices, sacraments, and ceremonies disclosed.

712 It firmly believes, professes, and teaches that the matterpertaining to the law of the Old Testament, of the Mosiac law, whichare divided into ceremonies, sacred rites, sacrifices, and sacraments,because they were established to signify something in the future,although they were suited to the divine worship at that time, after ourLord's coming had been signified by them, ceased, and the sacraments ofthe New Testament began; and that whoever, even after the passion,placed hope in these matters of the law and submitted himself to themas necessary for salvation, as if faith in Christ could not savewithout them, sinned mortally. Yet it does not deny that after thepassion of Christ up to the promulgation of the Gospel they could havebeen observed until they were believed to be in no way necessary forsalvation; but after the promulgation of the Gospel it asserts thatthey cannot be observed without the loss of eternal salvation. All,therefore, who after that time observe circumcision and the Sabbath andthe other requirements of the law, it declares alien to the Christianfaith and not in the least fit to participate in eternal salvation,unless someday they recover from these errors. Therefore, it commandsall who glory in the name of Christian, at whatever time, before orafter baptism' to cease entirely from circumcision, since, whether ornot one places hope in it, it cannot be observed at all without theloss of eternal salvation. Regarding children, indeed, because ofdanger of death, which can often take place, when no help can bebrought to them by another remedy than through the sacrament ofbaptism, through which they are snatched from the domination of theDevil and adopted among the sons of God, it advises that holy baptismought not to be deferred for forty or eighty days, or any timeaccording to the observance of certain people, but it should beconferred as soon as it can be done conveniently, but so that, whendanger of death is imminent, they be baptized in the form of theChurch, early without delay, even by a layman or woman, if a priestshould be lacking, just as is contained more fully in the decree of theArmenians [[n.. 696].

713 It believes firmly, professes, and proclaims that "everycreature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected that is receivedwith thanksgiving" [ 1 Tim. 4:4], since, according to the word of theLord [ Matt.. 15: 11 ], "not that which goeth into the mouth defileth aman"; and it asserts that the indifference of clean and unclean foodsof the Mosiac law pertains to the ceremonials which, with the rise ofthe Gospel passed out of existence and ceased to be efficacious.. Andit says also that the prohibition of theapostles "from thingssacrificed to idols, and from blood and from things strangled [ Acts15:29] befitted that time in which one Church arose from the Jews andthe Gentiles, who before lived according to different ceremonies andcustoms, so that even the Gentiles observed some things in common withthe Jews, and occasion was furnished for coming together into oneworship of God and one faith, and ground for dissension was removed;since to the Jews, by reason of an ancient custom, blood and thingsstrangled seemed abominable, and they could think that the Gentileswould return to idolatry because of the eating of things sacrificed.But when the Christian religion is so propagated that no carnal Jewappears in it, but all passing over to the Church, join in the samerites and ceremonies of the Gospel, believing "all things clean to theclean" [Tit. 1:15], with the ending of the cause for this apostolicprohibition, the effect also ended. Thus it declares that the nature ofno food, which society admits, is to be condemned, and no distinctionis to be made by anyone at all, whether man or woman, between animals,and by whatever kind of death they meet their end; although for thehealth of body, for the exercise of virtue, for regular andecclesiastical discipline many things not denied should be given up,since, according to the Apostle, "all things are lawful, but all thingsare not expedient" [1 Cor.. 6:12; 10:22].

714 It firmly believes, professes, and proclaims that those not livingwithin the Catholic Church, not only pagans, but also Jews and hereticsand schismatics cannot become participants in eternal life, but willdepart "into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and hisangels" [Matt. 25:41], unless before the end of life the same have beenadded to the flock; and that the unity of the ecclesiastical body is sostrong that only to those remaining in it are the sacraments of theChurch of benefit for salvation, and do fastings, almsgiving, and otherfunctions of piety and exercises of Christian service produce eternalreward, and that no one, whatever almsgiving he has practiced, even ifhe has shed blood for the name of Christ, can be saved, unless he hasremained in the bosom and unity of the Catholic Church. *

(The decrees forGreeksand Armenians of the ecumenical

Synod accepted by the Roman Church follow.)

715 But since in the above written decree of the Armenians the form ofthe words, which in the consecration of the body and blood of the Lordthe holy Roman Church confirmed by the teaching and authority of theApostles had always been accustomed to use, was not set forth, we havethought that it ought to be inserted here. In the consecration of thebody the Church uses this form of the words: "For this is my body"; butin the consecration of the blood, it uses the following form of thewords: "For this is the chalice of my blood, the new and eternaltestament, the mystery of faith, which will be poured forth for you andmany for the remission of sins." But it makes no difference at allwhether the wheaten bread in which the sacrament is effected was cookedon that day or before; for, provided that the substance of breadremains, there can be no doubt but that after the aforesaid words ofthe consecration of the body have been uttered with the intention ofeffecting, it will be changed immediately into the substance of thetrue body of Christ.

The decrees for the Syrians, Chaldeans, Meronites

contain nothing new

NICHOLAS V 1447 - 1455

CALLISTUS III 1455-1458

Usury and Contract for Rent *

[From the Constitution ""Regimini universalis," May 6, 1455]

716 A petition recently addressed to us proposed the following matter:For a very long time, and with nothing in memory running to thecontrary, in various parts of Germany, for the common advantage ofsociety, there has been implanted among the inhabitants of those partsand maintained up to this time through constant observance, a certaincustom. By this custom, these inhabitants--or, at least, those amongthem, who in the light of their condition and indemnities, seemedlikely to profit from the arrangement--encumber their goods, theirhouses, their fields, their farms, their possessions, and inheritances,selling the revenues or annual rents in marks, florins, or groats(according as this or that coin is current in those particularregions), and for each mark, florin, or groat in question, from thosewho have bought those coins, whether as revenues or as rents, have beenin the habit of receiving a certain price appropriately fixed as tosize according to the character of the particular circumstances, inconformity with the agreements made in respect of the relevantproperties between themselves and the buyers. As guarantee for thepayment of the aforesaid revenues and rents they mortgage those of theaforesaid houses, lands, fields, farms, possessions, and inheritancesthat have been expressly named * in the relevant contracts. In thefavor of the sellers it is added to the contract that in proportion asthey have, in whole or in part, returned to the said buyers the moneythus received, they are entirely quit and free of the obligation to paythe revenues and rents corresponding to the sum returned. But thebuyers, on the other hand, even though the said goods, houses, lands,fields, possessions, and inheritances might by the passage of time bereduced to utter destruction and desolation, would not be empowered torecover even in respect of the price paid.

Now, by some a certain doubt and hesitation is entertained as towhether contracts of this kind are to be considered licit.Consequently, certain debtors, pretending these contracts would beusurious, seek to find thereby an occasion for the nonpayment ofrevenues and rents owed by them in this way. . . . We, therefore, ...in order to remove every doubt springing from these hesitations, by ourApostolic authority, do declare by these present letters that theaforesaid contracts are licit and in agreement with law, and that thesaid sellers, yielding all opposition, are effectively bound to thepayment of the rents and revenues in conformity with the terms of thesaid contracts. [The reader is referred to the discussion of this textgiven by L. Choupin A.Vacant-E Mangenot, Dict. de theol. cash. 2(Paris, 1905) 1351-1362 (art.'Calliste III,' sec. ii). The Translator.]

PIUS II 1458-1464

Appeal to the General Council *

[From the Bull "Exsecrabilis,"* Jan. 18; in the ancient Roman opinion 1459; that of today 1460]

717 The execrable and hitherto unheard of abuse has grown up in ourday, that certain persons, imbued with the spirit of rebellion, and notfrom a desire to secure a better judgment, but to escape the punishmentof some offense which they have committed, presume to appeal to afuture council from the Roman Pontiff, the vicar of Jesus Christ, towhom in the person of the blessed PETER was said: "Feed my sheep" [John21:17], and, "Whatever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound inheaven" [Matt. 16:19]. . . . Wishing therefore to expel thispestiferous poison far from the Church of Christ and to care for thesalvation of the flock entrusted to us, and to remove every cause ofoffense from the fold of our Savior . . . we condemn all such appealsand disprove them as erroneous and detestable.

Errors of Zanini de Solcia *

[Condemned in the letter "Cum sicut," Nov. 14, 1459]

717a (1) That the world should be naturally destroyed and ended by theheat of the sun consuming the humidity of the land and the air in sucha way that the elements are set on fire.

717b (2) That all Christians are to be saved.

717c (3) That God created another world than this one, and that in itstime many other men and women existed and that consequently Adam wasnot the first man.

717d (4) Likewise, that Jesus Christ suffered and died not for theredemption because of His love of the human race, but by the law of thestars.

717e (5) Likewise, that Jesus Christ, Moses, and Mohammed ruled the world by the pleasure of their wills.

717f (6) And that the same Lord our Jesus is illegitimate, andthat He exists in the consecrated hosts not with respect to Hishumanity but with respect to His divinity only.

717g (7) That wantonness outside of matrimony is not a sin, unless bythe prohibition of positive laws, and that these have not disposed ofthe matter well, and are checked by ecclesiastical prohibition onlyfrom following the opinion of Epicurus as true.

717h (8) Moreover that the taking away of another's property isnot a mortal sin, even though against the will of the master.

717i (a) Finally that the Christian law through the succession ofanother law is about to have an end, just as the law of Moses has beenterminated by the law of Christ.

Zaninus, Canon of Pergamum, is said to have presumed to Affirmthese propositions"in a sacrilegious attempt against the dogmas of theholy Fathers and later to assert them rashly with polluted lips,"butafterwards to have freely renounced "these aforesaid errors."

The Blood of Christ *

[From the Bull "Ineffabilis summi providentia Patris," Aug. 1, 1464]

718 . . . By apostolic authority by the tenor of these presents westate and ordain that none of the aforesaid Brethren (Minors andPreachers) hereafter be allowed to dispute, to preach, to make astatement either publicly or privately, concerning the above mentioneddoubt, or to persuade others, that it may be heretical or a sin to holdor to believe that the most sacred blood itself (as is set before us)in the three days of the passion of the same Lord Jesus Christ from thedivinity Himself was or was not divided or separated in some way, untilbeyond a question of a doubt of this kind what must be held has beendefined by us and the Apostolic See.

PAUL II 1464-1471

SIXTUS IV 1471-1484

Errors of Peter de Rivo (concerning the Truth of Future Contingencies) *

[Condemned in the Bull "Ad Christi vicarii,'' Jan. 3, 1474]

719 (1) When Elizabeth spoke to the Blessed Virgin Mary saying:"Blessed art thou that hast believed because those things shall beaccomplished that were spoken to thee by the Lord" [Luke 1:45], sheseemed to intimate that those propositions, namely: "Thou shalt bringforth a son and thou shalt call his name Jesus: He shall be great,etc." [Luke 1:31],do not yet contain truth.

720 (2) Likewise, when Christ after His resurrection said: "All thingsmust needs be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses and inthe prophets and in the psalms concerning me" [ Luke 24:44] seems tohave implied that such propositions were devoid of truth.

721 (3) Likewise, when the Apostle said: "For the law, having a shadowof the good things to come, not the very image of things [ Heb. 10:1],he seems to imply that the propositions of the Old Law which concernedthe future, did not yet contain the prescribed truth.

722 (4) Likewise, that it does not suffice for the truth of theproposition concerning the future, that the thing will be, but there isrequired that it will be without impediment.

723 (5) Likewise, it is necessary to say one of two things, either thatin the articles of faith concerning the future actual truth is notpresent, or that what is signified in them through divine power couldnot have been hindered.

They were condemnedas "scandalous and deviating from the path ofCatholic faith";they were revoked by the written word of Peter himself.

Indulgence for the Dead

[From the Bull in favor of the Church of St. Peter

of Xancto, Aug. 3, 1476] *

723a In order that the salvation of souls may be procured rather atthat time when they need the prayers of others more, and when they canbe of benefit to themselves less, by Apostolic authority from thetreasure of the Church wishing to come to the aid of the souls whodeparted from the life united with Christ through charity, and who,while they lived, merited that they be favored by such indulgence;desiring this with paternal selection, in so far as with God's help wecan, confident in the mercy of God and in the plenitude of His power,we both concede and grant that, if any parents, friends, or otherfaithful of Christ, moved in behalf of these souls who are exposed topurgatorial fire for the expiation of punishments due them according todivine justice, during the aforementioned ten year period give acertain sum of money for the repair of the church of Xancto, or a valueaccording to an arrangement with the dean or overseer of said church,or our collector by visiting said church or send it during said tenyear period through messengers delegated by the same, we grant as asuffrage a plenary remission to assist and intercede for the souls inpurgatory, in whose behalf they paid the said sum of money or thevalue, as mentioned above, for the remission of punishments.

Errors of Peter de Osma (the Sacrament of Penance) *

[Condemned in the Bull "Licet ea," August 9, 1479]

724 (1) That the confession of sins in species will be found really in a statute of the universal Church, not in divine law;

725 (2) that mortal sins with respect to blame and punishment of theother world are abolished without confession, by contrition of heartonly;

726 (3) moreover, bad thoughts are forgiven by displeasure only;

727 (4) that it is not demanded of necessity that confession be secret; *

728 (5) that those who confess should not be absolved, if penance has not been done;

729 (6) that the Roman Pontiff cannot remit the punishment of purgatory;*

731 (7) cannot dispense with respect to what the universal Church has established;

732 (8) also that the sacrament of penance, as far as concerns theaccumulation of grace, is of nature, but not of the institution of theNew or Old Testament.

733 On these propositions we read in the Bull, Sect. 6: . . We declareeach and all the above mentioned propositions to be false, contrary tothe holy Catholic faith, erroneous, and scandalous, and entirely atvariance with the truth of the Gospels, also contrary to the decrees ofthe holy Fathers and other apostolic constitutions and to containmanifest heresy.

The Immaculate Conception of the B.V.M. *

[From the Constitution "Cum praeexcelsa," Feb. 28, 1476]

734 While in an examination of devout deliberation we are thoroughlyinvestigating the distinguished marks of merit, by which the Queen ofHeaven, the glorious Virgin Mother of God, is preferred to all in theheavenly courts; just as among the stars the morning star foretells thedawn, we consider it just, even a duty, that all the faithful of Christfor the miraculous conception of this immaculate Virgin, give praiseand thanks to Almighty God (whose providence beholding from alleternity the humility of this same Virgin, to reconcile with its authorhuman nature exposed to eternal death because of the fall of the firstman, by the preparation of the Holy Spirit constituted her thehabitation of His Only-begotten Son, from whom He took on the flesh ofour mortality for the redemption of His people, and the Virgin remainedimmaculate even after childbirth), and therefore that they say Massesand other divine offices instituted in the Church of God, and that theyattend them to ask by indulgences and by the remission of sins tobecome more worthy of divine grace by the merits of and by theintercession of this same Virgin.

[From the Constitution "Grave nimis," Sept. 4, 1483]

735 Although the Holy Roman Church solemnly celebrates the public feastof the conception of the immaculate Mary ever Virgin, and has ordaineda special and proper office for this feast, some preachers of differentorders, as we have heard, in their sermons to the people in publicthroughout different cities and lands have not been ashamed to affirmup to this time, and daily cease not to affirm, that all those who holdorassert that the same glorious and immaculate mother of God wasconceived without the stain of original sin, sin mortally, or that theyare heretical' who celebrate the office of this same immaculateconception, and that those who listen to the sermons of those whoaffirm that she was conceived without this sin, sin grievously. . . .

We reprove and condemn assertions of this kind as false anderroneous and far removed from the truth, and also by apostolicauthority and the tenor of these present [letters] we condemn anddisapprove on this point published books which contain it . . . [butthese also we reprehend] who have dared to assert that those holdingthe contrary opinion, namely, that the glorious Virgin Mary wasconceived with original sin are guilty of the crime of heresy and ofmortal sin, since up to this time there has been no decision made bythe Roman Church and the Apostolic See.

INNOCENT VIII 1484-1492 PIUS III 1503

ALEXANDER VI 1492-1503 JULIUS 1503-1513

LEO X 1513-1521

LATERAN COUNCIL V 1512-1517

Ecumenical XVIII (The Reform of the Church)

The Human Soul (against the Neo-Aristoteliars) *

[From the Bull "Apostolic) Regiminis" (Session VIII),Dec. 19, 1513]

738 Since in our days (and we painfully bring this up) the sower ofcockle, ancient enemy of the human race, has dared to disseminate andadvance in the field of the Lord a number of pernicious errors, alwaysrejected by the faithful, especially concerning the nature of therational soul, namely, that it is mortal, or one in all men, and somerashly philosophizing affirmed that this is true at least according tophilosophy, in our desire to offer suitable remedies against a plagueof this kind, with the approval of this holy Council, we condemn andreject all who assert that the intellectual soul is mortal, or is onein all men, and those who cast doubt on these truths, since it [thesoul] is not only truly in itself and essentially the form of the humanbody, as was defined in the canon of Pope CLEMENT V our predecessor ofhappy memory published in the (yen eral) Council of VIENNE [n. 481] butit is also multiple according to the multitude of bodies into which itis infused, multiplied, and to be multiplied. . . . And since truthnever contradicts truth, we declare [see n. 1797] every assertioncontrary to the truth of illumined faith to be altogether false; and,that it may not be permitted to dogmatize otherwise, we strictly forbidit, and we decree that all who adhere to errors of this kind are to beshunned and to be punished as detestable and abominable infidels whodisseminate most damnable heresies and who weaken the Catholic faith.

"Mountains of Piety" and Usury *

[From the Bull "Inter multiplices," April 28

(Session X, May 4), 1515]

739 With the approval of the holy Council, we declare and define thatthe aforesaid "Mountains of piety" established by the civil authoritiesand thus far approved and confirmed by the authority of the ApostolicSee, in which a moderate rate of interest is received exclusively forthe expenses of the officials and for other things pertaining to theirkeeping, as is set forth, for an indemnity of these as far as thismatter is concerned, beyond the capital without a profit for these sameMountains, neither offer any species of evil, nor furnish an incentiveto sin, nor in any way are condemned, nay rather that such a loan isworthwhile and is to be praised and approved, and least of all to beconsidered usury. . . . Moreover, we declare that all religious andecclesiastics as well as secular persons, who henceforth shall dare topreach or dispute in word or in writing against the form of the presentdeclaration and sanction, incur the penalty of excommunication of asentence [automatically] imposed [latae sententiae],a privilege of anynature whatsoever notwithstanding.

The Relation Between the Pope and the Councils *

[From the Bull "Pastor Aeternus" (Session Xl) Dec. 19, 1516]

740 Nor should this move us, that the sanction [pragmatic] itself, andthe things contained in it were proclaimed in the Council of Basle . ... since all these acts were made after the translation of that sameCouncil of Basle from the place of the assembly at Basle, and thereforecould have no weight, since it is clearly established that the RomanPontiff alone, possessing as it were authority over all Councils, hasfull right and power Of proclaiming Councils, or transferring anddissolving them, not only according to the testimony of SacredScripture, from the words of the holy Fathers and even of other RomanPontiffs, of our predecessors, and from the decrees of the holy canons,but also from the particular acknowledgment of these same Councils.

Indulgences *

[From the Bull "Cum postquam" to the Legate Cajetan

de Vio, Nov. 9, 1518]

740a And lest in the future anyone should allege ignorance of thedoctrine of the Roman Church concerning such indulgences and theirellicacy, or excuse himself under pretext of such ignorance, or aidhimself by pretended protestations, but that these same persons may beconvicted as guilty of notorious lying and be justly condemned, we havedecided that you should be informed by these presents that the RomanChurch, which the other churches are bound to follow as their mother,has decreed that the Roman Pontiff, the successor of PETER the keybearer, and the Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth, by the power of thekeys, to which it belongs to open the kingdom of heaven, by removingthe obstacles in the faithful of Christ (namely the fault andpunishment due to actual sins, the fault by means of the sacrament ofpenance, but the temporal punishment due for actual sins according todivine justice by means of the indulgence of the Church), for the samereasonable causes can concede indulgences from the superabundant meritsof Christ and the saints to these same faithful of Christ, who belongto Christ by the charity that joins the members, whether they be inthis life or in purgatory; and by granting an indulgence by apostolicauthority to the living as well as to the dead, has been accustomed todispense from the treasury of the merits of Jesus Christ and thesaints, and by means of absolution to confer that same indugence or totransfer it by means of suffrage. And for that reason that all, theliving as well as the dead, who have truly gained such indulgences, arefreed from such temporal punishment due for their actual sins accordingto divine justice, as is equivalent to the indulgence granted andacquired. And thus by apostolic authority in accordance with the tenorof these letters we decree that it should be held by all and bepreached under punishment of excommunication, of a sentence[automatically] imposed [latae sententiae]. . . . .

Leo X sent this Bull to the Swiss in the year 1519 withaletterdated April 30, 1519, in which he concluded as follows concerning thedoctrine of the Bull:

740b You will be solicitous about a thorough consideration andpreservation of the power of the Roman Pontiff in the granting of suchindulgences according to the true definition of the Roman Church, whichwe have commanded should be observed and preached by all . . .according to these letters which we are ordering to be delivered to you. . . You will firmly abide by the true decision of the Holy RomanChurch and to this Holy See, which does not permit errors.

Errors of Martin Luther *

[Condemned in the Bull "Exsurge Domine," June 15, 1520]

741 I. It is an heretical opinion, but a common one, that thesacraments of the New Law give pardoning grace to those who do not setup an obstacle.

742 2. To deny that in a child after baptism sin remains is to treat with contempt both Paul and Christ.

743 3. The inflammable sources [ fomes] of sin, even if there be noactual sin, delays a soul departing from the body from entrance intoheaven.

4. To one on the point of death imperfect charity necessarily brings

744 with it great fear, which in itself alone is enough to produce thepunishment of purgatory, and impedes entrance into the kingdom.

5. That there are three parts to penance: contrition, confession, and

745 satisfaction, has no foundation in Sacred Scripture nor in the ancient sacred Christian doctors.

6. Contrition, which is acquired through discussion, collection, and

746 detestation of sins, by which one reflects upon his years inthe bitterness of his soul, by pondering over the gravity of sins,their number, their baseness, the loss of eternal beatitude, and theacquisition of eternal damnation, this contrition makes him ahypocrite, indeed more a sinner.

747 7. It is a most truthful proverb and the doctrine concerningthe contrition given thus far is the more remarkable: "Not to do so inthe future is the highest penance; the best penance, a new life."

748 8. By no means may you presume to confess venial sins, noreven all mortal sins, because it is impossible that you know all mortalsins. Hence in the primitive Church only manifest mortal sins wereconfessed.

749 9. As long as we wish to confess all sins without exception, we aredoing nothing else than to wish to leave nothing to God's mercy forpardon.

750 10. Sins are not forgiven to anyone, unless when the priestforgives them he believes they are forgiven; on the contrary the sinwould remain unless he believed it was forgiven; for indeed theremission of sin and the granting of grace does not suffice, but it isnecessary also to believe that there has been forgiveness.

751 11. By no means can you have reassurance of being absolvedbecause of your contrition, but because of the word of Christ:"Whatsoever you shall loose, etc." [Matt. 16:19]. Hence, I say, trustconfidently, if you have obtained the absolution of the priest, andfirmly believe yourself to have been absolved, and you will truly beabsolved, whatever there may be of contrition.

752 12. If through an impossibility he who confessed was notcontrite, orthe priest did not absolve seriously, but in a jocosemanner, if nevertheless he believes that he has been absolved, he ismost truly absolved.

753 13. In the sacrament of penance and the remission of sin the popeor the bishop does no more than the lowest priest; indeed, where thereis no priest, any Christian, even if a woman or child, may equally doas much.

754 14. No one ought to answer a priest that he is contrite, nor should the priest inquire.

755 15. Great is the error of those who approach the sacrament of theEucharist relying on this, that they have confessed, that they are notconscious of any mortal sin, that they have sent their prayers on aheadand made preparations; all these eat and drink judgment to themselves.But if they believe and trust that they will attain grace, then thisfaith alone makes them pure and worthy.

756 16. It seems to have been decided that the Church in common Councilestablished that the laity should communicate under both species; theBohemians who communicate under both species are not heretics, butschismatics.

757 17. The treasures of the Church, from which the pope grants indulgences, are not the merits of Christ and of the saints.

758 18. Indulgences are pious frauds of the faithful, and remissions ofgood works; and they are among the number of those things which areallowed, and not of the number of those which are advantageous.

759 19. Indulgences are of no avail to those who truly gainthem, for the remission of the penalty due to actual sin in the sightof divine justice.

760 20. They are seduced who believe that indulgences are salutary and useful for the fruit of the spirit.

761 21. Indulgences are necessary only for public crimes, and are properly conceded only to the harsh and impatient.

762 22. For six kinds of men indulgences are neither necessarynor useful. namely, for the dead and those about to die, the infirm,those legitimately hindered, and those who have not committed crimes,and those who have committed crimes, but not public ones, and those whodevote themselves to better things.

763 23. Excommunications are only external penalties and they donot deprive man of the common spiritual prayers of the Church.

764 24. Christians must be taught to cherish excommunications rather than to fear them.

765 25. The Roman Pontiff, the successor of PETER, is not the vicar ofChrist over all the churches of the entire world, instituted by ChristHimself in blessed PETER.

766 26. The word of Christ to PETER:"Whatsoever you shall loose onearth, etc."(Matt. 16) is extended merely to those things bound byPeter himself.

767 27. It is certain that it is not in the power of the Church or thepope to decide upon the articles of faith, and much less concerning thelaws for morals or for good works.

768 28. If the pope with a great part of the Church thought so and so,he would not err; still it is not a sin or heresy to think thecontrary, especially in a matter not necessary for salvation, until onealternative is condemned and another approved by a general Council.

769 29. A way has been made for us for weakening the authority ofCouncils, and for freely contradicting their actions, and judging theirdecrees, and boldly confessing whatever seems true, whether it has beenapproved, or disapproved by any Council whatsoever.

770 30. Some articles of John Hus, condemned in the Council ofCONSTANCE, are most Christian, wholly true and evangelical; these theuniversal Church could not condemn.

771 31. In every good work the just man sins.

772 32. A good work done very well is a venial sin.

773 33. That heretics be burned is against the will of the Spirit.

774 34. To go to war against the Turks is to resist God who punishes our iniquities through them.

775 35. No one is certain that he is not always sinning mortally; because of the most hidden vice of pride.

776 36. Free will after sin is a matter of title only; and as long as one does what is in him, one sins mortally.

777 37. Purgatory cannot be proved from Sacred Scripture, which is in the canon.

(Video) On Divine Revelation: The Canon of Scripture & Father Gariggou-Lagrange

778 38. The souls in purgatory are not sure of their salvation, atleast not all; nor is it proved by any arguments or by the Scripturesthat they are beyond the state of meriting or of increasing in charity.

779 39. The souls in purgatory sin without intermission, as long as they seek rest and abhor punishments.

780 40. The souls freed from purgatory by the suffrages of the livingare less happy than if they had made satisfactions by themselves.

781 41. Ecclesiastical prelates and secular princes would not act badly if they destroyed all of the money-bags of beggary.

Censure of the Holy Pontiff:"All and each of the above mentionedarticles or errors, so to speak, as set before you, we condemn,disapprove, and entirely reject as respectively heretical, orscandalous, or false, or offensive to pious ears, or seductive ofsimple minds, and in opposition to Catholic truth.

Hadrian VI 1522 - 1523 Clement VII 1523 - 1534

PAUL III 1534-1549

COUNCIL OF TRENT 1545-1563

Ecumenical XIX (Contra Novatores 16 cent.)

SESSION III (Feb.4, 1546)

The Creed of the Catholic Faith is Accepted *

782 This sacred and holy ecumenical and general Synod of Trent,lawfully assembled in the Holy Spirit, with the three legates of theApostolic See presiding over it, in consideration of the magnitude ofthe matters to be transacted, especially those which are comprisedunder these two heads, the extirpation of heresies and the reform ofmorals, because of which chiefly the Synod was convoked . . ., hasproposed that the creed of faith, which the Holy Roman Church utilizes,inasmuch as it is that principle, wherein all who profess the faith ofChrist necessarily agree, and is the firm and sole foundation, againstwhich the "gates of Hell shall never prevail" [Matt. 16:18], beexpressed in the very same words in which it is read in all thechurches. This creed is as follows:

[The Nicean-Constantinopolitan Creed follows, see n. 86.]

Session IV (April 8, 1546)

The Sacred Books and the Traditions of the Apostles are Accepted *

783 The sacred and holy ecumenical and general Synod ofTrent, lawfully assembled in the Holy Spirit, with the same threeLegates of the Apostolic See presiding over it, keeping this constantlyin view, that with the abolishing of errors, the purity itself of theGospel is preserved in the Church, which promised before through theProphets in the Holy Scriptures our Lord Jesus Christ the Son of Godfirst promulgated with His own mouth, and then commanded "to bepreached" by His apostles "to every creature" as the source of everysaving truth and of instruction in morals [Matt. 28:19ff., Mark 16:15],and [the Synod] clearly perceiving that this truth and instruction arecontained in the written books and in the unwritten traditions, whichhave been received by the apostles from the mouth of Christ Himself, orfrom the apostles themselves, at the dictation of the Holy Spirit, havecome down even to us, transmitted as it were from hand to hand, [theSynod] following the examples of the orthodox Fathers, receives andholds in veneration with an equal affection of piety and reverence allthe books both of the Old and of the New Testament, since one God isthe author or both, and also the traditions themselves, those thatappertain both to faith and to morals, as having been dictated eitherby Christ's own word of mouth, or by the Holy Spirit, and preserved inthe Catholic Church by a continuous succession. And so that no doubtmay arise in anyone's mind as to which are the books that are acceptedby this Synod, it has decreed that a list of the Sacred books be addedto this decree.

784 They are written here below:

Books of the Old Testament:The five books of Moses, namely,Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Josue, Judges, Ruth,four books of Kings, two of Paralipomenon, the first book of Esdras,and the second which is called Nehemias, Tobias, Judith, Esther, Job,the Psalter of David consisting of 150 psalms, the Proverbs,Ecclesiastes, the canticle of Canticles, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus,Isaias, Jeremias with Baruch, Ezechiel, Daniel, the twelve minorProphets, that is Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias, Jonas, Michaeas, Nahum,Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggaeus, Zacharias, Malachias; two books of theMachabees, the first and the second.

Books of the New Testament:the four Gospels, according toMatthew, Mark, Luke, and John; the Acts of the Apostles, written byLuke the Evangelist, fourteen epistles of Paul the Apostle, to theRomans, to the Corinthians two, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, tothe Philippians, to the Colossians, two to the Thessalonians, two toTimothy, to Titus, to Phi lemon, to the Hebrews; two of Peter theApostle, three of John the Apostle, one of the Apostle James, one ofthe Apostle Jude, and the Apocalypse of John the Apostle. If anyone,however, should not accept the said books as sacred and canonical,entire with all their parts, as they were wont to be read in theCatholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin Vulgateedition, and if both knowingly and deliberately he should condemn theaforesaid traditions let him be anathema. Let all, therefore,understand in what order and in what manner the said Synod, afterhaving laid the foundation of the confession of Faith, will proceed,and what testimonies and authorities it will mainly use in confirmingdogmas, and in restoring morals in the Church.

The Vulgate Edition of the Bible is Accepted and the

Method is Prescribed for the Interpretation

of (Sacred) Scripture, etc. *

785 Moreover, the same sacred and holy Synod taking intoconsideration that no small benefit can accrue to the Church of God, ifit be made known which one of all the Latin editions of the sacredbooks which are in circulation is to be considered authentic, hasdecided and declares that the said old Vulgate edition, which has beenapproved by the Church itself through long usage for so many centuriesin public lectures, disputations, sermons, and expositions, beconsidered authentic, and that no one under any pretext whatsoever dareor presume to reject it.

786 Furthermore, in order to curb impudent clever persons, the synoddecrees that no one who relies on his own judgment in matters of faithand morals, which pertain to the building up of Christian doctrine, andthat no one who distorts the Sacred Scripture according to his ownopinions, shall dare to interpret the said Sacred Scripture contrary tothat sense which is held by holy mother Church, whose duty it is tojudge regarding the true sense and interpretation of holy Scriptures,or even contrary to the unanimous consent of the Fathers, even thoughinterpretations of this kind were never intended to be brought tolight. Let those who shall oppose this be reported by their ordinariesand be punished with the penalties prescribed by law. . . . [Then lawsare listed concerning the printing and approbation of books, for whichamong other matters the decree is:] that henceforth the SacredScripture, especially the aforesaid old and Vulgate edition, be printedas correctly as possible, and that no one be allowed either to print orcause to be printed any books whatever concerning sacred matterswithout the name of the author, nor to sell them in the future or evento keep them, unless they have been first examined and approved by theordinary. . .

Session v (June 17, 1546)

Decree On Original Sin *

787 That our Catholic faith, "without which it is impossible to pleaseGod"[Heb. 11:16] may after the purging of errors continue in its ownperfect and spotless purity, and that the Christian people may not be"carried about with every wind of doctrine" [Eph. 4:14], since that oldserpent, the perpetual enemy of the human race, among the very manyevils with which the Church of God in these our times is troubled, hasstirred up not only new, but even old dissensions concerning originalsin and its remedy, the sacred ecumenical and general Synod of Trentlawfully assembled in the Holy Spirit with the same three legates ofthe Apostolic See presiding over it, wishing now to proceed to therecalling of the erring and to the confirming of the wavering, andfollowing the testimonies of the Holy Scriptures and of the holyFathers and of the most approved Councils, as well as the judgment andthe unanimity of the Church itself, has established, confesses, anddeclares the following concerning original sin:

788 I. If anyone does not confess that the first man Adam, when he hadtransgressed the commandment of God in Paradise, immediately lost hisholiness and the justice in which he had been established, and that heincurred through the offense of that prevarication the wrath andindignation of God and hence the death with which God had previouslythreatened him, and with death captivity under his power, whothenceforth "had the empire of death" [Heb. 2:14], that is of thedevil, and that through that offense of prevarication the entire Adamwas transformed in body and soul for the worse [see n. 174], let him beanathema.

789 2. If anyone asserts that the transgression of Adam has harmed himalone and not his posterity, and that the sanctity and justice,received from God, which he lost, he has lost for himself alone and notfor us also; or that he having been defiled by the sin of disobediencehas transfused only death "and the punishments of the body into thewhole human race, but not sin also, which is the death of the soul,"let him be anathema, since he contradicts the Apostle who says: "By oneman sin entered into the world, and by sin death, and so death passedupon all men, in whom all have sinned" [Rom. 5:12; see n. 175].

790 3. If anyone asserts that this sin of Adam, which is one in originand transmitted to all is in each one as his own by propagation, not byimitation, is taken away either by the forces of human nature, or byany remedy other than the merit of the one mediator, our Lord JesusChrist [see n. 711], who has reconciled us to God in his own blood,"made unto us justice, sanctification, and redemption" [1 Cor. 1:30];or if he denies that that merit of Jesus Christ is applied to adults aswell as to infants by the sacrament of baptism, rightly administered inthe form of the Church: let him be anathema. "For there is no othername under heaven given to men, whereby we must be saved . . ." [Acts4:12]. Whence that word: "Behold the lamb of God, behold Him who takethaway the sins of the world" [John 1:29]. And that other: "As many ofyou as have been baptized, have put on Christ" [Gal. 3:27].

791 4. "If anyone denies that infants newly born from their mothers'wombs are to be baptized," even though they be born of baptizedparents, "or says they are baptized indeed for the remission of sins,but that they derive nothing of original sin from Adam, which must beexpiated by the laver of regeneration" for the attainment of lifeeverlasting, whence it follows, that in them the form of baptism forthe remission of sins is understood to be not true, but false: let himbe anathema. For what the Apostle has said: "By one man sin enteredinto the world, and by sin death, and so death passed upon all men, inwhom all have sinned" [Rom. 5:12], is not to be understood otherwisethan as the Catholic Church spread everywhere has always understood it.For by reason of this rule of faith from a tradition of the apostleseven infants, who could not as yet commit any sins of themselves, arefor this reason truly baptized for the remission of sins, so that inthem there may be washed away by regeneration, what they havecontracted by generation, [see n. 102]. "For unless a man be born againof water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God"[John 3:5].

792 5. If anyone denies that by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ,which is conferred in baptism, the guilt of original sin is remitted,or even asserts that the whole of that which has the true and propernature of sin is not taken away, but says that it is only touched inperson or is not imputed, let him be anathema. For in those who areborn again, God hates nothing, because "there is no condemnation, tothose who are truly buried together with Christ by baptism unto death"[Rom. 6:4], who do not "walk according to the flesh" [Rom. 8:1], butputting off "the old man" and putting on the "new, who is createdaccording to God" [Eph. 4:22 ff.; Col. 3:9 ff.], are made innocent,immaculate, pure, guiltless and beloved sons of God, "heirs indeed ofGod, but co-heirs with Christ" [Rom.8:17], SO that there is nothingwhatever to retard their entrance into heaven. But this holy Synodconfesses and perceives that there remains in the baptizedconcupiscence of an inclination, although this is left to be wrestledwith, it cannot harm those who do not consent, but manfully resist bythe grace of Jesus Christ. Nay, indeed, "he who shall have strivenlawfully, shall be crowned" [2 Tim. 2:5]. This concupiscence, which attimes the Apostle calls sin [Rom. 6:12 ff.] the holy Synod declaresthat the Catholic Church has never understood to be called sin, astruly and properly sin in those born again, but because it is from sinand inclines to sin. But if anyone is of the contrary opinion, let himbe anathema.

6. This holy Synod declares nevertheless that it is not itsintention to include in this decree, where original sin is treated of,the blessed and immaculate Virgin Mary mother of God, but that theconstitutions of Pope SIXTUS IV of happy memory are to be observed,under the penalties contained in these constitutions, which it renews[see n. 734 ff:].

SESSION VI (Jan. 13, 1547)

Decree On Justification *

Introduction

792a Since at this time not without the loss of many souls andgrave detriment to the unity of the Church there is disseminated acertain erroneous doctrine concerning justification, the holyecumenical and general synod of Trent lawfully assembled in the HolySpirit, the Most Reverends John Maria, Bishop of Praeneste, de Monte,and Marcellus, priest of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem, cardinals of theHoly Roman Church and apostolic legates a latere, presiding therein inthe name of our Most Holy Father and Lord in Christ, Paul, the thirdPope by the providence of God, for the praise and glory of AlmightyGod, for the tranquillity of the Church and the salvation of souls,purpose to expound to all the faithful of Christ the true and salutarydoctrine of justification, which the "son of justice" [Mal. 4:2],Christ Jesus, "the author and finisher of our faith" [Heb. 12:2]taught, the apostles transmitted and the Catholic Church, under theinstigation of the Holy Spirit, has always retained, strictlyforbidding that anyone henceforth may presume to believe, preach orteach, otherwise than is defined and declared by this present decree.

Chap. 1. On the Inability of Nature and of the Law to Justify Man

793 The holy Synod decrees first that for a correct and soundunderstanding of the doctrine of justification it is necessary thateach one recognize and confess that, whereas all men had lost theirinnocence in the prevarication of Adam [Rom. 5:12; 1 Cor. 15:22: see n.130], "having become unclean" [Isa. 64:6], and (as the Apostle says),"by nature children of wrath" [Eph. 2:3], as it (the Synod) has setforth in the decree on original sin, to that extent were they theservants of sin [Rom. 5:20], and under the power of the devil and ofdeath, that not only the gentiles by the force of nature [can. 1], butnot even the Jews by the very letter of the law of Moses were able tobe liberated or to rise therefrom, although free will was notextinguished in them [can. 5], however weakened and debased in itspowers [see n. 81].

Chap. 2. On the Dispensation and Mystery of the Advent of Christ

794 Whereby it came to pass that the heavenly Father, "the Father ofmercies and the God of all comfort" [2 Cor. 1:3], when that "blessedfullness of time" was come [Eph. 1:10; Gal. 4:4] sent to men ChristJesus [can. 1], his Son, who had been announced and promised [cf. Gen.49:10, 18], both before the Law and at the time of the Law to many holyFathers, that He might both redeem the Jews, who were under the Law,and the "gentiles, who did not follow after justice, might attain tojustice" [Rom. 9:30], and that all men "might receive the adoption ofsons" [Gal. 4:5]. "Him God has proposed as a propitiator through faithin his blood, for our sins" [Rom. 3:25], and not for our sins only, butalso for those of the whole world [1 John 2:2].

Chap. 3. Who are Justifed Through Christ

795 But although Christ died for all [2 Cor. 5:15], yet not all receivethe benefit of His death, but those only to whom the merit of Hispassion is communicated. For, as indeed men would not be born unjust,if they were not born through propagation of the seed of Adam, since bythat propagation they contract through him, in conception, injustice astheir own, so unless they were born again in Christ, they never wouldbe justified [can. 2 and 10], since in that new birth through the meritof His passion, the grace, whereby they are made just, is bestowed uponthem. For this benefit the Apostle exhorts us always to "give thanks tothe Father who has made us worthy to be partakers of the lot of thesaints in light" [Col. 1:12], "and has delivered us from the power ofdarkness, and has translated us into the kingdom of the Son of hislove, in whom we have redemption and remission of sins [Col. 1:13 ff.].

Chap. 4. A Description of the Justification of the Sinner, and Its

Mode in the State of Grace is Recommended

796 In these words a description of the justification of a sinner isgiven as being a translation from that state in which man is born achild of the first Adam to the state of grace and of the "adoption ofthe sons" [Rom. 8:15] of God through the second Adam, Jesus Christ, ourSavior; and this translation after the promulgation of the Gospelcannot be effected except through the laver of regeneration [can. 5 debapt.], or a desire for it, as it is written: "Unless a man be bornagain of water and the Holy Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom ofGod" [John 3:5].

Chap. 5. On the Necessity of Preparation for Justification of

Adults, and Whence it Proceeds

797 It [the Synod] furthermore declares that in adults the beginning ofthat justification must be derived from the predisposing grace [can. 3]of God through Jesus Christ, that is, from his vocation, wherebywithout any existing merits on their part they are called, so that theywho by sin were turned away from God, through His stimulating andassisting grace are disposed to convert themselves to their ownjustification, by freely assenting to and cooperating with the samegrace [can. 4 and 5], in such wise that, while God touches the heart ofman through the illumination of the Holy Spirit, man himself receivingthat inspiration does not do nothing at all inasmuch as he can indeedreject it, nor on the other hand can he [can. 3] of his own free willwithout the grace of God move himself to justice before Him. Hence,when it is said in the Sacred Writings: "Turn ye to me, and I will turnto you" [Zach. 1:3], we are reminded of our liberty; when we reply:"Convert us, O Lord, to thee, and we shall be converted" [Lam. 5:21],we confess that we are anticipated by the grace of God.

Chap. 6. The Manner of Preparation

798 Now they are disposed to that justice [can. 7 and 9] when, arousedand assisted by divine grace, receiving faith "by hearing" [Rom.10:17], they are freely moved toward God, believing that to be truewhich has been divinely revealed and promised [can. 12 and 14], andthis especially, that the sinner is justified by God through his grace,"through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus" [Rom. 3:24], and whenknowing that they are sinners, turning themselves away from the fear ofdivine justice, by which they are profitably aroused [can. 8], to aconsideration of the mercy of God, they are raised to hope, trustingthat God will be merciful to them for the sake of Christ, and theybegin to love him as the source of all justice and are therefore movedagainst sins by a certain hatred and detestation [can. 9], that is, bythat repentance, which must be performed before baptism [Acts 2:38];and finally when they resolve to receive baptism, to begin a new lifeand to keep the commandments of God. Concerning this disposition it iswritten: "He that cometh to God must believe, that he is and is arewarder to them that seek him" [Heb. 11:6], and, "Be of good faith,son, thy sins are forgiven thee" [Matt. 9:2; Mark 2:5], and, "The fearof the Lord driveth out sin" [Sirach. 1:27], and, "Do penance, and bebaptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remissionof your sins, and you shall receive the Holy Spirit" [Acts 2:38], and,"Going therefore teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of theFather and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observeall things whatsoever I have commanded you" [Matt. 28:19], and finally,"Prepare your hearts unto the Lord" [1 Samuel 7:3].

Chap. 7. In What the Justification of the Sinner Consists, and

What are its Causes

799 Justification itself follows this disposition or preparation, whichis not merely remission of sins [can. II], but also the sanctificationand renewal of the interior man through the voluntary reception of thegrace and gifts, whereby an unjust man becomes a just man, and frombeing an enemy becomes a friend, that he may be "an heir according tohope of life everlasting" [Tit. 3:7]. The causes of this justificationare: the final cause indeed is the glory of God and of Christ and lifeeternal; the efficient cause is truly a merciful God who gratuitously"washes and sanctifies" [1 Cor. 6:11], "signing and anointing with theHoly Spirit of promise, who is the pledge of our inheritance" [Eph.1:13f.]; but the meritorious cause is His most beloved only-begottenSon, our Lord Jesus Christ, "who when we were enemies" [cf. Rom. 5:10],"for the exceeding charity wherewith he loved us" [Eph. 2:4], meritedjustification for us [can. 10] by His most holy passion on the wood ofthe Cross, and made satisfaction for us to God the Father; theinstrumental cause is the sacrament of baptism, which is the "sacramentof faith,''* without which no one is ever justified. Finally the uniqueformal cause is the "justice of God, not that by which He Himself isjust, but by which He makes us just" * [can. 10 and 11], that, namely,by which, when we are endowed with it by him, we are renewed in thespirit of our mind, and not only are we reputed, but we are trulycalled and are just, receiving justice within us, each one according tohis own measure, which the "Holy Spirit distributes to everyone as hewills" [1. Cor. 12:11], and according to each one's own disposition andcooperation.

800 For although no one can be just but he to whom the merits of thepassion of our Lord Jesus Christ are communicated, yet this does takeplace in this justification of the ungodly when by the merit of thatsame most holy passion "the charity of God is poured forth by the HolySpirit in the hearts" [Rom. 5:5] of those who are justified, andinheres in them [can. II]. Hence man through Jesus Christ, into whom heis ingrafted, receives in the said justification together with theremission of sins all these [gifts] infused at the same time: faith,hope, and charity. For faith, unless hope and charity be added to it,neither unites one perfectly with Christ, nor makes him a living memberof his body. For this reason it is most truly said that "faith withoutworks is dead" [Jas.2:17],and is of no profit [can. 19], and "in ChristJesus neither circumcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision, butfaith, which worketh by charity" [Gal. 5:6; 6:15]. This faith, inaccordance with apostolic tradition, catechumens beg of the Churchbefore the sacrament of baptism, when they ask for "faith which bestowslife eternal,''* which without hope and charity faith cannot bestow.Thence also they hear immediately the word of Christ: "If thou wiltenter into life, keep the commandments" [Matt. 19:17; can. 18-20].Therefore, when receiving true and Christian justice, they arecommanded immediately on being reborn, to preserve it pure and spotlessas the "first robe" [Luke 15:22] given to them through Christ Jesus inplace of that which Adam by his disobedience lost for himself and forus, so that they may bear it before the tribunal of our Lord JesusChrist and have life eternal. *

Chap. 8. How One is to Understand the Gratuitous Justification of a Sinner by Faith

801 But when the Apostle says that man is justified "by faith" [can. 9]and "freely" [Rom. 3:22, 24], these words must be understood in thatsense in which the uninterrupted consent of the Catholic Church hasheld and expressed, namely, that we are therefore said to be justifiedby faith, because "faith is the beginning of human salvation," * thefoundation and root of all justification, "without which it isimpossible to please God" [Heb. 11 :6] and to come to the fellowship ofHis sons; and are, therefore, said to be justified gratuitously,because none of those things which precede justification, whetherfaith, or works merit the grace itself of justification; for, "if it isa grace, it is not now by reason of works; otherwise (as the sameApostle says) grace is no more grace" [Rom.11:6].

Chap. 9. Against the Vain Confidence of Heretics

802 Although it is necessary to believe that sins are neither forgiven,nor ever have been forgiven, except gratuitously by divine mercy forChrist's sake, yet it must not be said that sins are forgiven or havebeen forgiven to anyone who boasts of his confidence and certainty ofthe forgiveness of his sins and rests on that alone, since amongheretics and schismatics this vain confidence, remote from all piety[can. 12], may exist, indeed in our own troubled times does exist, andis preached against the Catholic Church with vigorous opposition. Butneither is this to be asserted, that they who are truly justifiedwithout any doubt whatever should decide for themselves that they arejustified, and that no one is absolved from sins and is justified,except him who believes with certainty that he is absolved andjustified, and that by this faith alone are absolution andjustification effected [can. 14], as if he who does not believe this isdoubtful of the promises of God and of the efficacy of the death andresurrection of Christ. For, just as no pious person should doubt themercy of God, the merit of Christ, and the virtue and efficacy of thesacraments, so every one, when he considers himself and his ownweakness and indisposition, may entertain fear and apprehension as tohis own grace [can. 13], since no one can know with the certainty offaith, which cannot be subject to error, that he has obtained the graceof God.

Chap. 10. Concerning the Increase of Justification Received

803 Having, therefore, been thus justified and having been made the"friends of God" and "his domestics" [John 15:15; Eph. 2:19],"advancing from virtue to virtue" [Ps. 83:8], "they are renewed" (asthe Apostle says) "from day to day" [2 Cor. 4:16], that is, bymortifying the members of their flesh [Col. 3:5], and by "presentingthem as instruments of justice" [Rom. 6:13, 19], unto sanctificationthrough the observance of the commandments of God and of the Church; inthis justice received through the grace of Christ "faith cooperatingwith good works" [Jas. 2:22], they increase and are further justified[can. 24 and 32], as it is written: "He that is just, let him bejustified still" [Rev. 22:11], and again: "Be not afraid to bejustified even to death" [Sirach. 18:22], and again: "You see, that byworks a man is justified and not by faith only" [Jas. 2:24]. And thisincrease of justice Holy Church begs for, when she prays: "Give untous, O Lord, an increase of faith, hope and charity" [13th Sun. afterPent.].

Chap. II. The Observance of the Commandments, and the Necessity and Possibility thereof

804 But no one, however much justified, should consider himself exemptfrom the observance of the commandments [can. 20]; no one should makeuse of that rash statement forbidden under an anathema by the Fathers,that the commandments of God are impossible to observe for a man who isjustified [can. 18 and 22: cf. n. 200]. "For God does not commandimpossibilities, but by commanding admonishes you both to do what youcan do, and to pray for what you cannot do, and assists you that youmay be able"; * "whose commandments are not heavy" [1 John 5:3], "whoseyoke is sweet and whose burden is light" [Matt. 11:30]. For they whoare the sons of God, love Christ: "but they who love him, (as HeHimself testifies) keep his words" [John 14:23], which indeed with thedivine help they can do. For although in this mortal life men howeverholy and just fall at times into at least light and daily sins, whichare also called venial [can. 23], they do not for that reason cease tobe just. For that word of the just, "Forgive us our trespasses" [Matt.6:12; cf. n.107], is both humble and true. Thus it follows that thejust ought to feel themselves more bound to walk in the way of justice,in that having been now "freed from sin and made servants of God" [Rom.6:22], "living soberly and justly and piously" [Tit. 2:12], they canproceed onwards through Christ Jesus, through whom they "have accessunto this grace" [Rom. 5:2]. For God "does not forsake those who haveonce been justified by His grace, unless He be first forsaken by them."* And so no one should flatter himself because of faith alone [can. 9,19, 20], thinking that by faith alone he is made an heir and willobtain the inheritance, even though he suffer not with Christ "that hemay be also glorified" [Rom. 8:17]. For even Christ Himself (as theApostle says), "whereas he was the Son of God, he learned obedience bythe things which he suffered and being made perfect he was made to allwho obey him the cause of eternal salvation" [Heb. 5:8 ff.] For thisreason the Apostle himself admonishes those justified saying: "Know younot, that they who run in the race, all run indeed, but one receiveththe prize? So run, that you may obtain. I therefore so run, not as atan uncertainty, I so fight, not as one beating the air, but I chastisemy body and bring it under subjection, lest perhaps when I havepreached to others, I myself should become a castaway" [1 Cor.9:24ff.]. So also the chief of the Apostles, Peter: "Labor the more,that by good works you may make sure your calling and election; fordoing these things, you shall not sin at any time" [2 Pet. 1:10].Thence it is clear that they are opposed to the teaching of orthodoxreligion who say that the just man sins at least venially in every goodwork [can. 25], or (what is more intolerable) that he merits eternalpunishments; and that they also who declare that the just sin in allworks, if in those works, in order to stimulate their own sloth and toencourage themselves to run in the race, with this (in view), thatabove all God may be glorified, they have in view also the eternalreward [can. 26, 31], since it is written: "I have inclined my heart todo thy justifications on account of the reward" [Ps. 118:112], and ofMoses the Apostle says, that he "looked to the reward" [Heb. 11:26].

Chap. 12. Rash Presumption of Predestination is to be Avoided

805 No one moreover, so long as he lives in this mortal state, ought sofar to presume concerning the secret mystery of divine predestination,as to decide for certain that he is assuredly in the number of thepredestined [can. 15], as if it were true that he who is justifiedeither cannot sin any more [can. 23], or if he shall have sinned, thathe ought to promise himself an assured reformation. For except byspecial revelation, it cannot be known whom God has chosen for Himself[can. 16].

Chap. 13. The Gift of Perseverance

806 So also as regards the gift of perseverance [can. 16] of which itis written: He that "shall persevere to the end, he shall be saved"[Matt. 10:22; 24:13] (which gift cannot be obtained from anyone exceptfrom Him, "who is able to make him, who stands, stand" [Rom. 14:4],that he may stand perseveringly, and to raise him, who falls), let noone promise himself anything as certain with absolute certitude,although all ought to place and repose a very firm hope in God's help.For God, unless men be wanting in His grace, as He has begun a goodwork, so will He perfect it, "working to will and to accomplish" [Phil.2:13; can. 22]. * Nevertheless, let those "who think themselves tostand, take heed lest they fall" [1 Cor. 10:12], and "with fear andtrembling work out their salvation" [Phil. 2:12] in labors, inwatchings, in almsdeeds, in prayers and oblations, in fastings andchastity [cf. 2 Cor. 6:3 ff.]. For they ought to fear, knowing thatthey are born again "unto the hope of glory" [cf. 1 Rom. Pet. 1:3], andnot as yet unto glory in the combat that yet remains with the flesh,with the world, with the devil, in which they cannot be victors, unlesswith God's grace they obey the Apostle saying: "We are debtors, not tothe flesh, to live according to the flesh. For if you live according tothe flesh, you shall die. But if by the spirit you mortify the deeds ofthe flesh, you shall live" [Rom. 8:12 ff.].

Chap. 14. The Fallen and Their Restoration

807 Those who by sin have fallen away from the received grace ofjustification, will again be able to be justified [can. 29] when,roused by God through the sacrament of penance, they by the merit ofChrist shall have attended to the recovery of the grace lost. For thismanner of justification is the reparation of one fallen, which the holyFathers * have aptly called a second plank after the shipwreck of lostgrace. For on behalf of those who after baptism fall into sin, ChristJesus instituted the sacrament of penance, when He said: "Receive yethe Holy Ghost; whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them,and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained" [John 20:22, 23].Hence it must be taught that the repentance of a Christian after hisfall is very different from that at his baptism, and that it includesnot only a cessation from sins, and a detestation of them, or "acontrite and humble heart" [Ps. 50:19], but also the sacramentalconfession of the same, at least in desire and to be made in itsseason, and sacerdotal absolution, as well as satisfaction by fasting,almsgiving, prayers, and other devout exercises of the spiritual life,not indeed for the eternal punishment, which is remitted together withthe guilt either by the sacrament or the desire of the sacrament, butfor the temporal punishment [can. 30], which (as the Sacred Writingsteach) is not always wholly remitted, as is done in baptism, to thosewho ungrateful to the grace of God which they have received, "havegrieved the Holy Spirit" [cf. Eph. 4:30], and have not feared to"violate the temple of God" [1 Cor. 3:17]. Of this repentance it iswritten: "Be mindful, whence thou art fallen, do penance, and do thefirst works" [Rev. 2:5], and again: "The sorrow which is according toGod, worketh penance steadfast unto salvation" [2 Cor. 7:10], andagain: "Do penance" [Matt. 3:2; 4:17], and, "Bring forth fruits worthyof penance" [Matt. 3:8].

Chap. 15. By Every Mortal Sin Grace is Lost, but not Faith

808 Against the crafty genius of certain men also, who "by pleasingspeeches and good words seduce the hearts of the innocent" [Rom.16:18], it must be maintained that the grace of justification, althoughreceived, is lost not only by infidelity [can. 27], whereby even faithitself is lost, but also by any other mortal sin, although faith be notlost [can. 28], thereby defending the doctrine of the divine law whichexcludes from the kingdom of God not only the unbelievers, but also thefaithful who are "fornicators, adulterers, effeminate, liers withmankind, thieves, covetous, drunkards, railers, extortioners" [1 Cor.6:9 ff.], and all others who commit deadly sins, from which with theassistance of divine grace they can refrain and for which they areseparated from the grace of God [can. 27].

Chap. 16. The Fruit of Justipration, that is, the Merit of Good

Works, and the Reasonableness of that Merit

809 To men, therefore, who have been justified in this respect, whetherthey have preserved uninterruptedly the grace received, or haverecovered it when lost, the words of the Apostle are to be submitted:"Abound in every good work, knowing that your labor is not in vain inthe Lord" [1 Cor. 15:58]; "for God is not unjust, that he should forgetyour work and the love, which you have shown in his name" [Heb. 6:10],and: "Do not lose your confidence, which has a great reward" [Heb.10:35]. And therefore to those who work well "unto the end" [Matt.10:22], and who trust in God, life eternal is to be proposed, both as agrace mercifully promised to the sons of God through Christ Jesus, "andas a recompense" * which is according to the promise of God Himself tobe faithfully given to their good works and merits [can. 26 and 32].For this is that "crown of justice which after his fight and course"the Apostle declared "was laid up for him, to be rendered to him by thejust judge and not only to him, but also to all that love his coming"[2 Tim. 4:7ff.]. For since Christ Jesus Himself as the "head into themembers" [Eph. 4:15], and "as the vine into the branches" [John 15:5]continually infuses His virtue into the said justified, a virtue whichalways precedes their good works, and which accompanies and followsthem, and without which they could in no wise be pleasing andmeritorious before God [can. 2], we must believe that to thosejustified nothing more is wanting from being considered [can. 32] ashaving satisfied the divine law by those works which have been done inGod according to the state of this life, and as having truly meritedeternal life to be obtained in its own time (if they shall havedeparted this life in grace [Rev. 14:13]), since Christ our Lord says:"If anyone shall drink of the water, that I will give him, he shall notthirst forever, but it shall become in him a fountain of waterspringing up unto life everlasting" [John 4:14]. Thus neither is "ourown justice established as our own" from ourselves, nor is the justiceof God [Rom. 10:3] "ignored" or repudiated; for that justice which iscalled ours, because we are justified [can. 10 and 11] through itsinherence in us, that same is (the justice) of God, because it isinfused into us by God through the merit of Christ.

810 Nor indeed is this to be omitted, that although in the sacredWritings so much is ascribed to good works, that even "he that shallgive a drink of cold water to one of his least ones" Christ promises"shall not lose his reward" [Matt. 10:42], and the Apostle testifies"that that which is at present momentary and light of our tribulation,worketh for us above measure exceedingly an eternal weight of glory" [2Cor. 4:17]; nevertheless far be it that a Christian should either trustor "glory" in himself and not "in the Lord" [cf. 1 Cor. 1:31; 2 Cor.10:17], whose goodness towards all men is so great that He wishes thethings which are His gifts [see n. 141] to be their own merits [can.32]. And whereas "in many things we all offend" [Jas. 3:2; can. 23],each one should have before his eyes the severity and judgment as wellas mercy and goodness; neither ought anyone to judge himself, eventhough he be "not conscious to himself of anything," since the wholelife of men must be judged and examined not by the judgment of men, butof God, who "will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, andwill make manifest the counsels of the hearts, and then shall every manhave praise from God" [1 Cor.4:4ff.], "who," as it is written, "willrender to every man according to his works" [Rom. 2:6].

After this Catholic doctrine of justification [can. 33]--which,unless he faithfully and firmly accepts it, no one can be justified--itseemed good to the holy Synod to add these canons, so that all mayknow, not only what they must hold and follow, but also what they oughtto shun and avoid.

Canons On Justification *

811 Can. I. If anyone shall say that man can be justified before God byhis own works which are done either by his own natural powers, orthrough the teaching of the Law, and without divine grace throughChrist Jesus: let him be anathema [cf. n. 793 ff.].

812 Can. 2. If anyone shall say that divine grace through Christ Jesusis given for this only, that man may more easily be able to live justlyand merit eternal life, as if by free will without grace he were ableto do both, though with difficulty and hardship: let him be anathema[cf. n. 795, 809].

813 Can. 3. If anyone shall say that without the anticipatoryinspiration of the Holy Spirit and without His assistance man canbelieve, hope, and love or be repentant, as he ought, so that the graceof justification may be conferred upon him: let him be anathema [cf. n.797].

814 Can. 4. If anyone shall say that man's free will moved and arousedby God does not cooperate by assenting to God who rouses and calls,whereby it disposes and prepares itself to obtain the grace ofjustification, and that it cannot dissent, if it wishes, but that likesomething inanimate it does nothing at all and is merely in a passivestate: let him be anathema [cf. n. 797].

815 Can. 5. If anyone shall say that after the sin of Adam man's freewill was lost and destroyed, or that it is a thing in name only, indeeda title without a reality, a fiction, moreover, brought into the Churchby Satan: let him be anathema [cf. n. 793, 797].

816 Can. 6. If anyone shall say that it is not in the power of man tomake his ways evil, but that God produces the evil as well as the goodworks, not only by permission, but also properly and of Himself, sothat the betrayal of Judas is no less His own proper work than thevocation of Paul: let him be anathema.

817 Can. 7. If anyone shall say that all works that are done beforejustification, in whatever manner they have been done, are truly sinsor deserving of the hatred of God, or that the more earnestly anyonestrives to dispose himself for grace, so much the more grievously doeshe sin: let him be anathema [cf. n. 798].

818 Can. 8. If anyone shall say that the fear of hell, whereby bygrieving for sins we flee to the mercy of God or refrain from sinning,is a sin or makes sinners worse: let him be anathema [cf. n. 798].

819 Can. 9. If anyone shall say that by faith alone the sinner isjustified, so as to understand that nothing else is required tocooperate in the attainment of the grace of justification, and that itis in no way necessary that he be prepared and disposed by the actionof his own will: let him be anathema [cf. n. 798, 801, 804].

820 Can. 10. If anyone shall say that men are justified without thejustice of Christ by which He merited for us, or that by that justiceitself they are formally just: let him be anathema [cf. n. 798, 799].

821 Can. 11. If anyone shall say that men are justified either by thesole imputation of the justice of Christ, or by the sole remission ofsins, to the exclusion of grace and charity, which is poured forth intheir hearts by the Holy Spirit and remains in them, or even that thegrace by which we are justified is only the favor of God: let him beanathema [cf. n. 799ff., 809].

822 Can. 12. If anyone shall say that justifying faith is nothing elsethan confidence in the divine mercy which remits sins for Christ'ssake, or that it is this confidence alone by which we are justified:let him be anathema [cf. n. 798, 802].

823 Can. 13. If anyone shall say that it is necessary for every man inorder to obtain the remission of sins to believe for certain andwithout any hesitation due to his own weakness and indisposition thathis sins are forgiven him: let him be anathema [cf. n. 802].

824 Can. 14. If anyone shall say that man is absolved from his sins andjustified, because he believes for certain that he is absolved andjustified, or that no one is truly justified but he who believeshimself justified, and that by this faith alone absolution andjustification are perfected: let him be anathema [cf. n. 802].

825 Can. 15. If anyone shall say that a man who is born again andjustified is bound by faith to believe that he is assuredly in thenumber of the predestined: let him be anathema [cf. n. 805].

826 Can. 16. If anyone shall say that he will for certain with anabsolute and infallible certainty have that great gift of perseveranceup to the end, unless he shall have learned this by a specialrevelation: let him be anathema [cf. n.805ff.].

827 Can. 17. If anyone shall say that the grace of justification isattained by those only who are predestined unto life, but that allothers, who are called, are called indeed, but do not receive grace, asif they are by divine power predestined to evil: let him be anathema[cf. n. 800].

828 Can. 18. If anyone shall say that the commandments of God are evenfor a man who is justified and confirmed in grace impossible toobserve: let him be anathema [cf. n. 804].

829 Can. 19. If anyone shall say that nothing except faith is commandedin the Gospel, that other things are indifferent, neither commanded norprohibited, but free, or that the ten commandments in no way pertain toChristians: let him be anathema [cf. n. 800].

830 Can. 20. If anyone shall say that a man who is justified and everso perfect is not bound to observe the commandments of God and theChurch, but only to believe, as if indeed the Gospel were a mereabsolute promise of eternal life, without the condition of observationof the commandments: let him be anathema [cf. n. 804].

831 Can. 21. If anyone shall say that Christ Jesus has been given byGod to men as a Redeemer in whom they should trust, and not also as alegislator, whom they should obey: let him be anathema.

832 Can. 22. If anyone shall say that he who is justified can eitherpersevere in the justice received without the special assistance ofGod, or that with that [assistance] he cannot: let him be anathema [cf.n. 804, 806].

833 Can. 23. If anyone shall say that a man once justified can sin nomore, nor lose grace, and that therefore he who falls and sins wasnever truly justified; or, on the contrary, that throughout his wholelife he can avoid all sins even venial sins, except by a specialprivilege of God, as the Church holds in regard to the Blessed Virgin:let him be anathema [cf. n. 805, 810].

834 Can. 24. If anyone shall say, that justice received is notpreserved and also not increased in the sight of God through good worksbut that those same works are only the fruits and signs ofjustification received, but not a cause of its increase: let him beanathema [cf. n. 803].

835 Can. 25. If anyone shall say that in every good work the just onesins at least venially, or (what is more intolerable) mortally, andtherefore deserves eternal punishments, and that it is only because Goddoes not impute those works unto damnation that he is not damned, lethim be anathema [cf. n. 804].

836 Can. 26. If anyone shall say that the just ought not to expect andhope for an eternal recompense from God and the merit of Jesus Christfor the good works which have been performed in trod, if by doing welland in keeping the divine commandments they persevere even to the end:let him be anathema [cf. n. 809].

837 Can. 27. If anyone shall say that there is no mortal sin exceptthat of infidelity, or that grace once received is not lost by anyother sin however grievous and enormous, except the sin of infidelity:let him be anathema [cf. n. 808].

838 Can. 28. If anyone shall say that together with the loss of graceby sin faith also is always lost, or that the faith that remains is nota true faith, though it be not a living one, or that he, who has faithwithout charity, is not a Christian: let him be anathema [cf. n. 808].

839 Can. 29. If anyone shall say that he who has fallen after baptismcannot by the grace of God rise again; or that he can indeed recoverlost justice, but by faith alone without the sacrament of penance,contrary to what the holy Roman and universal Church, taught by Christthe Lord and His apostles, has hitherto professed, observed, andtaught: let him be anathema [cf. n. 807].

840 Can. 30. If anyone shall say that after the reception of the graceof justification, to every penitent sinner the guilt is so remitted andthe penalty of eternal punishment so blotted out that no penalty oftemporal punishment remains to be discharged either in this world or inthe world to come in purgatory before the entrance to the kingdom ofheaven can be opened: let him be anathema [cf. n. 807].

841 Can.31. If anyone shall say that the one justified sins, when heperforms good works with a view to an eternal reward: let him beanathema [cf. n. 804]

842 Can. 32. If anyone shall say that the good works of the manjustified are in such a way the gifts of God that they are not also thegood merits of him who is justified, or that the one justified by thegood works, which are done by him through the grace of God and themerit of Jesus Christ (whose living member he is), does not truly meritincrease of grace, eternal life, and the attainment of that eternallife (if he should die in grace), and also an increase of glory: lethim be anathema [cf. n. 803and 809].

843 Can. 33. If anyone shall say that because of this Catholic doctrineof justification as set forth by the holy Synod in this present decree,there is in some degree a detraction from the glory of God or from themerits of Jesus Christ our Lord, and that the truth of our faith, andin fact the glory of God and of Jesus Christ are not rather renderedillustrious: let him be anathema [cf. n. 810]

SESSION Vll (March 3, 1547)

Foreword *

843a For the completion of the salutary doctrine of justification,which was a promulgated in the last session with the unanimous consentof the Fathers, it has seemed fitting to treat of the most holysacraments of the Church, through which all true justice either begins,or being begun is increased or being lost is restored. Therefore theholy, ecumenical, and general Synod of Trent lawfully assembled in theHoly Spirit with the same legates of the Apostolic See presidingtherein, in order to destroy the errors, and to uproot the heresiesconcerning these most holy sacraments, which in this stormy period ofours have been both revived from the heresies previously condemned byour Fathers, and also have been invented anew, which are exceedinglydetrimental to the purity of the Catholic Church and to the salvationof souls; this Synod in adhering to the teaching of the HolyScriptures, to the apostolic traditions and to the unanimous opinion ofother councils and of the Fathers, has thought it proper to establishand decree these present canons, intending (with the assistance of thedivine Spirit) to publish later the remaining which are wanting for thecompletion of the work begun.

Canons on the Sacraments in General

844 Can. I. If anyone shall say that the sacraments of the New Law werenot all instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, or that there are more orless than seven, namely baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance,extreme unction, order, and matrimony, or even that anyone of theseseven is not truly and strictly speaking a sacrament: let him beanathema.

845 Can. 2. If anyone shall say that these same sacraments of the newLaw do not differ from the sacraments of the Old Law, except that theceremonies are different and the outward rites are different: let himbe anathema.

846 Can. 3. If anyone shall say that these seven sacraments are equalto each other in such a way that one is not for any reason more worthythan the other: let him be anathema.

847 Can. 4. If anyone shall say that the sacraments of the New Law arenot necessary for salvation, but are superfluous, and that, althoughall are not necessary for every individual, without them or without thedesire of them through faith alone men obtain from God the grace ofjustification; let him be anathema.

848 Can. 5. If anyone shall say that these sacraments have beeninstituted for the nourishing of faith alone: let him be anathema.

849 Can. 6. If anyone shall say that the sacraments of the New Law donot contain the grace which they signify, or that they do not conferthat grace on those who do not place an obstacle in the way, as-thoughthey were only outward signs of grace or justice, received throughfaith, and certain marks of the Christian profession by which thefaithful among men are distinguished from the unbelievers: let him beanathema.

850 Can. 7. If anyone shall say that grace, as far as concerns God'spart, is not given through the sacraments always and to all men, eventhough they receive them rightly, but only sometimes and to somepersons: let him be anathema.

851 Can. 8. If anyone shall say that by the said sacraments of the NewLaw, grace is not conferred from the work which has been worked [exopere operato], but that faith alone in the divine promise suffices toobtain grace: let him be anathema.

852 Can. 9. If anyone shall say that in the three sacraments, namely,baptism, confirmation, and orders, there is not imprinted on the soul asign, that is, a certain spiritual and indelible mark, on account ofwhich they cannot be repeated: let him be anathema.

853 Can. 10. If anyone shall say that all Christians have power toadminister the word and all the sacraments: let him be anathema.

854 Can. 11. If anyone shall say that in ministers, when they effectand confer the sacraments, the intention at least of doing what theChurch does is not required: let him be anathema.

855 Can. 12. If anyone shall say that a minister who is in mortal sin,although he observes all the essentials which pertain to theperformance or conferring of the sacrament, neither performs norconfers the sacrament: let him be anathema.

856 Can. 13. If anyone shall say that the received and approved ritesof the Catholic Church accustomed to be used in the solemnadministration of the sacraments may be disdained or omitted by theminister without sin and at pleasure, or may be changed by any pastorof the churches to other new ones: let him be anathema.

Canons on the Sacrament of Baptism *

857 Can. 1. If anyone shall say that the baptism of John had the same force as the baptism of Christ: let him be anathema.

858 Can. 2. If anyone shall say that real and natural water is notnecessary for baptism, and on that account those words of our LordJesus Christ: "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Spirit"(John 3:5), are distorted into some sort of metaphor: let him beanathema.

859 Can. 3. If anyone shall say that in the Roman Church (which is themother and the teacher of all churches) there is not the true doctrineconcerning the sacrament of baptism: let him be anathema.

860 Can. 4. If anyone shall say that the baptism, which is alsogiven by heretics in the name of the Father and of the Son and of theHoly Spirit, with the intention of doing what the Church does, is nottrue baptism: let him be anathema.

861 Can. 5. If anyone shall say that baptism is optional, that is, notnecessary for salvation: let him be anathema [cf. n.796 ].

862 Can. 6. If anyone shall say that one who is baptized cannot, evenif he wishes, lose grace, however much he may sin, unless he isunwilling to believe: let him be anathema [cf. n. 808].

863 Can. 7. If anyone shall say that those who are baptized are bybaptism itself made debtors to faith alone, and not to the observanceof the whole law of Christ: let him be anathema [cf. n. 802].

864 Can. 8. If anyone shall say that those baptized are free from allprecepts of the holy Church, which are either written or handed down,so that they are not bound to observe them, unless they of their ownaccord should wish to submit themselves to them: let him be anathema.

865 Can. 9. If anyone shall say that men are to be so recalled to theremembrance of the baptism which they have received, that theyunderstand that all the vows which have been taken after baptism arevoid by virtue of the promise already made in baptism itself, as if bythem they detracted from the faith which they professed, and from thebaptism itself: let him be anathema.

866 Can. 10. If anyone shall say that all sins which arecommitted after baptism are either remitted or made venial by the mereremembrance and the faith of the baptism received: let him be anathema.

867 Can. 11. If anyone shall say that baptism truly and rightlyadministered must be repeated for him who has denied the faith ofChrist among infidels, when he is converted to repentance: let him beanathema.

868 Can. 12. If anyone shall say that no one is to be baptized exceptat that age at which Christ was baptized, or when at the very point ofdeath, let him be anathema.

869 Can. 13. If anyone shall say that infants, because they have notactual faith, after having received baptism are not to be numberedamong the faithful, and therefore, when they have reached the years ofdiscretion, are to be rebaptized, or that it is better that theirbaptism be omitted than that they, while not believing, by their ownact be baptized in the faith of the Church alone: let him be anathema.

870 Can. 14. If anyone shall say that those who have been baptized inthis.manner as infants, when they have grown up, are to be questionedwhether they wish to ratify what the sponsors promised in their name,when they were baptized, and if they should answer that they are notwilling, that they must be left to their own will, and that they arenot to be forced to a Christian life in the meantime by any otherpenalty, except that they be excluded from the reception of theEucharist and of the other sacraments until they repent: let him beanathema.

Canons on the Sacrament of Confirmation*

871 Can. I. If anyone shall say that the confirmation of those baptizedis an empty ceremony and not rather a true and proper sacrament, orthat in former times it was nothing more than a kind of catechism, bywhich those approaching adolescence gave an account of their faithbefore the Church: let him be anathema.

872 Can. 2. If anyone shall say that they who ascribe any power to thesacred chrism of confirmation offer an outrage to the Holy Spirit: lethim be anathema.

873 Can. 3. If anyone shall say that the ordinary minister of holyconfirmation is not the bishop alone, but any simple priest: let him beanathema.

JULIUS III 1550-1555

COUNCIL OF TRENT, continued

SESSION XIII (Oct. II, 1551)

Decree On the Most Holy Eucharist *

873a The sacred and holy ecumenical and general Synod of Trent,lawfully a assembled in the Holy Spirit with the same legates andnuncios of the Apostolic See presiding therein, although it hasconvened for this purpose not without the special guidance anddirection of the Holy Spirit, namely to publish the true and ancientdoctrine concerning faith and the sacraments, and to provide a remedyfor all the heresies and other very serious troubles by which theChurch of God is at present wretchedly agitated and torn into manydifferent factions, yet from the beginning has had this especiallyamong its desires, to uproot the "cockles" of execrable errors andschisms, which the enemy in these troubled times of our has "sown"[Matt. 13:25ff.], in the doctrine of the faith, in the use and worshipof the sacred Eucharist, which our Savior, moreover, left in His Churchas a symbol of that unity and charity with which He wished allChristians to be mutually bound and united. Therefore, this same sacredand holy synod, transmitting that sound and genuine doctrine of thisvenerable and divine sacrament of the Eucharist, which the CatholicChurch, instructed by our Lord Jesus Christ himself and by hisApostles, and taught by the "Holy Spirit who day by day brings to herall truth" [John 14:26], has always held and will preserve even to theend of time, forbids all the faithful of Christ hereafter to venture tobelieve, teach, or preach concerning the Most Holy Eucharist otherwisethan is explained and defined in this present decree.

Chap. 1. The Real Presence of our Lord Jesus in the Most

Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist

874 First of all the holy Synod teaches and openly and simply professesthat in the nourishing sacrament of the Holy Eucharist after theconsecration of the bread and wine our Lord Jesus Christ, true God andman, is truly, really, and substantially [can. I] contained under thespecies of those sensible things. For these things are not mutuallycontradictory, that our Savior Himself is always seated at the righthand of the Father in heaven according to the natural mode of existing,and yet that in many other places sacramentally He is present to us inHis own substance by that manner of existence which, although we canscarcely express it in words, yet we can, however, by our understandingilluminated by faith, conceive to be possible to God, and which weought most steadfastly to believe. For thus all our forefathers, asmany as were in the true Church of Christ, who have discussed this mostholy sacrament, have most openly professed that our Redeemer institutedthis so wonderful a sacrament at the Last Supper, when after theblessing of the bread and wine He testified in clear and definite wordsthat He gave them His own body and His own blood; and those words whichare recorded [Matt. 26:26ff.; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19 ff.] by the holyEvangelists, and afterwards repeated by St. Paul [1 Cor. 11:23 ff.],since they contain within themselves that proper and very clear meaningin which they were understood by the Fathers, it is a most disgracefulthing for some contentious and wicked men to distort into fictitiousand imaginary figures of speech, by which the real nature of the fleshand blood of Christ is denied, contrary to the universal sense of theChurch, which, recognizing with an ever grateful and recollecting mindthis most excellent benefit of Christ, as the pillar and ground oftruth [1 Tim. 3:15], has detested these falsehoods, devised by impiousmen, as satanical.

Chap. 2. The Reason for the Institution of this

Most Holy Sacrament

875 Our Savior, therefore, when about to depart from this world to theFather, instituted this sacrament in which He poured forth, as it were,the riches of His divine love for men, "making a remembrance of hiswonderful works" [Ps. 110:4], and He commanded us in the consuming ofit to cherish His "memory" [1 Cor. 11:24], and "to show forth his deathuntil He come" to judge the world [1 Cor. 11:23]. But He wished thatthis sacrament be received as the spiritual food of souls [Matt.26:26], by which they may be nourished and strengthened [can. 5],living by the life of Him who said: "He who eateth me, the same alsoshall live by me" [John 6:58], and as an antidote, whereby we may befreed from daily faults and be preserved from mortal sins. He wished,furthermore, that this be a pledge of our future glory and ofeverlasting happiness, and thus be a symbol of that one "body" of whichHe Himself is the "head" [1 Cor. 11:23; Eph. 5:23], and to which Hewished us to be united, as members, by the closest bond of faith, hope,and charity, that we might "all speak the same thing and there might beno schisms among us" [cf. 1 Cor. 1:10].

Chap. 3. The Excellence of the Most Holy Eucharist

Over the Other Sacraments

876 This, indeed, the most Holy Eucharist has in common with theother sacraments, that it is a "symbol of a sacred thing and a visible* form of an invisible grace"; but this excellent and peculiar thing isfound in it, that the other sacraments first have the power ofsanctifying, when one uses them, but in the Eucharist there is theAuthor of sanctity Himself before it is used [can. 4]. For the apostleshad not yet received the Eucharist from the hand of the Lord [ Matt.26:26; Mark 14:22] when He Himself truly said that what He was offeringwas His body; and this belief has always been in the Church of God,that immediately after the consecration the true body of our Lord andHis true blood together with His soul and divinity exist under thespecies of bread and wine; but the body indeed under the species ofbread, and the blood under the species of wine by the force of thewords, but the body itself under both by force of that naturalconnection and concomitance by which the parts of Christ the Lord, "whohath now risen from the dead to die no more" [ Rom. 6:9], are mutuallyunited, the divinity also because of that admirable hypostatic union[can. I and 3] with His body and soul. Therefore, it is very true thatas much is contained under either species as under both. For Christwhole and entire exists under the species of bread and under any partwhatsoever of that species, likewise the whole (Christ) is presentunder the species of wine and under its parts [can. 3].

Chap. 4. Transubstantiation

877 But since Christ, our Redeemer, has said that that is truly His ownbody which He offered under the species of bread [cf. Matt. 26:26ff.;Mark 14:22ff.; Luke 22:19 ff.; 1 Cor. 11:23 ff.], it has always been amatter of conviction in the Church of God, and now this holy Synoddeclares it again, that by the consecration of the bread and wine aconversion takes place of the whole substance of bread into thesubstance of the body of Christ our Lord, and of the whole substance ofthe wine into the substance of His blood. This conversion isappropriately and properly called transubstantiation by the CatholicChurch [can. 2].

Chap. 5. The Worship and Veneration to be Shown to this

Most Holy Sacrament

878 There is, therefore, no room left for doubt that all thefaithful of Christ in accordance with a custom always received in theCatholic Church offer in veneration [can. 6] the worship of latriawhichis due to the true God, to this most Holy Sacrament. For it is not lessto be adored because it was instituted by Christ the Lord to bereceived [cf. Matt. 26:26 ff.]. For we believe that same God to bepresent therein, of whom the eternal Father when introducing Him intothe world says: "And let all the Angels of God adore Him" [Heb. 1:6;Ps. 96:7], whom the Magi "falling down adored" [cf. Matt. 2:11], whofinally, as the Scripture testifies [cf. Matt. 28:17], was adored bythe apostles in Galilee. The holy Synod declares, moreover, that thiscustom was piously and religiously introduced into the Church of God,so that this sublime and venerable sacrament was celebrated every yearon a special feast day with extraordinary veneration and solemnity, andwas borne reverently and with honor in processions through the streetsand public places. For it is most proper that some holy days beestablished when all Christians may testify, with an extraordinary andunusual expression, that their minds are grateful to and mindful oftheir common Lord and Redeemer for such an ineffable and truly divine afavor whereby the victory and triumph of His death is represented. Andthus, indeed, ought victorious truth to celebrate a triumph overfalsehood and heresy, that her adversaries, placed in view of so muchsplendor and amid such deep joy of the universal Church, may eithervanish weakened and broken, or overcome and confounded by shame maysome day recover their senses.

Chap. 6. The Reservation of the Sacrament of the

Holy Eucharist and Bearing it to the Sick

879 The custom of reserving the Holy Eucharist in a holy place is soancient that even the age of the NICENE Council recognized it.Moreover, the injunction that the sacred Eucharist be carried to thesick, and be carefully reserved for this purpose in the churches,besides being in conformity with the greatest equity and reason, isalso found in many councils, and has been observed according to a veryancient custom of the Catholic Church. Therefore this holy Synoddecrees that this salutary and necessary custom be by all meansretained [can. 7].

Chap. 7. The Preparation that Must be Employed to Receive

the Holy Eucharist Worthily

880 If it is not becoming for anyone to approach any of thesacred functions except solemnly, certainly, the more the holiness andthe divinity of this heavenly sacrament is understood by a Christian,the more diligently ought he to take heed lest he approach to receiveit without great reverence and holiness [can. 2], especially when weread in the Apostle those words full of terror: "He that eateth anddrinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself notdiscerning the body of the Lord" [1 Cor. 11 :29 ]. Therefore, theprecept, "Let a man prove himself" [1 Cor. 11:28], must be recalled tomind by him who wishes to communicate. Now ecclesiastical usagedeclares that this examination is necessary, that no one conscious ofmortal sin, however contrite he may seem to himself, should approachthe Holy Eucharist without a previous sacramental confession. This, theholy Synod has decreed, is always to be observed by all Christians,even by those priests on whom by their office it may be incumbent tocelebrate, provided the recourses of a confessor be not lacking tothem. But if in an urgent necessity a priest should celebrate withoutprevious confession, let him confess as soon as possible [see n. 1138ff.].

Chap. 8. The Use of the Admirable Sacrament

881 As to its use our Fathers have rightly and wiselydistinguished three ways of receiving this Holy Sacrament. For theyhave taught that some receive it sacramentally only, as sinners; othersonly spiritually, namely those who eating with desire the heavenlybread set before them, by a living faith, "which worketh by charity" [Gal. 5:6], perceive its fruit and usefulness; while the third receiveit both sacramentally and spiritually [can. 8]; and these are they whoso prove and prepare themselves previously that "clothed with thewedding garment" [ Matt. 22:11, ff.], they approach this divine table.Now as to the reception of the sacrament it has always been the customin the Church of God for the laity to receive communion from thepriests, but that the priests when celebrating should communicatethemselves [can. 10]; this custom proceeding from an apostolicaltradition should with reason and justice be retained.

882 And finally this holy Synod with paternal affectionadmonishes, exhorts, entreats, and beseeches, "through the bowels ofthe mercy of our God" [Luke 1 :78 ], that each and all, who are classedunder the Christian name, will now finally agree and be of the sameopinion in this "sign of unity," in this "bond of charity,'' * in thissymbol of concord, and that mindful of so great a majesty and suchboundless love of our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave His own beloved soulas the price of our salvation, and gave us His "own flesh to eat" [John6:48 ff.], they may believe and venerate these sacred mysteries of Hisbody and blood with that constancy and firmness of faith, with thatdevotion of soul, that piety and worship, as to be able to receivefrequently that "supersubstantial bread" [ Matt. 6:11], and that it maybe to them truly the life of the soul and the perpetual health of mind,that being invigorated by the strength thereof [ 1Samuel 19:8], afterthe journey of this miserable pilgrimage, they may be able to arrive intheir heavenly country to eat without any veil that same bread ofangelsPs. 77:25 ] which they now eat under the sacred veils.

But whereas it is not enough to declare the truth, unless errorsbe exposed and repudiated, it has seemed good to the holy Synod tosubjoin these canons, so that all, now that the Catholic doctrine hasbeen made known, may also understand what heresies are to be avoidedand guarded against.

Canons on the Most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist *

883 Can. 1. If anyone denies that in the sacrament of the most holyEucharist there are truly, really, and substantially contained the bodyand blood together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ,and therefore the whole Christ, but shall say that He is in it as by asign or figure, or force, let him be anathema [cf. n. 874,876 ].

884 Can. 2. If anyone says that in the sacred and holy sacrament of theEucharist there remains the substance of bread and wine together withthe body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, and denies that wonderfuland singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into thebody, and of the entire substance of the wine into the blood, thespecies of the bread and wine only remaining, a change which theCatholic Church most fittingly calls transubstantiation: let him beanathema [cf. n. 887 ]

885 Can 3. If anyone denies that the whole Christ is contained in thevenerable sacrament of the Eucharist under each species and under everypart of each species, when the separation has been made: let him beanathema [cf. n. 876 ].

886 Can. 4. If anyone says that after the completion of theconsecration that the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ is not inthe marvelous sacrament of the Eucharist, but only in use, while it istaken, not however before or after, and that in the hosts orconsecrated particles, which are reserved or remain after communion,the true body of the Lord does not remain: let him be anathema [cf. n.876 ].

887 Can. 5. If anyone says that the special fruit of the most HolyEucharist is the remission of sins, or that from it no other fruits areproduced: let him be anathema [cf. 875].

888 Can. 6: If anyone says that in the holy sacrament of theEucharist the only-begotten Son of God is not to be adored evenoutwardly with the worship of latria(the act of adoration), andtherefore not to be venerated with a special festive celebration, norto be borne about in procession according to the praiseworthy anduniversal rite and custom of the holy Church, or is not to be setbefore the people publicly to be adored, and that the adorers of it areidolaters: let him be anathema [cf. n. 878]

889 Can. 7. If anyone says that it is not lawful that the HolyEucharist be reserved in a sacred place, but must necessarily bedistributed immediately after the consecration among those present; orthat it is not permitted to bring it to the sick with honor: let him beanathema [cf. n. 879].

890 Can. 8. If anyone says that Christ received in the Eucharistis received only spiritually, and not also sacramentally and inreality: let him be anathema [cf.n. 881].

891 Can. 9. If anyone denies that all and each of thefaithful of Christ of both sexes, when they have reached the years ofdiscretion, are bound every year to communicate at least at Easteraccording to the precept of holy mother Church: let him be anathema[cf. n. 437].

892 Can. 10. If anyone says that it is not lawful for a priestcelebrating to communicate himself: let him be anathema [cf. n. 881].

893 Can. 11. If anyone says that faith alone is sufficientpreparation for receiving the sacrament of the most Holy Eucharist: lethim be anathema. And that so great a Sacrament may not be unworthilyreceived, and therefore unto death and condemnation, this holy Councilordains and declares that sacramental confession must necessarily bemade beforehand by those whose conscience is burdened by mortal sin,however contrite they may consider themselves. If anyone moreoverteaches the contrary or preaches or obstinately asserts, or evenpublicly by disputation shall presume to defend the contrary, by thatfact itself he is excommunicated

SESSION XIV (NOV. 25, 1551)

Doctrine on the Sacrament of Penance*

893a The holy ecumenical and general council of Trent, lawfullyassembled a in the Holy Spirit with the same delegate and nuncios ofthe Holy Apostolic See presiding, although for a necessary reason muchdiscussion on the sacrament of penance has been introduced in thedecree on justification [see n. 807, 839], because of the kindrednature of the subjects, nevertheless so great is the number of errorsof various kinds about this sacrament in this our age that it will beno small public advantage to have handed down a more exact and fullerdefinition, in which, after all errors have been displayed and refuted,Catholic truth should become clear and manifest; and this truth whichthis holy synod now proposes is to be preserved for all time by allChristians.

Chap. 1. The Necessity and Institution of the

Sacrament of Penance

894 If in all who have been regenerated, there were thisgratitude toward God, so that they would constantly safeguard thejustice received in baptism by His bounty and His grace, there wouldhave been no need to institute [can. 2] another sacrament besidesbaptism for the remission of sins. But "since God, rich in mercy" [Eph. 2:4] "knoweth our frame" Ps. 102:14], He offers a remedy of lifeeven to those who may afterwards have delivered themselves to theservitude of sin, and to the power of Satan, namely, the sacrament ofpenance [can. 1], by which the benefit of the death of Christ isapplied to those who have fallen after baptism. Penance has indeed beennecessary for all men, who at any time whatever have stained themselveswith mortal sin, in order to attain grace and justice, even for thosewho have desired to be cleansed by the sacrament of baptism, so thattheir perversity being renounced and amended, they might detest sogreat an offense against God with a hatred of sin and a sincere sorrowof heart. Therefore, the Prophet says: "Be converted and do penance forall your iniquities; and iniquity shall not be your ruin" [ Ezech.18:30]. The Lord also said: "Except you do penance, you shall alllikewise perish" [Luke 13:3]. And the prince of the apostles, Peter,recommending penance to sinners about to receive baptism said: "Dopenance and be baptized every one of you" [Acts 2:38 ]. Moreover,neither before the coming of Christ was penance a sacrament, nor is itafter His coming to anyone before baptism. But the Lord instituted thesacrament of penance then especially, when after His resurrection fromthe dead He breathed upon His disciples, saying: "Receive ye the HolySpirit: whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whosesins you shall retain, they are retained" [ John 20:22]. In this act sosignificant and by words so clear, the consensus of all the Fathers hasalways recognized that the power of forgiving and retaining sins hadbeen communicated to the apostles and their legitimate successors forreconciling the faithful who have fallen after baptism [can. 37], andthat with good reason the Catholic Church has repudiated and condemnedas heretics the Nova. tians, at one time stubbornly denying the powerof forgiveness. Therefore, this holy Council, approving and receivingthis true meaning of these words of the Lord, condemns the falseinterpretations of those who, contrary to the institution of thissacrament, falsely distort those words to the power of preaching theword of God and of announcing the Gospel of Christ.

Chap.2. The Difference Between the Sacrament of Penance and

that of Baptism

895 Moreover, it is clear that this sacrament differs in manyrespects from baptism [can. 2]- For aside from the fact that in thematter and form, by which the essence of a sacrament is effected, itdiffers very widely, it is certainly clear that the minister of baptismneed not be a judge, since the Church exercises judgment on no one whohas not first entered it through the gateway of baptism. "For what haveI to do," says St. Paul, "to judge them that are without?" [ 1 Cor.5:12]. It is otherwise with those of the household of the faith, whomChrist the Lord by the laver of "baptism" has once made "members of hisown body" [1 Cor. 12:13]. For these, if they should afterwards havedefiled themselves by somecrime, He did not now wish to have cleansedby the repetition of baptism, since that is in no way permitted in theCatholic Church, but to be placed, as it were, as culprits before thetribunal, so that by the sentence of the priests they may be freed notonly once, but as often as they, repentant for the sins committed, havehad recourse to Him. Furthermore,the fruit of baptism is one thing;that of penance is another thing. For by putting on Christ by baptism[Gal. 3:27], we are made an entirely new creature in Him, obtaining afull and complete remission of all sins, to which newness andintegrity, however, we can in no way arrive by thesacrament of penancewithout many tears and labors on our part, for divine justice demandsthis, so that penance has justly been called by the holy Fathers, "alaborious kind of baptism." This sacrament of penance, moreover, isnecessary for the salvation of those who have fallen after baptism, asbaptism itself is for those as yet not regenerated [can. 6].

Chap. 3. The Parts and Fruits of the Sacrament of Penance

896 Furthermore, the holy Council teaches that the form of thesacrament of penance, in which its force chiefly consists, is set downin these words of the minister: "I absolve thee, etc."; to which indeedcertain prayers are laudably added according to the custom of holyChurch; yet in no way do they pertain to the essence of this form, norare they necessary for the administration of the sacrament. The matter,as it were, of this sacrament, on the other hand, consists in the actsof the penitent himself, namely contrition, confession, andsatisfaction [can. 4]. These, inasmuch as by the institution of Godthey are required in the penitent for the integrity of the sacramentfor the full and perfect remission of sins, are for this reason calledthe parts of penance. The reality and effectusof this sacrament,however, so far as concerns its force and efficacy, is reconciliationwith God, which at times in pious persons and in those who receive thissacrament with devotion is wont to be followed by peace of conscienceand serenity with an exceedingly great consolation of spirit. The holyCouncil, while recording these matters regarding the parts and effectof this sacrament, condemns the opinions of those who maintain that theparts of penance are the terrors of conscience and faith [can. 4].

Chap. 4. Contrition

897 Contrition, which has the first place among the aforementioned actsof the penitent, is a sorrow of the soul and a detestation of sincommitted, with a determination of not sinning in the future. Thisfeeling of contrition is, moreover, necessary at all times to obtainthe forgiveness of sins, and thus for a person who has fallen afterbaptism it especially prepares for the remission of sins, if it isunited with trust in divine mercy and with the desire of performing theother things required to receive this sacrament correctly. The holySynod, therefore, declares that this contrition includes not onlycessation from sin and a resolution and a beginning of a new life, butalso hatred of the old, according to this statement: "Cast away fromyou all your transgressions, by which you have transgressed, and maketo yourselves a new heart and a new spirit" [Ezech. 18:31 ]. Andcertainly, he who has considered those lamentations of the saints: "ToThee only have I sinned, and have done evil before Thee" Ps. 50:6]; "Ihave labored in my groanings; I shall wash my bed every night" Ps.6:7]; "I will recount to Thee all my years in the bitterness of mysoul" [Isa. 38:15], and others of this kind, will readily understandthat they emanate from a certain vehement hatred of past life and froma profound detestation of sins.

898 The Council teaches, furthermore, that though it sometimeshappens that this contrition is perfect because of charity andreconciles man to God, before this sacrament is actually received, thisreconciliation nevertheless must not be ascribed to the contritionitself without the desire of the sacrament which is included in it.That imperfect contrition [can. 5] which is called attrition, since itcommonly arises either from the consideration of the baseness of sin orfrom fear of hell and its punishments, if it renounces the desire ofsinning with the hope of pardon, the Synod declares, not only does notmake a person a hypocrite and a greater sinner' but is even a gift ofGod and an impulse of the Holy Spirit, not indeed as already dwellingin the penitent, but only maying him, assisted by which the penitentprepares a way for himself unto justice. And though without thesacrament of penance it cannotperselead the sinner to justification,nevertheless it does dispose him to obtain the grace of God in thesacrament of penance. For the Ninivites, struck in a salutary way bythis fear in consequence of the preaching of Jonas which was full ofterror, did penance and obtained mercy from the Lord [cf.Jonas 3]. Forthis reason, therefore, do some falsely accuse Catholic writers, as ifthey taught that the sacrament of penance confers grace without anypious endeavor on the part of those who receive it, a thing which theChurch of God has never taught or pronounced. Moreover, they alsofalsely teach that contrition is extorted and forced, and that it isnot free and voluntary [can. 5]

JULIUS III 1550-1555

COUNCIL OF TRENT, continued

SESSION XIII (Oct. II, 1551)

Decree On the Most Holy Eucharist *

Chap. 5. Confession

899 From the institution of the sacrament of penance as alreadyexplained the universal Church has always understood that the completeconfession of sins was also instituted by our Lord, [Jas. 5:16; John1:9; (Luke 17:14)], and by divine law is necessary for all who havefallen after baptism [can. 7], because our Lord Jesus Christ, whenabout to ascend from earth to heaven, left behind Him priests as Hisown vicars [ Matt. 16:19; 18:18; John 20:23], as rulers and judges, towhom all the mortal sins into which the faithful of Christ may havefallen should be brought, so that they in virtue of the power of thekeys may pronounce the sentence of remission or retention of sins. Forit is evident that priests could not have exercised this judgmentwithout a knowledge of the matter, nor could they indeed have observedjustice in imposing penalties, if the faithful had declared their sinsin general only, and not specifically and one by one. From this it isgathered that all mortal sins of which they have knowledge after acareful self-examination must be enumerated in confession by thepenitents, even though they are most secret and have been committedonly against the two last precepts of the decalogue [ Exo d. 20:17;Matt. 5:28], sins which sometimes wound the soul more grievously, andare more dangerous than those which are committed openly. For venialsins, by which we are not excluded from the grace of God and into whichwe fall more frequently, although they may rightly and profitably andwithout any presumption be declared in confession [can. 7], as thepractice of pious persons indicates, may be passed over in silencewithout guilt and may be expiated by many other remedies But since allmortal sins, even those of thought, make men children of wrath [ Eph.2:3] and enemies of God, it is necessary to ask pardon for all of themfrom God by an open and humble confession. While, therefore, thefaithful of Christ strive to confess all sins which occur to theirmemory, they undoubtedly lay all of them before the divine mercy to beforgiven [can. 7]. While those who do otherwise and knowingly concealcertain sins, lay nothing before the divine bounty for forgiveness bythe priest. "For if one who is ill is ashamed to make known his woundto the physician, the physician does not remedy what he does notknow."* Furthermore, it is gathered that those circumstances also mustbe explained in confession, which alter the species of the sin, [can.7], because without them the sins themselves are neither honestlyrevealed by the penitents, nor are they known to the judges, and itwould not be possible for them to judge rightly the gravity of thecrimes and to impose the punishment which is proper to those penitents.Hence it is unreasonable to teach that these circumstances have beenconjured up by idle men. or that one circumstance only must beconfessed, namely up by idle men, or that one circumstance only must beconfessed, namely to have sinned against a brother.

900 But it is also impious to say that a confession, which is orderedto be made in this manner [can. 8] is impossible, or to call it atorture of conscience; for it is clear that in the Church nothing elseis exacted of the penitents than that each one, after he has carefullyexamined himself and searched all the nooks and recesses of hisconscience, confess those sins by which he recalls that he has mortallyoffended his Lord and God; moreover, the other sins which do not occurto him after diligent thought, are understood to be included in ageneral way in the same confession; for these sins we trustingly saywith the Prophet: "From my hidden sins cleanse me, O Lord" Ps. 18:13].But, truly, the difficulty of such confession and the shame ofdisclosing the sins might appear a burdensome matter indeed, if it werenot alleviated by so many and such great advantages and consolationswhich are most certainly bestowed by absolution upon all those whoapproach this sacrament worthily.

901 Moreover, as regards the manner of confessing secretly to a priestalone, although Christ has not prohibited that one confess sinspublicly in expiation for his crimes and for his own humiliation, andas an example to others, as well as for the edification of the Churchoffended, yet this is not commanded by divine precept, nor would it beadvisedly enjoined by any human law that offenses, especially secretones, be disclosed by a public confession [can. 6]. Therefore, sincesecret sacramental confession, which the holy Church has used from thebeginning and which she still uses, has always been recommended by themost holy and most ancient Fathers in emphatic and unanimous agreement,the empty calumny of those who do not fear to teach that this isforeign to the divine mandate and is a human invention, and that it hadits origin in the Fathers assembled in the Lateran Council [can. 8] ismanifestly disproved; for neither did the Church through the LateranCouncil decree that the faithful of Christ should confess, a matterwhich she recognized was necessary and instituted by divine law, butthat the precept of confession should be fulfilled at least once a yearby each and all, when they have reached the years of discretion. Hence,this salutary custom of confessing to the great benefit of souls is nowobserved in the whole Church during that sacred and especiallyacceptable time of Lent, a custom which this holy Council completelyapproves and sanctions as pious and worthy to be retained [can. 8; seen. 427 f.].

Chap. 6. The Minister of this Sacrament and Absolution

902 With regard to the minister of this sacrament the holy Synoddeclares false and entirely foreign to the truth of the Gospel alldoctrines which perniciously extend the ministry of the keys to anyother men besides bishops and priests [can. 10], believing that thosewords of the Lord: "Whatsoever you shall bind upon earth, shall bebound also in heaven, and whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, shallbe loosed also in heaven" [ Matt. 18:18; and "Whose sins you shallforgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain, theyare retained" [ John 20:23], were indifferently and indiscriminatelyaddressed to all the faithful of Christ contrary to the institution ofthis sacrament, so that anyone may have the power of remitting sins,public sins by way of rebuke, if the rebuked acquiesces, and secretones through a voluntary confession made to anyone. It also teachesthat even priests who are bound by mortal sin exercise as ministers ofChrist the office of forgiving sins by virtue of the Holy Spiritconferred in ordination, and that they are of an erroneous opinion whocontend that this power does not exist in bad priests. However,although the absolution of the priest is the dispensation of thebenefaction of another, yet it is not a bare ministry only, either ofannouncing the Gospel or declaring the forgiveness of sins, but it isequivalent to a judicial act, by which sentence is pronounced by him asif by a judge [can. 9]. And, therefore, the penitent should not soflatter-himself on his own faith as to think that even though he haveno contrition, and that the intention of acting earnestly and absolvingeffectively be wanting in the priest, nevertheless he is truly andbefore God absolved by reason of his faith alone. For faith withoutpenance effects no remission of sins, and he would be most negligent ofhis own salvation, who would know that a priest was absolving him in ajesting manner, and would not earnestly consult another who would actseriously.

Chap. 7. The Reservation of Cases

903 Therefore, since the nature and essence of a judgment requirethat the sentence be imposed only on subjects, there has always beenthe conviction in the Church of God, and this Synod confirms it as mosttrue, that this absolution which the priest pronounces upon one overwhom he has no ordinary or delegated jurisdiction has no value. Itseemed to be a matter of very great importance to our most holy Fathersfor the discipline of the Christian people that certain more atrociousand grave crimes should be absolved not by anyone indiscriminately, butonly by the highest priests. Hence the sovereign Pontiffs, by virtue ofthe supreme power given them in the universal Church, could right fullyreserve to their own exclusive judgment certain more serious cases ofcrimes. Neither should it be a matter of doubt, since all things whichare from God are well ordered, that the same may lawfully be done byall bishops each in his own diocese, "to edification," however, "not todestruction" [2 Cor. 13:10], by virtue of the authority over theirsubjects given to them above other priests inferior in rank, especiallywith regard to those crimes to which the censure of excommunication isat- i tached. That this reservation of crimes has force not only inexternal administration, but also in the sight of God is in accord withdivine authority [can. 11]. But lest anyone perish on this account, ithas always been piously observed in the same Church of God that therebe no reservation at the moment of death, and that all priests,therefore, may in that case absolve all penitents from any sins andcensures whatsoever; and since outside this moment priests have nopower in reserved cases, let them strive to persuade penitents to thisone thing, that they approach their superiors and lawful judges for thebenefit of absolution.

Chap. 8. The Necessity and Fruit of Satisfaction

904 Finally with regard to satisfaction, which of all the partsof penance has been recommended by our Fathers to the Christian peoplein all ages, and which is especially assailed in our day under thepretext of piety by those who "have an appearance of piety, but whohave denied the power thereof" [ 2 Tim. 3:51], the holy Synod declaresthat it is absolutely false and contrary to the word of God that theguilt is never forgiven by the Lord without the entire punishment alsobeing remitted [can. 12, 15]. For clear and illustrious examples arefound in the Sacred Writings [cf.Gen. 3:16 f.;Num. 12:14 f.; 20:11 f.;2Samuel 12:13]. f., etc.], besides which divine tradition refutes thiserror with all possible clarity. Indeed the nature of divine justiceseems to demand that those who have sinned through ignorance beforebaptism may be received into grace in one manner, and in another thosewho at one time freed from the servitude of sin and the devil, and onreceiving the gift of the Holy Spirit, did not fear to "violate thetemple of God knowingly" [1 Cor. 3:17], "and to grieve the Holy Spirit"[ Eph. 4:30]. And it befits divine clemency that sins be not thuspardoned us without any satisfaction, lest, seizing the occasion [ Rom.7:8], and considering sins trivial, we, offering injury and "affront tothe Holy Spirit" [Heb. 10:29], fall into graver ones, "treasuring up toourselves wrath against the day of wrath" [ Rom. 2:5; Jas. 5:3]. For,without doubt, these satisfactions greatly restrain from sin, and as bya kind of rein act as a check, and make penitents more cautious andvigilant in the future; they also remove the remnants Of sin, anddestroy vicious habits acquired by living evilly through acts contraryto virtue. Neither was there ever in the Church of God any wayconsidered more secure for warding off impending punishment by the Lordthan that men perform these works of penance [ Matt. 3:28;4:17;11:21etc.] with true sorrow of soul. Add to this that, while we suffer bymaking satisfaction for our sins, we are made conformable to ChristJesus, "who made satisfaction for our sins" [Rom. 5:10 ;1 John 2:1 f.],from whom is all our sufficiency [ 2 Cor. 3:5], having also a mostcertain pledge from Him that "if we suffer with Him, we shall also beglorified" [cf. Rom. 8:17]. Neither is this satisfaction which wedischarge for our sins so much our own as it is through Jesus Christ;for we who can do nothing of ourselves, as if of ourselves, with thecooperation "of Him who" comforts us, "we can do all things." Thus manhas not wherein to glory; but all "our glorying" [cf.1 Cor. 1:31 2 Cor.10:17; Gal. 6:14] is in Christ, "in whom we live, in whom we move" [cf.Acts 17:28], in whom we make satisfaction, "bringing forth fruitsworthy of penance" [ Luke 3:8] which have their efficacy from Him, byHim are offered to the Father, and through Him are accepted by theFather [can. 13 f.].

905 The priests of the Lord ought, therefore, so far as thespirit and pru- dence suggest, to enjoin salutary and suitablesatisfactions, in keeping with the nature of the crimes and the abilityof the penitents, lest, if they should connive at sins and deal tooleniently with penitents, by the imposition of certain very light worksfor grave offenses, they might become participators in the crimes ofothers [cf.1 Tim. 5:22]. Moreover, let them keep before their eyes thatthe satisfaction which they impose be not only for the safeguarding ofa new life and a remedy against infirmity, but also for the atonementand chastisement of past sins; for the ancient Fathers both believe andteach that the keys of the priests were bestowed not only to loose, butalso to bind [cf. Matt. 16:19; John 20:23 ; can. 15]. Nor did theytherefore think that the sacrament of penance is a tribunal of wrath orof punishments; as no Catholic ever understood that from oursatisfactions of this kind the nature of the merit and satisfaction ofour Lord Jesus Christ is either obscured or in any way diminished; whenthe Innovators wish to observe this, they teach that the best penanceis a new life, in order to take away all force and practice ofsatisfaction [can. 13].

Chap. 9. The Works of Satisfaction

906 It teaches furthermore that so great is the liberality of thedivine munificence that not only by punishments voluntarily undertakenby us in atonement for sin can we make satisfaction to God the Fatherthrough Jesus Christ, or by punishments imposed by the judgment of thepriest according to the measure of our offense, but also, (and this isthe greatest proof of love) by the temporal afflictions imposed by Godand patiently borne by us [can. 13].

The Doctrine of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction *

907 It has seemed fit to the holy Synod to add to the precedingdoctrine on penance the following matters concerning the sacrament ofextreme unction, which was considered by the Fathers * the consummationnot only of penance, but also of the whole Christian life which shouldbe a perpetual penance. In the first place, therefore, as regards itsinstitution it declares and teaches that our most clement Redeemer, whowished that a provision be made for salutary remedies at all times forHis servants against all the weapons of all enemies, just as He madeprovision for the greatest aids in other sacraments by whichChristians, as long as they live, can preserve themselves free fromevery very grave spiritual injury, so He fortified the end of lifewith, as it were, the most powerful defense, by the sacrament ofextreme unction [can. 1 ]. For, although "our adversary seeks" andseizes throughout our entire life occasions "to devour" [1 Pet. 5:8]our souls in every manner, yet there is no time when he directs moreearnestly all the strength of his cunning to ruin us completely, and ifpossible to drive us also from faith in the divine mercy, than when hesees that the end of life is upon us.

Chap. 1. The Institution of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction

908 This sacred unction for the sick, however, was instituted byChrist our Lord as truly and properly a sacrament of the New Testament,alluded to in Mark [ Mark 6:13], indeed, but recommended to thefaithful and promulgated by James the Apostle and brother of the Lord[can. 1]. "Is any man," he says, "sick among you?" "Let him bring inthe priestsof the Church, and let them pray over him, anointing himwith oil in the name of the Lord and the prayer of faith shall save thesick man, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he be in sins, theyshall be forgiven him" [Jas. 5:14, 15]. In these words, as the Churchhas learned from apostolic tradition transmitted from hand to hand, heteaches the matter, form, proper ministration, and effect of thissalutary sacrament. For the Church has understood that the matter isthe oil blessed by the bishop, since the unction very appropriatelyrepresents the grace of the Holy Spirit, with which the soul of thesick person is visibly anointed; and that these words are the form: "Bythis anointing, etc."

Chap.2. The Effect of the Sacrament

909 Furthermore, the significance and effect of this sacramentare explained in these words: "And the prayer of faith shall save thesick man, and the Lord shall raise him up, and if he be in sins theyshall be forgiven him" [ Jas. 5:15]. For the thing signified is thegrace of the Holy Spirit, whose anointing wipes away sins, if there beany still to be expiated, and the remains of sin, and relieves, andstrengthens the soul of the sick person [can. 2] by exciting in himgreat confidence in divine mercy, supported by which the sick personbears more lightly the miseries and pains of his illness, and resistsmore easily the temptations of the evil spirit who "lies in wait forhis heel" [ Gen. 3:15], and sometimes attains bodily health, when it isexpedient for the salvation of the soul.

Chap. 3. The Minister of this Sacrament and the Time

When it Should be Administered

910 And now, as regards the prescribing of those who can receiveand administer this sacrament, this, too, was clearly expressed in thewords above. For it is also indicated there that the proper ministersof this sacrament are the presbyters of the Church [can. 4], underwhich name in that place are to be understood not the elders by age orthe foremost in rank among the people, but either bishops or priestsduly ordained by them with the "imposition of the hands of thepriesthood" [1 Tim. 4:14; can. 4]. It is also declared that thisunction is to be applied to the infirm, but especially to those who areso dangerously ill that they seem to be facing the end of life, forwhich reason it is also called the sacrament of the dying. But if thesick should recover after the reception of this sacrament of extremeunction, they can with the aid of this sacrament be strengthened again,when they fall into another similar crisis of life. Therefore, under nocondition are they to be listened to, who contrary to so open and cleara statement of the Apostle James [ Jas. 5:14] teach that this unctionis either a figment of the imagination or a rite received from theFathers, having neither a command of God nor a promise of grace [can.1]; and likewise those who assert that this has now ceased, as thoughit were to be referred to the grace of healing only in the primitiveChurch; and those who maintain that the rite and practice which t eholy Roman Church observes in the administration of this sacrament areopposed to the thought of James the Apostle, and therefore ought to bechanged to another; and finally, those who affirm that this extremeunction may be contemned by the faithful without sin [can. 3] or allthese things very manifestly disagree with the clear words of thisgreat Apostle. Nor, indeed, does the Roman Church, the mother andteacher of all others, observe anything else in the administration ofthis unction with reference to those matters which constitute thesubstance of this sacrament than what the blessed James has prescribed.Nor, indeed, could there be contempt for so great a sacrament withoutgrievous sin and offense to the Holy Spirit.

These are the things which this sacred ecumenical Synod professesand teaches concerning the sacraments of penance and extreme unction,and it sets them forth to be believed and held by all the faithful ofChrist. Moreover, the following canons, it says, must be inviolatelyobserved, and it condemns and anathematizes forever those who assertthe contrary.

Canons On the Sacrament of Penance *

911 Can. 1. If anyone says that in the Catholic Church penance isnot truly and properly a sacrament instituted by Christ our Lord toreconcile the faithful, as often as they fall into sin after baptism:let him be anathema [cf. n. 894].

912 Can. 2. If anyone, confusing the sacraments, says that baptismitself is the sacrament of penance, as though these two sacraments arenot distinct, and that therefore penance is not rightly called "asecond plank after shipwreck": let him be anathema [cf.n. 894 ].

913 Can. 3. If anyone says that those words of the Lord Savior:"Receive ye the Holy Ghost; whose sins you shall forgive, they areforgiven them; and whose sins ye shall retain, they are retained" [John20:22 f.], are not to be understood of the power of remitting andretaining sins in the sacrament of penance, as the Catholic Church hasalways understood from the beginning, but, contrary to the institutionof this sacrament, distorts them to an authority for preaching theGospel: let him be anathema [cf.n. 894 ].

914 Can. 4. If anyone denies that for the full and perfect remission ofsins there are three acts required on the part of the penitent, as itwere, the matter of the sacrament of penance, namely contrition,confession, and satisfaction, which are called the three parts ofpenance; or says, that there are only two parts of penance, namely theterrors of a troubled conscience because of the consciousness of sin,and the faith received rom the Gospel or from absolution, by which onebelieves that his sins ave been forgiven him through Christ: let him beanathema [cf. n. 896 ].

915 Can. 5. If anyone says that this contrition, which is evoked byexamination, recollection, and hatred of sins "whereby one recalls hisyears in the bitterness of his soul" [ Isa. 38:15], by pondering on thegravity of one's sins, the multitude, the baseness, the loss of eternalhappiness, and the incurring of eternal damnation, together with thepurpose of a better life, is not a true and a beneficial sorrow, anddoes not prepare for grace, but makes a man a hypocrite, and a greatersinner; finally that this sorrow is forced and not free and voluntary:let him be anathema [cf. n. 898].

916 Can. 6. If anyone denies that sacramental confessionwas either instituted by divine law or is necessary for salvation; orsays that the manner of secretly confessing to a priest alone, whichthe Catholic Church has always observed from the beginning and stillobserves, is alien to the institution and the mandate of Christ, and isa human invention: let him be anathema [cf.n. 899 f.].

917 Can. 7. If anyone says that in the sacrament of penance it is notnecessary by divine law for the remission of sins to confess each andall mortal sins, of which one has remembrance after a due and diligentexamination, even secret ones and those which are against the two lastprecepts of the decalogue, and the circumstances which alter the natureof sin; but that this confession is useful only for the instruction andconsolation of the penitent, and formerly was observed only forimposing a canonical satisfaction; or says, that they who desire toconfess all their sins wish to leave nothing to be pardoned by divinemercy; or, finally, that it is not lawful to confess venial sins: lethim be anathema [cf. n. 899-901 ]

918 Can. 8. If anyone says that the confession of all sins as theChurch observes is impossible, and is a human tradition to be abolishedby the pious, or that each and all of the faithful of Christ of eithersex are not bound to it once a year, according to the constitution ofthe great Lateran Council, and for this reason the faithful of Christmust be persuaded not to confess during the Lenten season; let him beanathema [cf.n. 900 f.].

919 Can. 9. If anyone says that the sacramental absolution of thepriest is not a judicial act, but an empty service of pronouncing anddeclaring to the one confessing that his sins are forgiven, providedonly that he believes that he has been absolved, or * even if thepriest does not absolve seriously, but in jest; or says that theconfession of the penitent is not required, so that the priest may beable to absolve him: let him be anathema [cf.n 902 ].

920 Can. 10. If anyone says that priests who are in mortal sin donot have the power of binding and loosing, or, that not only priestsare the ministers of absolution, but that these words were spoken alsoto each and all of the faithful: "Whatsoever you shall bind upon earth,shall be bound also in heaven, and whatsoever you shall loose uponearth, shall be loosed in heaven" [Matt. 18:18; and, "Whose sins youshall forgive, they are forgiven them and whose sins you shall retain,they are retained" [John 20:23 ], that by virtue of these words anyonecan absolve sins, public sins indeed by reproof only, if the onereproved accepts correction, secret sins by voluntary confession: lethim be anathema [cf. n. 902].

921 Can. 11. If anyone says that bishops do not have theright of reserving cases to themselves, except those of externaladministration, and that on this account the reservation of cases doesnot prohibit a priest from truly absolving from reserved cases: let himbe anathema [cf. n. 903].

922 Can. 12. If anyone says that the whole punishment, togetherwith the guilt, is always pardoned by God, and that the satisfaction ofpenitents is nothing other than faith, by which they perceive thatChrist has made satisfaction for them: let him be anathema [cf. n. 904].

923 Can. 13. If anyone says that for sins, as far as temporalpunishment is concerned, there is very little satisfaction made to Godthrough the merits of Christ by the punishments inflicted by Him andpatiently borne, or by those enjoined by the priest, but voluntarilyundertaken, as by fasts, prayers, almsgiving, or also by other works ofpiety, and that therefore the best penance is only a new life: let himbe anathema [cf. n. 904 ff.].

924 Can. 14. If anyone says that the satisfactions by whichpenitents atone for their sins through Jesus Christ are not a worshipof God, but the traditions of men, obscuring the doctrine of grace, thetrue worship of God, and the very beneficence of the death of Christ:let him be anathema * [cf.n. 905 ].

925 Can. 15. If anyone says that the keys have been given to the Churchonly to loose, and not also to bind, and that therefore priests, byimposing penalties on those who confess, act contrary to theinstitution of Christ; and that it is fiction that, after eternalpunishment has been remitted by virtue of the keys, there usuallyremains a temporal punishment to be discharged: let him be anathema[cf. n. 904].

Canons on Extreme Unction *

926 Can. 1 If anyone says that extreme unction is not truly andproperly a sacrament instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ [cf.Mark 6:13], and promulgated by blessed James the Apostle [ Jas. 5:14], but isonly a rite accepted by the Fathers, or a human fiction: let him beanathema [cf. n. 907 ff].

927 Can. 2. If anyone says that the sacred anointing of the sickdoes not confer grace nor remit sins, nor alleviate the sick, but thatit has already ceased, as if it had at one time only been a healinggrace: let him be anathema [cf. n. 909].

928 Can. 3. If anyone says that the rite of extreme unction andits practice, which the holy Roman Church observes, is opposed to thestatement of the blessed Apostle James, and that it is therefore to bechanged, and can be contemned without sin by Christians: let him beanathema [cf. n. 910].

929 Can. 4. If anyone says that the priests of the Church, whomblessed James exhorts to be brought to anoint the sick, are not thepriests ordained by a bishop, but the elders by age in each community,and that for this reason a priest alone is not the proper minister ofextreme unction let him be anathema [cf. n. 910].

MARCELLUS II PAULUS IV 1555 - 1559*

PIUS IV 1559-1565

COUNCIL OF TRENT, conclusion

SESSION XXI (July 16, 1562)

The Doctrine on Communion under both

Species and that of Little Children *

Preface

929a The holy, ecumenical, and general Synod of Trent, lawfullyassembled in the Holy Spirit with the same legates of the Apostolic Seepresiding has decreed that those things which relate to communion underboth species, and to that of little children are to be explained here,since in different places various monstrous errors concerning thetremendous an most holy sacrament of the Eucharist are being circulatedby the wiles of the evil spirit; and for this reason in some provincesmany seem to have fallen away from the faith and from obedience to theCatholic Church. Therefore, it warns all the faithful of Christ not toventure to believe' teach, or preach hereafter about those matters,otherwise than is explained or defined in these decrees.

Chap. 1. That Laymen and Clerics who not Of Bring Mass are not

Bound by Divine Law to Communion under Both Species

930 Thus, the holy Synod itself, instructed by the Holy Spirit, who isthe Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel andpiety, [Isa. 11:2]. and following the judgment and custom of the Churchitself, declares and teaches that laymen and clerics not officiatingare bound by no divine law to receive the sacrament of the Eucharistunder both species, and that without injury to the faith there can beno doubt at all that communion under either species suffices for themfor salvation. For although Christ the Lord at the Last Supperinstituted and delivered to the apostles this venerable sacrament underthe species of bread and wine [cf. Matt. 26:26 f.; Mark 14:22; Luke22:19;1 Cor. 11:23], f.], yet, that institution and tradition do notcontend that all the faithful of Christ by an enactment of the Lord arebound [can. 1, 2] to receive under both species [can. 1, 2]. Butneither is it rightly inferred from that sixth discourse in John thatcommunion under both forms was commanded by the Lord [can. 3], whateverthe understanding may be according to the various interpretations ofthe holy Fathers and Doctors. For, He who said: "Unless you eat theflesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you shall not have life inyou" [ John 6:54], also said: "If anyone eat of this bread, he shalllive forever" [ John 6:52]. And He who said: "He that eateth my flesh,and drinketh my blood hath life everlasting" [ John 6:55] also said:"The bread, which I shall give, is my flesh for the life of the world"[ John 6:52]: and finally, He who said: "He that eateth my flesh anddrinketh my blood, abideth in me and I in him" [ John 6:57], saidnevertheless: "He that eateth this bread, shall live forever" [ John6:58].

Chap.2.The Power of the Church Concerning

the Administration of the Sacrament of the Eucharist

931 It [the Council] declares furthermore that this power has alwaysbeen in the Church, that in the administration of the sacraments,preserving their substance, she may determine or change whatever shemay judge to be more expedient for the benefit of those who receivethem or for the veneration of the sacraments, according to the varietyof circumstances, times, and places. Moreover, the Apostle seems tohave intimated this in no obscure manner, when he said: "Let a man soaccount of us as of the ministers of Christ and the dispensers of themysteries of God" [ 1 Cor. 4:1]; and that he himself used this power isquite manifest in this sacrament as well as in many other things, notonly in this sacrament itself, but also in some things set down-withregard to its use, he says: "The rest I will set in order when I come"[ 1 Cor. 11:23]. Therefore holy mother Church, cognizant of herauthority in the administration of the sacraments, although from thebeginning of the Christian religion the use of both species was notinfrequent, nevertheless, since that custom in the progress of time hasbeen already widely changed, induced by weighty and just reasons, hasapproved this custom of communicating under either species, and hasdecreed that it be considered as a law, which may not be repudiated orbe changed at will without the authority of the Church [can. 2].

Chap. 3. Christ Whole and Entire and a True Sacrament is

Received under Either Species

932 Moreover, it declares that although our Redeemer, as has beensaid before, at that Last Supper instituted this sacrament and gave itto the apostles under two species, yet it must be confessed that Christwhole and entire and a true sacrament is received even under eitherspecies alone, and that on that account, as far as regards its fruit,those who receive only one species are not to be deprived of any gracewhich is necessary for salvation [can. 3].

Chap. 4. Little Children are not

Bound to Sacramental Communion

933 Finally, the same holy Synod teaches that little childrenwithout the use of reason are not bound by any necessity to thesacramental communion of the Eucharist [can. 4.], since having been"regenerated" through "the laver" of baptism [ Tit. 3:5], and havingbeen incorporated with Christ they cannot at that age lose the grace ofthe children of God which has already been attained; Nor is antiquity,therefore, to be condemned, if at one time it observed this custom insome places. For, just as those most holy Fathers had good reason foran observance of that period, so certainly it is to be believed withoutcontroversy that they did this under no necessity for salvation.

Canons on Communion Under Both Species

and that of Little Children *

934 Can. 1. If anyone says that each and every one of thefaithful of Christ ought by a precept of God, or by necessity forsalvation to receive both species of the most holy Sacrament: let himbe anathema [cf. n. 930 ].

935 Can. 2. If anyone says that the holy Catholic Church has not beeninfluenced by just causes and reasons to give communion under the formof bread only to layman and even to clerics when not consecrating, orthat she has erred in this: let him be anathema [cf. n.931 ].

936 Can. 3. If anyone denies that Christ whole and entire, who isthe fountain and author of all graces, is received under the onespecies of bread, because, as some falsely assert, He is not receivedaccording to the institution of Christ Himself under both species: lethim be anathema [cf. n. 930,932 ].

937 Can. 4. If anyone says that for small children, before theyhave attained the years of discretion, communion of the Eucharist isnecessary: let him be anathema [cf. n.933 ].

SESSION XXII (Sept. 17, 1562)

The Doctrine on the Most Holy Sacrifice of the Mass*

937a The holy, ecumenical, and general Synod of Trent lawfullyassembled in the Holy Spirit with the same legates of the Apostolic Seepresiding, has decreed that the faith and doctrine concerning the greatmystery of the Eucharist in the holy Catholic Church, complete andperfect in every way, should be retained and, after the errors andheresies have been repudiated, should be preserved as of old in itspurity; concerning this doctrine, since it is the true and the onlysacrifice, the holy Council, instructed by the light of the HolySpirit, teaches these matters which follow, and declares that they bepreached to the faithful.

Chap. 1.[ The Institution of the Most Holy

Sacrifice of the Mass ] *

938 Since under the former Testament (as the Apostle Paul bearswitness) there was no consummation because of the weakness of theLevitical priesthood, it was necessary (God the Father of merciesordaining it thus) that another priest according to the order ofMelchisedech [ Gen. 14:18 ;Ps. 109:4;Heb. 7:11] arise, our Lord JesusChrist, who could perfect [ Heb. 10:14] all who were to be sanctified,and lead them to perfection. He, therefore, our God and Lord, though Hewas about to offer Himself once to God the Father upon the altar of theCross by the mediation of death, so that He might accomplish an eternalredemption for them [edd.: illic,there], nevertheless, that Hissacerdotal office might not come to an end with His death [Heb. 7:24,27] at the Last Supper, on the night He was betrayed, so that He mightleave to His beloved spouse the Church a visible sacrifice [can. 1] (asthe nature of man demands), whereby that bloody sacrifice once to becompleted on the Cross might be represented, and the memory of itremain even to the end of the world [ 1 Cor. 11:23 ff.] and its savinggrace be applied to the remission of those sins which we daily commit,declaring Himself constituted "a priest forever according to the orderof Melchisedech" Ps. 109:4; offered to God the Father His own body andblood under the species of bread and wine, and under the symbols ofthose same things gave to the apostles (whom He then constitutedpriests of the New Testament), so that they might partake, and Hecommanded them and their successors in the priesthood in these words tomake offering: "Do this in commemoration of me, etc." [ Luke 22:19;1Cor. 11:23], as the Catholic Church has always understood and taught[can. 2]. For, after He had celebrated the ancient feast of thePassover, which the multitude of the children of Israel sacrificed[Exod. 12:1 ff.] in memory of their exodus from Egypt, He instituted anew Passover, Himself to be immolated under visible signs by the Churchthrough the priests, in memory of His own passage from this world tothe Father, when by the shedding of His blood He redeemed us and"delivered us from the power of darkness and translated us into Hiskingdom [Col. 1:13 ].

939 And this, indeed, is that "clean oblation" which cannot be defiledby any unworthiness or malice on the part of those who offer it; whichthe Lord foretold through Malachias must be offered in every place as aclean oblation [Mal. 1:11 ] to His name, which would be great among thegentiles, and which the Apostle Paul writing to the Corinthians hasclearly indicated, when he says that they who are defiled byparticipation of the "table of the devils" cannot become partakers ofthe table of the Lord [ 1 Cor. 10:21], understanding by table in eachcase, the altar. It is finally that [sacrifice] which was prefigured byvarious types of sacrifices, in the period of nature and the Law [ Gen.4:4;8:20;12:8;22; Ex: passim], inasmuch as it comprises all good thingssignified by them, as being the consummation and perfection of them all.

Chap.2. [ The Sacrifice is a Visible Propitiation

for the Living and the Dead ]

940 And since in this divine sacrifice, which is celebrated in theMass, that same Christ is contained and immolated in an unbloodymanner, who on the altar of the Cross "once offered Himself" in abloody manner [ Heb. 9:27], the holy Synod teaches that this is trulypropitiatory [can. 3], and has this effect, that if contrite andpenitent we approach God with a sincere heart and right faith, withfear and reverence, "we obtain mercy and find grace in seasonable aid"[ Heb. 4:16]. For, appeased by this oblation, the Lord, granting thegrace and gift of penitence, pardons crimes and even great sins. For,it is one and the same Victim, the same one now offering by theministry of the priests as He who then offered Himself on the Cross,the manner of offering alone being different. The fruits of thatoblation (bloody, that is) are received most abundantly through thisunbloody one; so far is the latter from being derogatory in any way toHim [can. 4]. Therefore, it is offered rightly according to thetradition of the apostles [can. 3], not only for the sins of thefaithful living, for their punishments and other necessities, but alsofor the dead in Christ not yet fully purged.

Chap. 3.[Masses in Honor of the Saints ]

941 And though the Church has been accustomed to celebrate someMasses now and then in honor and in memory of the saints, yet she doesnot teach that the sacrifice is offered to them, but to God alone, whohas crowned them [can. 5]. Thence the priest is not accustomed to say:"I offer sacrifice to you, Peter and Paul,'' * but giving thanks to Godfor their victories, he implores their patronage, so that "theythemselves may deign to intercede for us in heaven, whose memory wecelebrate on earth" [Missal].

Chap. 4. [ The Canon of the Mass ]

942 And since it is fitting that holy things be administered in a holymanner, and this sacrifice is of all things the most holy, the CatholicChurch, that it might be worthily and reverently offered and received,instituted the sacred canon many centuries ago, so free from all error[can. 6], that it contains nothing in it which does not especiallydiffuse a certain sanctity and piety and raise up to God the minds ofthose who offer it. For this consists both of the words of God, and ofthe traditions of the apostles, and also of pious instructions of theholy Pontiffs.

Chap. 5.[ The Solemn Ceremonies of the sacrifice of the Mass ]

943 And since such is the nature of man that he cannot easily withoutexternal means be raised to meditation on divine things, on thataccount holy mother Church has instituted certain rites, namely, thatcertain things be pronounced in a subdued tone [can. 9] in the Mass,and others in a louder tone; she has likewise [can. 7] made use ofceremonies such as mystical blessings, lights, incense, vestments, andmany other things of this kind in accordance with apostolic teachingand tradition, whereby both the majesty of so great a sacrifice mightbe commended, and the minds of the faithful excited by these visiblesigns of religion and piety to the contemplation of the most sublimematters which lie hidden in this sacrifice.

Chap. 6.[ The Mass in which the Priest Alone Communicates]

944 The holy Synod would wish indeed that at every Mass the faithfulpresent receive communion not only by spiritual desire, but also by thesacramentalreception of the Eucharist, so that a more abundant fruit ofthis most holy Sacrifice may be brought forth in them; yet if that isnot always done, on that account it does not condemn [can. 8], thoseMasses in which the priest alone communicates sacramentally, as privateand illicit, but rather approves and commends them, since indeed theseMasses should also be considered as truly common, partly because atthese Masses the people communicate spiritually, and partly, too,because they are celebrated by a public minister of the Church not onlyfor himself, but for all the faithful who belong to the Body of Christ.

Chap. 7.[ The Water to be Mixed with Wine

to be Offered in the Chalice ]

945 The holy Synod then admonishes priests that it has beenprescribed by the Church to mix water with the wine to be offered inthe chalice [can. 9], not only because the belief is that Christ theLord did so, but also because there came from His side water togetherwith blood [ John 19:34], since by this mixture the sacrament isrecalled. And since in the Apocalypse of the blessed John the peoplesare called waters [Rev. 17:1, 15 ], the union of the faithful peoplewith Christ, their head, is represented.

Chap. 8. [The Mass not to be Celebrated in the Vernacular,

and its Mysteries to be Explained to the People]

946 Although the Mass contains much instruction for thefaithful, it has nevertheless not seemed expedient to the Fathers thatit be celebrated everywhere in the vernacular [can. 9]. For thisreason, since the ancient rite of each church has been approved by theholy Roman Church, the mother and teacher of all churches, and has beenretained everywhere, lest the sheep of Christ suffer hunger, and"little ones ask for bread and there is none to break it unto them"[cf. Lam. 4:4], the holy Synod commands pastors and everyone who hasthe care of souls to explain frequently during the celebration of theMasses, either themselves or through others, some of the things whichare read in the Mass, and among other things to expound some mystery ofthis most holy Sacrifice, especially on Sundays and feast days.

Chap. 9.[ Preliminary Remarks on the Following Canons ]

947 Because various errors have been disseminated at this time,and many things are being taught and discussions carried on by manyagainst this ancient faith founded on the holy Gospel, on thetraditions of the apostles, and on the doctrine of the holy Fathers,the holy Synod, after long and grave deliberations over these matters,has resolved by the unanimous consent of all the fathers, to condemnand to eliminate from the holy Church by means of the following canonswhatever is opposed to this most pure faith and to this sacreddoctrine.

Canons on the Most Holy Sacrifice of the Mass *

948 Can. 1. If anyone says that in the Mass a true and real sacrificeis not offered to God, or that the act of offering is nothing else thanChrist being given to us to eat: let him be anathema [cf. n. 938 ].

949 Can. 2. If anyone says that by these words: "Do this for acommemoration of me" [ Luke 22:19;1 Cor. 11:24], Christ did not makethe apostles priests, or did not ordain that they and other priestsmight offer His own body and blood: let him be anathema [cf. n. 938 ].

950 Can. 3. If anyone says that the sacrifice of the Mass is only oneof praise and thanksgiving, or that it is a mere commemoration of thesacrifice consummated on the Cross, but not one of propitiation; orthat it is of profit to him alone who receives; or that it ought not tobe offered for the living and the dead, for sins, punishments,satisfactions, and other necessities: let him be anathema [cf. n. 940].

951 Can. 4. If anyone says that blasphemy is cast upon the mostholy sacrifice of Christ consummated on the Cross through the sacrificeof the Mass, or that by it He is disparaged: let him be anathema [cf.n. 940 ].

952 Can. 5. If anyone says that it is a deception for Masses to becelebrated in honor of the saints and to obtain their intercession withGod, as the Church intends: let him be anathema [cf. n. 941 ].

953 Can. 6. If anyone says that the canon of the Mass containserrors, and should therefore be abrogated: let him be anathema [cf. n.942].

954 Can. 7. If anyone says that the ceremonies, vestments, and outwardsigns, which the Catholic Church uses in the celebration of Masses, areincentives to impiety rather than the services of piety: let him beanathema [cf. n.943 ].

955 Can. 8. If anyone says that Masses in which the priest alonecommunicates sacramentally, are illicit and are therefore to beabrogated: let him be anathema [cf. n. 944].

956 Can. 9. If anyone says that the rite of the Roman Church, accordingto which a part of the canon and the words of consecration arepronounced in a low tone, is to be condemned, or that the Mass ought tobe celebrated in the vernacular only, or that water should not be mixedwith the wine that is to be offered in the chalice because it iscontrary to the institution of Christ: let him be anathema [cf. n. 943,945 f.].

SESSION XXIII (July 15, 1563)

956 a The Doctrine on the Sacra ment of Orders

Chap. 1.[The Institution of the Priesthood of the New Law]

957 Sacrifice and priesthood are so united by the ordinance ofGod that both have existed in every law. Since, therefore, in the NewTestament the Catholic Church has received from the institution of theLord the holy, visible sacrifice of the Eucharist, it must also beconfessed that there is in this Church a new visible and externalpriesthood [can. 1], into which the old has been translated [Heb.7:12]. Moreover, that this was instituted by that same Lord our Savior[can. 3], and that to the apostles and their successors in thepriesthood was handed down the power of consecrating, of offering andadministering His body and blood, and also of forgiving and retainingsins, the Sacred Scriptures show and the tradition of the CatholicChurch has always taught [can. 1].

Chap.2. [The Seven Orders]

958 Moreover, since the ministry of this holy priesthood is a divinething, it was proper that it should be exercised more worthily and withdeeper veneration, that in the most well ordered arrangement of theChurch, there should be different orders of ministers [ Matt. 16:19;Luke 22:19;John 20:22 f.], who by virtue of their office shouldadminister to the priesthood, so distributed that those who already hadthe clerical tonsure should ascend through the minor to the majororders [can. 2]. For the Sacred Scriptures make distinct mention notonly of the priests, but also of the deacons [Acts 6:5 ; 1 Tim. 3:8 f.;Phil. 1:1], and teach in the most impressive words what is especiallyto be observed in their ordination; and from the very beginning of theChurch the names of the following orders and the duties proper to eachone are known to have been in use, namely those of the subdeacon,acolyte, exorcist, rector, and porter, though not of equal rank; forthe subdiaconate is classed among the major orders by the Fathers andthe sacred Councils, in which we also read very frequently of otherinferior orders.

Chap. 3.[The Order of the Priesthood is Truly a Sacrament]

959 Since from the testimony of Scripture, apostolic tradition, and theun- animous consensus of opinion of the Fathers it is evident that bysacred ordination, which is performed by words and outward signs, graceis conferred, no one can doubt that order is truly and properly one ofthe seven sacraments of the Church [can. 3 ]. For the Apostle says: "Iadmonish thee that thou stir up the grace of God which is in thee bythe imposition of my hands. For God has not given us the spirit offear, but of power and of love and of sobriety" [2 Tim. 1:6, 7 ; cf. 1Tim. 4: 14].

Chap. 4.[ The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy and Ordination]

960 But since in the sacrament of orders, as also in baptism andin confirmation, a sign is imprinted [can. 4], which can neither beeffaced nor taken away, justly does the holy Synod condemn the opinionof those who assert that the priests of the New Testament have only atemporary power, and that those at one time rightly ordained can againbecome laymen, if they do not exercise the ministry of the word of God[can. 1 ]. But if anyone should affirm that all Christians withoutdistinction are priests of the New Testament, or that they are allendowed among themselves with an equal spiritual power, he seems to donothing else than disarrange [can. 6] the ecclesiastical hierarchy,which is "as an army set in array" [cf. Song. 6:3], just as if,contrary to the teaching of blessed Paul, all were apostles, allprophets, all evangelists, all pastors, all doctors [cf. 1 Cor. 12:29;Eph. 4:11]. Accordingly, the holy Synod declares that besides the otherecclesiastical grades, the bishops who have succeeded the Apostles,belong in a special way to this hierarchial order, and have been"placed (as the same Apostle says) by the Holy Spirit to rule theChurch of God" [Acts 20:29], and that they are superior to priests, andadminister the sacrament of confirmation, ordain ministers of theChurch, and can perform many other offices over which those of aninferior order have no power [can. 7]. The holy Synod teaches,furthermore, that in the ordination of bishops, priests, and of otherorders, the consent, or call, or authority of the people, or of anysecular power or magistrate is not so required for the validity of theordination; but rather it decrees that those who are called andinstituted only by the people, or by the civil power or magistrate andproceed to exercise these offices, and that those who by their owntemerity take these offices upon themselves, are not ministers of theChurch, but are to be regarded as "thieves and robbers, who have notentered by the door" [cf. John 10:1; can. 8]. These are the matterswhich in general it seemed well to the sacred Council to teach to thefaithful of Christ regarding the sacrament of order. It has, however,resolved to condemn the contrary in definite and appropriate canons inthe following manner, so that all, making use of the rule of faith,with the assistance of Christ, may be able to recognize more easily theCatholic truth in the midst of the darkness of so many errors, and mayadhere to it.

Canons on the Sacrament of Order *

961 Can. 1. If anyone says that there is not in the New Testament avisible and external priesthood, or that there is no power ofconsecrating and offering the true body and blood of the Lord, and offorgiving and retaining sins, but only the office and bare ministry ofpreaching the Gospel, or that those who do not preach are not priestsat all: let him be anathema [cf. n.957 960].

962 Can. 2. If anyone says that besides the priesthood there arein the Catholic Church no other orders, both major and minor, by whichas by certain grades, there is an advance to the priesthood: let him beanathema [cf. n. 958].

963 Can. 3. If anyone says that order or sacred ordination is nottruly and properly a sacrament instituted by Christ the Lord, or thatit is some human contrivance, devised by men unskilled inecclesiastical matters, or that it is only a certain rite for selectingministers of the word of God and of the sacraments: let him be anathema[cf. n. 957, 959 ].

964 Can. 4. If anyone says that by sacred ordination the HolySpirit is not imparted, and that therefore the bishops say in vain:"Receive ye the Holy Spirit"; or that by it a character is notimprinted or that he who has once been a priest can again become alayman: let him be anathema [cf. n. 852].

965 Can. 5. If anyone says that the sacred unction which theChurch uses in holy ordination, is not only not required, but is to becontemned and is pernicious as also are the other ceremonies of order:let him be anathema [cf. n. 856].

966 Can. 6. If anyone says that in the Catholic Church ahierarchy has not been instituted by divine ordinance, which consistsof the bishops, priests, and ministers: let him be anathema [cf. n.960].

967 Can. 7. If anyone says that the bishops are not superior topriests; or that they do not have the power to confirm and to ordain,or, that the power which they have is common to them and to thepriests; or that orders conferred by them without the consent or callof the people or of the secular power are invalid, or, that those whohave been neither rightly ordained nor sent by ecclesiastical andcanonical authority, but come from a different source, are lawfulministers of the word and of the sacraments: let him be anathema [cf.n. 960].

968 Can. 8. If anyone says that the bishops who are chosenby the authority of the Roman Pontiff are not true and legitimatebishops, but a human invention: let him be anathema [cf. n. 960 ].

SESSION XXIV (NOV. 11, 1563)

Doctrine (Concerning the Sacrament of Matrimony) *

969 The first parent of the human race expressed the perpetualand indissoluble bond of matrimony under the influence of the divineSpirit, when he said: "This now is bone of my bone, and flesh of myflesh. Wherefore a man shall leave father and mother and shall cleaveto his wife' and they shall be two in one flesh" [ Gen. 2:23 f.;cf.Eph. 5:31].

But that by this bond two only are united and joined together,Christ the Lord taught more openly, when referring to those last words,as having been uttered by God, He said: "Therefore now they are nottwo, but one flesh" [Matt. 19:6 ], and immediately ratified thestrength of this same bond, pronounced by Adam so long ago in thesewords: "What therefore God has joined together, let no man put asunder"[ Matt. 19:6; Mark10:9].

But the grace which was to perfect that natural love, and confirmthe indissoluble union, and sanctify those united in marriage, ChristHimself, institutor and perfecter of the venerable sacraments, meritedfor us by His passion. The Apostle Paul intimates this, when he says:"Men, love your wives as Christ loved the Church, and delivered himselfup for it" [Eph. 5:25], directly adding: "This is a great Sacrament;but I speak in Christ and in the Church" [Eph. 5:32].

970 Since, therefore, matrimony in the evangelical law, by gracethrough Christ, excels the ancient marriages, our holy Fathers, theCouncils, and the tradition of the universal Church have with goodreason always taught that it is to be classed among the sacraments ofthe New Law; and, since impious men of this age, madly raging againstthis teaching, have not only formed false judgments concerning thisvenerable sacrament, but according to their custom, introducing underthe pretext of the Gospel a carnal liberty, have in writing and in wordasserted many things foreign to the mind of the Catholic Church and tothe general opinion approved! from the time of the apostles, notwithout great loss of the faithful of Christ, this holy and generalSynod wishing to block their temerity has decided, lest theirpernicious contagion attract more, that the more prominent heresies anderrors of the aforesaid schismatics are to be destroyed, decreeinganathemas against these heretics and their errors.

971 Can. 1. If anyone says that matrimony is not truly andproperly one of the seven sacraments of the evangelical Law, institutedby Christ the Lord,. but that it has been invented by men in theChurch, and does not confer grace: let him be anathema [cf. n. 969 f.].

972 Can. 2. If anyone says that it is lawful for Christians tohave several) wives at the same time, and that it is not forbidden byany divine law [ Matt. 19:4 f.]: let him be anathema [cf. n.969 f.].

973 Can. 3. If anyone says that only those degrees ofconsanguinity and, affinity which are expressed in Leviticus [18:6 f.]can be impediments to' the contract of matrimony and can dissolve itwhen contracted, and that the Church can dispense in some of these, orestablish more to impede or;invalidate: let him be anathema [cf. n.1550f.].

974 Can. 4. If anyone says that the Church could not establishimpediments invalidating marriage [cf. Matt.16:19]; or that she haserred in establishing them: let him be anathema.

975 Can. 5. If anyone says that the bond of matrimony can be dissolvedbecause of heresy, or grievous cohabitation, or voluntary absence fromthe spouse: let him be anathema.

976 Can. 6. If anyone says that matrimony contracted, but notconsummated, is not dissolved by a solemn religious profession ofeither one of the married persons: let him be anathema.

977 Can. 7. If anyone says that the Church errs, * inasmuch asshe has taught and still teaches that in accordance with evangelicaland apostolic doctrine [ Matt. 10: 1 1Cor. 7] the bond of matrimonycannot be dissolved because of adultery of one of the married persons,and that both, or even the innocent one, who has given no occasion foradultery, cannot during the lifetime of the other contract anothermarriage, and that he, who after the dismissal of the adulteress shallmarry another, is guilty of adultery, and that she also, who after thedismissal of the adulterer shall marry another: let him be anathema.

978 Can. 8. If anyone says that the Church errs, when she decreesthat for many reasons a separation may take place between husband andwife with regard to bed, and with regard to cohabitation, for adetermined or indetermined time: let him be anathema.

979 Can. 9. If anyone says that clerics constituted in sacred orders,or regulars who have solemnly professed chastity, can contractmarriage, and that such marriage is valid, notwithstanding theecclesiastical law or the vow, and that the contrary is nothing elsethan a condemnation of marriage, and that all who feel that they havenot the gift of chastity (even though they have vowed it) can contractmarriage: let him be anathema. Since God does not refuse that gift tothose who seek it rightly, "neither does he suffer us to be temptedabove that which we are able" [ 1 Cor. 10:13 ].

980 Can. 10. If anyone says that the married state is to bepreferred to the state of virginity or celibacy, and that it is notbetter and happier to remain in virginity or celibacy than to be unitedin matrimony [cf. Matt. 19:11 f.;1 Cor. 7:25 f.;28-40]: let him beanathema.

981 Can. 11. If anyone says that the prohibition of thesolemnization of marriages at certain times of the year is a tyrannicalsuperstition, derived from the superstition of the heathen, or condemnsthe benedictions and other ceremonies which the Church makes use of inthem: let him be anathema.

982 Can. 12. If anyone says that matrimonial causes do not belong toecclesiastical judges: let him be anathema [see n.1500a , 1559 f.].

SESSION XXV (Dec. 3 and 4, 1563)

Decree Concerning Purgatory *

983 Since the Catholic Church, instructed by the Holy Spirit, inconformitywith the sacred writings and the ancient tradition of theFathers in sacred councils, and very recently in this ecumenical Synod,has taught that there is a purgatory [see n. 940,950], and that thesouls detained there are assisted by the suffrages of the faithful, andespecially by the acceptable sacrifice of the altar, the holy Synodcommands the bishops that they insist that the sound doctrine ofpurgatory, which has been transmitted by the holy Fathers and holyCouncils, be believed by the faithful of Christ, be maintained, taught,and everywhere preached. Let the more difficult and subtle "questions,"however, and those which do not make for "edification" [cf.1 Tim. 1:4],and from which there is very often no increase in piety, be excludedfrom popular discourses to uneducated people. Likewise, let them notpermit uncertain matters, or those that have the appearance offalsehood, to be brought out and discussed publicly. Those matters onthe contrary, which tend to a certain curiosity or superstition, orthat savor of filthy lucre, let them prohibit as scandals and stumblingblocks to the faithful

Invocation, Veneration and Relics of Saints, and on Sacred Images *

984 The holy Synod commands all bishops and others who hold the officeof teaching and its administration, that in accordance with the usageof the Catholic and apostolic Church, received from primeval times ofthe Christian religion, and with the consensus of opinion of the holyFathers and the decrees of sacred Councils, they above all diligentlyinstruct the faithful on the intercession and invocation of the saints,the veneration of relics, and the legitimate use of images, teachingthem that the saints, who reign together with Christ, offer up theirprayers to God for men; and that it is good and useful to invoke themsuppliantly and, in order to obtain favors from God through His SonJesus Christ our Lord, who alone is our Redeemer and Savior, to haverecourse to their prayers, assistance, and support; and that they whodeny that those saints who enjoy eternal happiness in heaven are to beinvoked, think impiously, or who assert that they do not pray for men,or that our invocation of them, to intercede for each of usindividually, is idolatry, or that it is opposed to the word of God,and inconsistent with the honor of the "one mediator of God and menJesus Christ" [cf.1 Tim. 2:5], or that it is foolish to pray vocally ormentally to those who reign in heaven.

985 That the holy bodies of the saints and also of the martyrs and ofothers living with Christ, who were the living "members of Christ andthe temple of the Holy Spirit" [cf.1 Cor. 3:16;6:19 ;2 Cor. 6:16],which are to be awakened by Him to eternal life and to be glorified,are to be venerated by the faithful, through which many benefits arebestowed by God on men, so that those who affirm that veneration andhonor are not due to the relics of the saints, or that these and othermemorials are honored by the faithful without profit, and that theplaces dedicated to the memory of the saints for the purpose ofobtaining their help are visited in vain, let these be altogethercondemned, just as the Church has for a long time condemned and nowcondemns them again.

986 Moreover, that the images of Christ, of the Virgin Mother of God,and of the other saints, are to be placed and retained especially inthe churches, and that due honor and veneration be extended to them,not that any divinity or virtue is believed to be in them, for whichthey are to be venerated, or that anything is to be petitioned fromthem, or that trust is to be placed in images, as at one time was doneby the gentiles, who placed their hope in idols [cf. Ps. 134:15 f.],but because the honor which is shown them, is referred to theprototypes which they represent, so that by means of the images, whichwe kiss and before which we bare the head and prostrate ourselves, weadore Christ, and venerate the saints, whose likeness they bear. Thisis what was sanctioned by the decrees of the councils, especially thatof the second council of NICEA, against the opponents of images [see n.302 ff.].

987 Indeed let the bishops diligently teach this, that by the accountsof the mysteries of our redemption, portrayed in pictures or in otherrepresentations, the people are instructed and confirmed in thearticles of faith which should be kept in mind and constantly ponderedover; then, too, that from all sacred images great profit is derivednot only because the people are reminded of the benefits and gifts,which are bestowed upon them by Christ, but also, because through thesaints the miracles of God and salutary examples are set before theeyes of the faithful, so that they may give thanks to God for thosethings, may fashion their own lives and conduct in imitation of thesaints, and be stimulated to adore and love God, and to cultivatepiety. But if anyone should teach or maintain anything contrary tothese decrees, let him be anathema.

988 If any abuses shall creep into these holy and salutary observances,the holy Synod earnestly desires that they be entirely abolished, sothat no representations of false dogma and those offering occasion ofdangerous error to uneducated persons be exhibited. And if at times ithappens that the accounts and narratives of the Holy Scripture, whenthis is of benefit to the uneducated people, are portrayed andexhibited, let the people be instructed that not for that reason is thedivinity represented, as if it can be seen with bodily eyes, orexpressed in colors and figures. . .

Decree Concerning Indulgences *

989 Since the power of granting indulgences was conferred by Christ onthe Church, and she has made use of such power divinely given to her,[cf.Matt. 16:19; 18:18] even in the earliest times, the holy Synodteaches and commands that the use of indulgences, most salutary to aChristian people and approved by the authority of the sacred Councils,is to be retained in the Church, and it condemns those with anathemawho assert that they are useless or deny that there is in the Churchthe power of granting them. . . .

Clandestinity Invalidating Matrimony *

[From Session XXIX Chap. (1) "Tametsi" on the reformation of matrimony]

990 Although it is not to be doubted that clandestine marriagesmade with the free consent of the contracting parties, are valid andtrue marriages, so long as the Church has not declared them invalid;and consequently that they are justly to be condemned, as the holySynod condemns those with anathema, who deny that they are true andvalid, and those also who falsely affirm that marriages contracted byminors without the consent of parents are invalid, and that parents canmake them sanctioned or void, nevertheless the holy Church of God forvery just reasons has always detested and forbidden them. But while theholy Synod recognizes that those prohibitions by reason of man'sdisobedience are no longer of any use, and considers the grave sinswhich have their origin in such clandes tine marriage, especially,indeed, the sins of those who remain in the state of damnation, afterabandoning the first wife, with whom they made a secret contract, whilethey publicly contract another, and live with her in continualadultery, since the Church, which does not judge what is hidden, cannotcorrect this evil, unless a more efficacious remedy be applied,therefore by continuing in the footsteps of the holy Lateran Council[IV] proclaimed under INNOCENT III, it commands that in the future,before a marriage is contracted, public announcement be made threetimes on three consecutive feast days in the Church during thecelebration of the Masses, by the proper pastor of the contractingparties between whom the marriage is to be contracted; after thesepublications have been made, if no legitimate impediment is put in theway, one can proceed with the celebration of the marriage in the openchurch, where the parish priest, after the man and woman have beenquestioned, and their mutual consent has been ascertained, shall eithersay: "I join you together in matrimony, in the name of the Father andof the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," or use other words, according tothe accepted rite of each province.

991 But if at some time there should be a probable suspicion that amarriage m can be maliciously hindered, if so many publications precedeit, then either one publication only may be made, or the marriage maybe celebrated at once in the presence of the parish priest and of twoor three witnesses; then before its consummation the publicationsshould be made in the church, so that, if any impediments exist, theymay the more easily be detected, unless the ordinary himself may judgeit advisable that the publications be dispensed with, which the holySynod leaves to his prudence and judgment.

992 Those who shall attempt to contract marriage otherwise than in thepresence of the parish priest, or of another priest with theauthorization of the parish priest or the ordinary, in the presence oftwo or three witnesses, the holy Synod renders absolutely incapable ofthus contracting marriage, and declares that contracts of this kind areinvalid and nil, inasmuch as by the present decree it invalidates andannuls them.

The Trinity and the Incarnation (against the Unitarians) *

[From the ordinance of Paul IV, "Cum quorundam,"* Aug. 7, 1555]

993 Since the depravity and iniquity of certain men have reached such apoint in our time that, of those who wander and deviate from theCatholic faith, very many indeed not only presume to profess differentheresies but also to deny the foundations of the faith itself, and bytheir example lead many away to the destruction of their souls, we, inaccord with our pastoral office and charity, desiring, in so far as weare able with God, to call such men away from so grave and destructivean error, and with paternal severity to warn the rest, lest they fallinto such impiety, all and each who have hitherto asserted, claimed orbelieved that Almighty God was not three in persons and of an entirelyuncomposedand undivided unity of substance and one single simpleessence of divinity; or that our Lord is not true God of the samesubstance in every way with the Father and the Holy Spirit, or that Hewas not conceived of the Holy Spirit according to the flesh in the wombof the most blessed and ever Virgin Mary, but from the seed of Josephjust as the rest of men; or that the same Lord and our God, JesusChrist, did not submit to the most cruel death of the Cross to redeemus from sins and from eternal death, and to reunite us with the Fatherunto eternal life; or that the same most blessed Virgin Mary was notthe true mother of God, and did not always persist in the integrity ofvirginity, namely, before bringing forth, at bringing forth, and alwaysafter bringing forth, on the part of the omnipotent God the Father, andthe Son, and the Holy Spirit, with apostolic authority we demand andadvise, etc.

The Profession of Faith of the Council of Trent *

[From the Bull of Pius IV, "Iniunctum nobis," Nov. 13, 1565]

994 I, N., with firm faith believe and profess all and everything whichis contained in the creed of faith, which the holy Roman Church uses,namely: I believe * in one God the Father Almighty, creator of heavenand earth, of all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord JesusChrist, the only-begotten Son of God, and born of the Father before allages, God of God, light of light, true God of true God, begotten notmade, consubstantial with the Father, by whom all things were made; whofor us men and for our salvation descended from heaven, and becameincarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary, and was made man; hewas also crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, suffered and wasburied; and he rose on the third day according to the Scriptures, andascended into heaven; he sitteth at the right hand of the Father, andwill come again with glory to judge the living and the dead, of whosekingdom there shall be no end; and in the Holy Spirit, the Lord andgiver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son; who togetherwith the Father and the Son is adored and glorified; who spoke throughthe prophets; and in one holy Catholic and apostolic Church. I confessone baptism for the remission of sins, and I await the resurrection ofthe dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

995 The apostolic and ecclesiastical traditions and all otherobservances and constitutions of that same Church I most firmly admitand embrace. I likewise accept Holy Scripture according to that sensewhich our holy Mother Church has held and does hold, whose [office] itis to judge of the true meaning and interpretation of the SacredScriptures; I shall never accept nor interpret it otherwise than inaccordance with the unanimous consent of the Fathers.

996 I also profess that there are truly and properly sevensacraments of the New Law instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, andnecessary for the salvation of mankind, although not all are necessaryfor each individual; these sacraments are baptism, confirmation, theEucharist, penance, extreme unction, order, and matrimony; and [Iprofess] that the- confer grace, and that of these baptism,confirmation, and order cannot be repeated without sacrilege. I alsoreceive and admit the accepted and approved rites of the CatholicChurch in the solemn administration of all the aforesaid sacraments. Iembrace and accept each and everything that has been defined anddeclared by the holy Synod of Trent concerning original sin andjustification.

997 I also profess that in the Mass there is offered to God atrue, proper sacrifice of propitiation for the living and the dead, andthat in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist there is truly,really, and substantially present the body and blood together with thesoul and the divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and that there takesplace a conversion of the whole substance of bread into the body, andof the whole substance of the wine into the blood; and this conversionthe Catholic Church calls transubstantiation. I also acknowledge thatunder one species alone the whole and entire Christ and the truesacrament are taken.

998 I steadfastly hold that a purgatory exists, and thatthe souls there detained are aided by the prayers of the faithful;likewise that the saints reigning together with Christ should bevenerated and invoked, and that they offer prayers to God for us, andthat their relics should be venerated. I firmly assert that the imagesof Christ and of the Mother of God ever Virgin, and also of the othersaints should be kept and retained, and that due honor and venerationshould be paid to them; I also affirm that the power of indulgences hasbeen left in the Church by Christ, and that the use of them isespecially salutary for the Christian people.

999 I acknowledge the holy Catholic and apostolic Roman Church as themother and teacher of all churches; and to the Roman Pontiff, thesuccessor of the blessed Peter, chief of the Apostles and vicar ofJesus Christ, I promise and swear true obedience.

1000 Also all other things taught, defined, and declared by the sacredcanons and ecumenical Councils, and especially by the sacred and holySynod of Trent, (and by the ecumenical Council of the Vatican,*particularly concerning the primacy of the Roman Pontiff and hisinfallible teaching), I without hesitation accept and profess; and atthe same time all things contrary thereto, and whatever heresies havebeen condemned, and rejected, and anathematized by the Church, Ilikewise condemn, reject, and anathematize. This true Catholic faith,outside of which no one can be saved, (and) which of my own accord Inow profess and truly hold, I, N., do promise, vow, and swear that Iwill, with the help of God, most faithfully retain and profess the sameto the last breath of life as pure and inviolable, and that I will takecare as far as lies in my power that it be held, taught, and preachedby my subjects or by those over whom by virtue of my office I havecharge, so help me God, and these holy Gospels of God.

ST. PIUS V 1566-1572

Errors of Michael du Bay (BAII) *

[Condemned in the Bull "Ex omnibus afflictionibus," Oct. 1, 1567]

1001 1. Neither the merits of an angel nor of the first man still in the state of integrity are called grace.

1002 2. Just as an evil work by its nature is deserving of eternaldeath, so a good work by its own nature is meritorious of eternal life.

1003 3. Felicity would be the reward, and not grace both for the goodangels and for the first man, if he had persevered in that state evento the end of his life.

1004 4. Eternal life was promised to integral man and to the angel inview of good works, and good works in themselves from the law of naturesuffice for attaining it.

1005 5. In the promise made both to the angel and to the first man iscontained the disposition of natural justice, whereby for good workswithout any other regard eternal life is promised to the just.

1006 6. By the natural law it has been ordained for man that, if hewould persevere in obedience, he would attain to that life, in which hecould not die.

1007 7. The merits of the first integral man were the gifts of thefirst creation, but according to the manner of speech in SacredScripture they are not rightly called grace; for this reason theyshould be called merits only, not also grace.

1008 8. In the redeemed through the grace of Christ no good merit canbe found, which may not be freely bestowed upon one who is unworthy.

1009 9. Gifts bestowed upon integral man and to an angel, perhaps notto be condemned by reason, can be called grace; but, according to theuse of Sacred Scripture, these gifts which were bestowed through JesusChrist upon those badly meriting and unworthy of them are understoodonly by the name of grace; therefore, neither the merits nor thereward, which is rendered to them, should be called grace.

1010 10. The remission of temporal punishment, which often remainsafter the forgiveness of sin, and the resurrection of the body mustproperly be ascribed only to the merits of Christ.

1011 11. The fact that having lived piously and justly in this mortallife even to the end of life we attain eternal life, should not beimputed to the grace of God, but to the natural order instantlyordained in the beginning of creation by the just judgment of God;neither in this recompense of goods is regard paid to the merit ofChrist, but only to the first institution of the human race, in whichit is ordained by the natural law that by the just judgment of Godeternal life is paid for obedience to His mandates.

1012 12. The opinion of Pelagius is: A good work performed without thegrace of adoption, is not meritorious of the heavenly kingdom.

1013 13. Good works, performed by the sons of adoption, do not receivea consideration of merit from the fact that they are done through thespirit of adoption which lives in the hearts of the sons of God, butonly from the fact that they are conformable to law, and becausethrough them obedience is preferred to law.

1014 14. The good works of the just do not receive on the day of thelast judgment a fuller reward than they deserve to receive by the justjudgment of God.

1015 15. The reason of merit does not consist in this, that he whoworks well should have grace and the indwelling Holy Spirit, but inthis only, that he obeys the divine law.

1016 16. That is not true obedience of the law, which is done without charity.

1017 17. They are in agreement with Pelagius who say that it isnecessary for reason of merit, that man through the grace of adoptionbe lifted up to a deified state.

1018 18. The works of the catechumens, as faith and penance performedbefore the remission of sins, are merits for eternal life; and theywill not attain this life, unless the impediments of preceding faultsare first taken away.

1019 19. The works of justice and temperance which Christ performed,have not obtained greater value from the dignity of the personoperating.

1020 20. No sin is venial by its own nature, but every sin deserves eternal punishment.

1021 21. The sublimation and exaltation of human nature inparticipation with the divine nature has been due to the integrity ofthe first condition, and hence must be called natural, and notsupernatural.

1022 22. They agree with Pelagius who understand the text of theApostle to the Romans: "The nations, who do not have a law, donaturally the things, which are of the law" [Rom. 2:14], concerningnations who do not possess the grace of faith.

1023 23. Absurd is the opinion of those who say that man from thebeginning, by a certain supernatural and gratuitous gift, was raisedabove the condition of his nature, so that by faith, hope, and charityhe cherished God supernaturally.

1024 24. By vain and idle men, in keeping with the folly ofphilosophers, is the opinion devised which must be referred toPelagianism, that man was so constituted from the beginning thatthrough gifts added upon nature by the bounty of the Creator he wasraised and adopted into the sonship of God.

1025 25. All works of infidels are sins, and the virtues of philosophers are vices.

1026 26. The integrity of the first creation was not the undeserved exaltation of human nature, but its natural condition.

1027 27. Free will, without the help of God's grace, has only power for sin.

1028 28. It is a Pelagian error to say that free will has the power to avoid any sin.

1029 29. Not only are they "thieves" and "robbers" who deny that Christis the way and "the door" of the truth and life, but also whoeverteaches that there can be ascent [cf. John 10:1; to the way of justice(that is to any justice) otherwise than through Him,

1030 30. or, that man can resist any temptation without the help of Hisgrace, so that he may not be led into it and not be overcome by it.

1031 31. Perfect and sincere charity, which is from a "pure heart andgood conscience and a faith not feigned" [1 Tim. 1:5], can be incatechumens as well as in penitents without the remission of sins.

1032 32. That charity which is the fullness of the law is not always connected with the remission of sins.

1033 33. A catechumen lives justly and rightly and holily, and observesthe commandments of God, and fulfills the law through charity, which isonly received in the laver of baptism, before the remission of sins hasbeen obtained.

1034 34. That distinction of a twofold love, namely a natural one, bywhich God is loved as the author of nature, and of a gratuitous love,by which God is loved as one who blesses, is vain and false and devisedto ridicule the sacred literature and most of the testimonies of theancients.

1035 35. Every action which a sinner, or a slave of sin performs is a sin.

1036 36. Natural love which arises from the force of nature, isdefended by some doctors according to philosophy alone through thepride of human presumption with injury to the Cross of Christ.

1037 37. He agrees with Pelagius, who acknowledges anything as anatural good, that is, whatever he thinks has arisen from the forces ofnature alone.

1038 38. All love of a rational creature is either vicious cupidity, bywhich the world is loved, which is prohibited by John; or thatpraiseworthy charity by which "when poured forth" by the Holy Spirit inour heart [Rom. 5:5], God is loved.

1039 39. What is voluntarily done, even though it be done by necessity, is nevertheless freely done.

1040 40. In all his actions a sinner serves his ruling passion.

1041 41. This measure of freedom, which is of necessity, is not foundin the Scriptures under the name of freedom, but is merely the name forfreedom from sin.

1042 42. Justice, by which an impious person is justified by faith,consists formally in the obedience of mandates, which is the justice ofworks; not however in any grace [habitual] infused into the soul, bywhich man is adopted into the sonship of God and renewed according tothe interior man and made a sharer of the divine nature, so that, thusrenewed through the Holy Spirit, he can in turn live well and obey themandates of God.

1043 43. In persons who are penitent before the sacrament ofabsolution, and in catechumens before baptism, there is truejustification, yet separated from the remission of sin.

1044 44. In most good works performed by the faithful, simply to obeythe mandates of God, such as obedience to parents, paying a trust,abstain ing from homicide, theft, fornication, certain men arejustified, because these are obedience to the law and the true justiceof the law; and yet they do not obtain for them the increments of thevirtues.

1045 45. The sacrifice of the Mass is a sacrifice for no other reasonthan for that general one by which "every work is performed that manmay be closely connected with God in holy association." *

1046 46. Voluntariness does not pertain to the essence and definitionof sin, nor is it a question of definition, but of cause and origin,whether every sin is bound to be voluntary.

1047 47. Therefore original sin truly has the essence of sin withoutany relation and respect to will, from which it had its origin.

1048 48. Original sin is voluntary in the habitual will of a child andhabitually dominates the child, in this, that a child does not actcontrary to the freedom of the will.

1049 49. And from an habitually dominating will it comes to pass that asmall child, dying without the sacrament of regeneration, when he hasattained the use of reason actually holds God in hatred, blasphemesGod, and resists the law of God.

1050 50. Bad desires, to which reason does not consent, and which manunwillingly suffers, are prohibited by the precept: "Thou shalt notcovet" [cf. Exod. 20:17].

1051 51. Concupiscence, whether the law of the members, and itsdepraved desires which men experience against their will, are the truedisobediences of the law.

1052 52. Every crime is of this nature, that it can corrupt its authorand all posterity in the way in which the first transgression corrupted.

1053 53. As much as arises from the force of transgression, so much ofmerited evils do they contract from the one generating, those who areborn with lesser faults as well as those who are born with greater ones.

1054 54. This definitive opinion, that God has given no impossiblecommands to man, is falsely attributed to Augustine, whereas it belongsto Pelagius.

1055 55. God would not have had the power from the beginning to create such a man as is born now.

1056 56. There are two things in sin, an act and guilt; when, however,the act has passed, nothing remains except the guilt and the obligationto pay the penalty.

1057 57. Therefore, in the sacrament of baptism or in the absolution ofthe priest the guilt of the sin only is taken away, and the ministry ofthe priests frees from guilt alone.

1058 58. A penitent sinner is not vivified by the ministry of a priestwho absolves, but by God alone, who by suggesting and inspiringpenance, vivifies and brings him back to life; however, by the ministryof the priest on the other hand, the guilt alone is taken away.

1059 59. When by almsgiving and other works of penance we make satis-faction to God for temporal punishments, we do not offer a worthy priceto God for our sins, as some erring persons affirm (for otherwise, atleast in some part, we should be redeemers); but we do something, inview of which the satisfaction of Christ is applied and communicated tous.

1060 60. Through the sufferings of the saints communicated inindulgences, our sins are not properly atoned for; but through acommunion of charity their sufferings are communicated to us, that we,who were freed by the price of the blood of Christ from punishments dueto sins, may be worthy.

1061 61. That famous distinction of the doctors, that the mandates ofthe divine law are fulfilled in two ways: in one way, in so far aspertains to the substance of the works alone; in the other way, in sofar as pertains to a definite manner, namely, according to which theycan guide the doer to eternal life (that is in the meritorious manner),is fabricated and should be rejected.

1062 62. That distinction also by which a work is called good in twoways, either because it is right and good from its object and all itscircumstances (which is usually termed moral), or because it ismeritorious of the eternal kingdom, in so far as it proceeds from aliving member of Christ the Spirit of charity, must be rejected.

1063 63. Moreover that distinction of a twofold justice, one which isbrought to pass through the indwelling Spirit of charity, the otherwhich arises from the inspiration of the Holy Spirit exciting the heartto penance, but not yet dwelling in the heart and diffusing charity init, by which the justification of the divine law may be fulfilled, issimilarly condemned.

1064 64. And likewise that distinction of a twofold vivification, theone, by which a sinner is vivified, when the resolution to penance andthe beginning of a new life through the grace of God inspire him; theother, by which he is vivified who is truly justified and is made aliving branch on the vine for Christ, is equally deceitful and in noway consonant with the Scriptures.

1065 65. Some good, or at least not bad use of free will can beadmitted only by a Pelagian error; and he who knows and teaches this,does injury to the grace of Christ.

1066 66. Violence alone repels the natural liberty of man.

1067 67. Man sins, even to damnation, in what he does by necessity.

1068 68. Purely negative infidelity in those among whom Christ has not been preached, is a sin.

1069 69. The justification of a wicked man takes place formally throughobedience to the law, not, however, through the hidden communicationand the inspiration of grace, which makes those justified by it fulfillthe law.

1070 70. Man existing in the state of mortal sin, or under the penaltyof eternal damnation can have true charity; and even perfect charitycan exist along with the guilt of eternal damnation.

1071 71. Through contrition even when joined with perfect charity andwith the desire to receive the sacrament, a crime is not remittedwithout the actual reception of the sacrament, except in case ofnecessity, or of martyrdom.

1072 72. All afflictions of the just are punishments for sinsthemselves, therefore, both Job and the martyrs suffered what theysuffered on account of sins.

1073 73. No one except Christ is free from original sin; hence, theBlessed Virgin died because of sin contracted from Adam, and all of herafflictions in this life as well as those of other just persons werethe punishments for actual sin, or for original sin.

1074 74. Concupiscence in the regenerated who have fallen back intomortal sin, and in those in whom it dominates, is a sin, as also areother bad habits.

1075 75. The bad impulses of concupiscence in the state of depraved manare prohibited by the precept: "Thou shalt not covet" [Exod. 20:17].hence, a man aware of these and not consenting, transgresses theprecept: "Thou shalt not covet," although the transgression is not tobe classed as a sin.

1076 76. As long as there is something of carnal concupiscence in onewho loves, he does not fulfill the precept: "Thou shalt love the Lordwith thy whole heart" [Deut. 6:5; Matt. 22:37].

1077 77. Laborious satisfactions of those who are justified are of noavail to expiate condignly the temporal punishments remaining after thefault has been remitted.

1078 78. The immortality of the first man was not a benefit of grace, but a natural condition.

1079 79. The opinion of the doctors that the first man could have beencreated by God and established without natural justice, is false.

1080 These opinions have been carefully considered and examined beforeus; although some of them could be maintained in some way,* yet in thestrict and proper sense intended by those asserting them, we condemnthem respectively as heretical, erroneous, suspect, rash, scandalous,and as giving offense to pious ears.

Exchanges (i.e., Exchanging of Money, Promissory Notes) *

[From the ordinance "In earn pro nostro," Jan 28, 1571]

1081 First (then) we condemn all those exchanges which are calledfictitious, (elsewhere, dry), and are so devised that the contractingparties at certain market places or at other localities pretend tosolemnize exchanges; at which places those who receive money, actuallyhand over their letters of exchange, but they are not sent, or they areso sent that, when the time has passed they are brought back void,whence they had set out; or, even when no letters of this kind werehanded over, the money is finally demanded with interest, where thecontract had been solemnized; for between givers and receivers evenfrom the beginning it had been so decided, or surely such was theintention, and there is no one who in the marketplaces or the abovementioned places makes payment, when such letters are received. Andsimilar to this evil is also that, when money or deposits or by anothername fictitious exchanges are handed over so that afterwards in thesame place or elsewhere they are paid back with interest.

1082 But even in the exchanges which are called real, sometimes, as itis reported to me, bankers put off the prescribed term of payment, whena profit has been received according to tacit or expressed agreement oreven only a promise. All these things we declare to be usurious, andstrictly prohibit their being done.

GREGORY XIII 1572-1585

Profession of Faith Prescribed for the Greeks *

[From the acts concerning the union of the Greco-Russian church, 1575]

1083 I, N., in firm faith believe and profess each and everything which is contained in the Creed of faith, which the holy RomanChurch uses, namely: I believe in one God [as in theNicean-Constantinopolitan Creed, n. 86, 994].

1084 I also believe, and I accept and profess all the things which theholy ecumenical Synod of FLORENCE defined and declared concerning theunion of the western and eastern Church, namely that the Holy Spirit iseternally from the Father and the Son; and that He has His essence andHis subsistent being from the Father and from the Son together; andthat He proceeds from both eternally, as from one principle and by asingle procession, since what the holy Doctors and Fathers say comes tomean the same thing, that from the Father through the Son the HolySpirit proceeds, and that the Son, according to the Greeks, is also thecause, and according to the Latins, indeed the principle of thesubsistence of the Holy Spirit, as is the Father. All things, however,which are of the Father, the Father Himself has given to Hisonly-begotten Son in generation, outside of being the Father; the veryfact that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son, the Son himselfeternally has from the Father, by whom He has also been eternallybegotten. And that the explanation of these words, "Filioque," for thesake of declaring the truth, and because of imminent necessity, haslawfully and reasonably been added to the Creed. . . . The text followsfrom the decrees of the union of the Greeks. Council of FLORENCE.

1085 Besides, I profess and accept all the other things which the holyRoman and Apostolic Church, according to the decrees of the holyecumenical general Synod of TRENT, proposed and prescribed should beprofessed and accepted, as well as the contents in the above mentionedcreeds of faith, as follows:

Apostolic . . . and all the rest, as in the profession of faith of TRENT [n.995 ff.].

SIXTUS V 1585 - 1590 GREGORY XIV 1590 - 1591

URBAN VII 1590 INNOCENT IX 1591

CLEMENT VIII 1592-1605

The Faculty of Blessing Sacred Oils *

[From the Instruction concerning the rites of the Italo-Greeks, August 30, 1595]

1086 (3) . . . Greek priests are not to be forced to accept the holyoils, except the chrism from the Latin diocesan bishops, since oils ofthis kind are produced and blessed by them in the furnishing of theoils and the presensation of the sacraments according to the ancientrite. . . . Let them be forced to accept chrism, however, which, evenaccording to their rite, cannot be blessed except by a bishop.

Ordination of Schismatics

[From the same Instruction] *

1087 (4) Those ordained by schismatic bishops, who have been otherwiseduly ordained, the due form having been observed, receive, indeed,ordination, but not jurisdiction.

Absolution of One in absentia *

[From the Decree of the Holy Office, June 20, 1602]

1088 His Holiness . . . condemned and forbade as false,rash, and scandalous the proposition, namely, "that it is lawfulthrough letters or through a messenger to confess sins sacramentally toan absent confessor, and to receive absolution from that same absentconfessor," and orders in turn that that proposition thereafter not betaught in public or private gatherings, assemblies, and congresses; andthat it never in any case be defended as probable, be given the stampof approval, or be reduced in any way to practice.

1089 According to an opinion of the Holy Office, publishedrepeatedly (especially on June 7, 1603, and January 24, 1522) underClement VIII and Paul V, this decree also in a divided sense, i.e., onconfession and on absolution separately, is sound; to the decree of theHoly Office a reply was made on July 14. 1605: "The most holy hasdecreed that the mentioned interpretation of P. Suarez on the abovementioned decree [namely, on the divided sense] is not adequate," and,according to a decree of the Congregation of the Fathers Theologians onJune 7, 1603, it cannot be supported "from that case, when upon onlysigns of repentance being given and reported to a priest who ispresent, absolution is given one on the very point of death afterconfession of sins was made to an absent priest, since it contains anentirely conflicting difficulty." This decree, "by the aforesaidSupreme Pontiffs" is said to have been approved in a decree publishedon January 24, 1622, by a cardinal, one of the Inquisitors, togetherwith some theologians, and is published a second time: accordinginfants in Italy and adjacent islands, since this was expresslyforbidden [see n. 1459] them by Clement Vlll in the year 1595. to adecree of January 24, 1622, "from the case of that sick person, towhomon the very point of death upon petitioning for confession andafter signs of repentance were given, and reported to a priest who iscoming, absolution is given, although (the circumstances) containconflicting reason, no controversy can arise over the spoken decree ofClement VIII.'' *

LEO XI 1605

PAUL V 1605-1621

The Aids or Efficacy of Grace *

[From the formula for ending disputes sent to the superior generals ofthe Order of Preachers and of theSociety of Jesus, Sept. 5, 1607]

1090 In the matter of aids [de auxiliis] the right is granted by theSupreme Pontiff not only to the disputants but also to the consultorsof returning to their countries and their homes; and it is added thatthis will be so that His Holiness may promulgate at an opportune timethe declaration and conclusion which were awaited. But it was mostseriously forbidden by the same Most Holy Lordship that in treatingthis question anyone either qualify the position opposite his own ornote it with any censure. Even more he desires that they in turnabstain from harsh words indicating bitterness of mind. *

GREGORY XV 1621 - 1623 URBAN VIII 1623 - 1644

INNOCENT X 1644-1655

Error of the Dual Head of the Church (or the Primacy of R. P.) *

[From the decree of the Sacred Office, Jan. 24, 1647]

1091 The most holy . . . has decreed and declared hereticalthisproposition so presented that it established an exact equality betweenSt. PETER and St. Paul, without subordination and subjection of St.Paul to St. Peter in supreme power, and in the rule of the universalChurch: "St. PETER and St. Paul are the two princes of the Church whoform one head, or: there are two Catholic heads and supreme leaders Ofthe Catholic Church, joined in highest unity between themselves"; or,"the head Of the Catholic Church consists of two who are most divinelyunited into one"; or, "there are two supreme pastors and guardians ofthe Church, who form one head only."

Errors (5) of Cornelius Jansen *

[Excerpts from "Augustinus" and condemned in the Constitutions

"Cum occasione," May 31. 1658]

1092 I. Some of God's precepts are impossible to the just, who wish andstrive to keep them, according to the present powers which they have;the grace, by which they are made possible, is also wanting.

Declared and condemned as rash, impious, blasphemous, condemned by anathema, and heretical.

1093 2. In the state of fallen nature one never resists interior grace.

Declared and condemned as heret ical.

1094 3. In order to merit or demerit in the state of fallen nature,freedom from necessity is not required in man, but freedom fromexternal compulsion is sufficient.

Declared and condemned as heretical.

1095 4. The Semipelagians admitted the necessity of a prevenientinterior grace for each act, even for the beginning of faith; and inthis they were heretics, because they wished this grace to be such thatthe human will could either resist or obey.

Declared and condemned a s false and heretical.

1096 5. It is Semipelagian to say that Christ died or shed His blood for all men without exception.

Declared and condemned as false, rash, scandalous, and intendedin this sense, that Christ died for the salvation of the predestined,impious, blasphemous, contumelious, dishonoring todivinepiety, andheretical.

The Aids or Efficacy of Grace *

[From the decree against the Jansenists, April 23, 1654]

1097 But, since at Rome as well as elsewhere there are being circulatedcertain assertions, acts, manuscripts, and, perchance, printeddocuments of the Congregations held in the presence of most happilyreigning Clement VIII and Paul V on the question of "Aids of DivineGrace," both under the name of Francis Payne, once Dean of the RomanRota, and under the name of Fr. Thomas of Lemos, O.P., and of otherprelates and theologians, who, as it is asserted, were present at theaforementioned Congregations, besides a certain autograph or exemplarof the Constitution of the same Paul V on the definition of theaforesaid questionOn Aids,and of the condemnation of the opinion oropinions of Louis Molina, S.J., His Holiness by the present decreedeclares and decrees that no trust at all is to be placed in theabove-mentioned assertions, acts, on behalf of the opinion of theBrothers, O.S.D., as well as of Louis Molina and of the otherreligious, S.J., and in the autograph or exemplar of the abovementioned Constitution of Paul V; and that nothing can or ought to bealleged by either side or by anyone whatsoever; but that on thisaforesaid question the decrees of Paul V and Urban VIII, theirpredecessors, are to be observed. *

ALEXANDER VII 1655-1667

The Meaning of the Words of Cornelius Jansen *

[From the Constitution "Ad sacram beati PETRI Sedem," Oct. 16, 1656]

1098 (6) We declare and define that these five propositions have beentaken from the book of the aforementioned Cornelius Jansen, Bishop ofYpres, entitled AUGUSTINUS, and in the sense understood by that sameCornelius condemned.

Formulary of Submission Proposed for the Jansenists *

[From the Constitution, "Regiminis apostolicis," Feb. 15. 1665]

1099 "I, N., submit to the apostolic Constitution of INNOCENT X, datedMay 31. 1653, and to the Constitution of ALEXANDER VII, dated Oct. 16.1656, Supreme Pontiffs, and I reject and condemn with a sincere heart,just as the Apostolic See has condemned them by the said Constitutions,the five propositions taken from the book of Cornelius Jansen, entitledAugustinus, and in the sense understood by that same author, and so Iswear: So help me God, and this holy gospel of God." *

The Immaculate Conception of the B.V.M. *

[From the Bull "Sollicitudo omnium eccl.," Dec. 8, 1661]

1100 (1) The devotion to the most blessed Virgin Mary is indeedof long standing among the faithful of Christ who believe that hersoul, from the first instant of its creation and infusion into herbody, was preserved immune by a special grace and privilege of God fromthe stain of original sin, in view of the merits of her Son, JesusChrist, the Redeemer of our human race, and who, in this sense, esteemand solemnly celebrate the festivity of her conception; the number ofthese has increased (after the Constitutions of SIXTUS IV renewed bythe Council of Trent, note 734 f., 792.) ... so that ... now almost allCatholics embrace it. . . . (4) We renew the Constitutions and decreespublished by Roman Pontiffs in favor of the opinion that asserts thatthe soul of the blessed Virgin Mary at its creation, and at itsinfusion into her body, was blessed by the grace of the Holy Spirit andwas preserved from original sin.

Various Errors on Moral Matters *

[Condemned in decrees of Sept. 24, 1665, and of March 18.1666

A. On the 24th Day of September, 1665

1101 1. A man is not bound at any time at all in his life toutter an act of faith, hope, and charity by the force of the divineprecepts pertaining tothese virtues.

1102 2. A man belonging to the orders of Knights when challengedto a duel can accept this, lest he incur the mark of cowardice amongothers.

1103 3. That opinion which asserts that the Bull "Coenae" prohibitsabsolution of heresy and other crimes only when they are public andthat this does not diminish the power of Trent, in which there is adiscussion of secret crimes, in the year1629,July 18th, in theConsistory of the Sacred Congregation of the Most Eminent Cardinals,was seen and sustained.

1104 4. Regular prelates can in the court of conscience absolve anyseculars at all of hidden heresy and of excommunication incurred by it.

1105 5. Although it is evidently established by you that Peter isa heretic, you are not bound to denounce [him], if you cannot prove it.

1106 6. A confessor who in sacramental confession gives the penitent apaper to be read afterwards, in which he incites to lust, is notconsidered to have solicited in the confessional, and therefore is notto be denounced.

1107 7. A way to avoid the obligation of denouncing solicitationexists if the one solicited confesses with the solicitor; the lattercan absolve that one without the burden of denouncing.

1108 8. A priest can lawfully accept a twofold stipend for the sameMass by applying to the petitioner even the most special part of theproceeds appropriated to the celebrant himself, and this after thedecree of Urban VIII. *

1109 9. After the decree of Urban, * a priest, to whom Masses are givento be celebrated, can give satisfaction through another, by paying asmaller stipend to him and retaining the other part of the stipend forhimself.

1110 10. It is not contrary to justice to accept a stipendfor several sacrifices and to offer one sacrifice. Nor, is it contraryto fidelity if I promise, with a promise confirmed also by an oath, tohim who gives a stipend, what I offer for no one else.

1111 11 We are not bound to express in a subsequent confessionsins omitted in confession or forgotten because of the imminent dangerof death or for some other reason.

1112 12. Mendicants can absolve from cases reserved for bishops, when the faculty of the bishop was not obtained for this.

1113 13. He satisfies the precept of an annual confession, whoconfesses to a regular, presented to a bishop, but unjustly reproved byhim.

1114 14. He who makes no confession voluntarily, satisfies the precept of the Church.

1115 15. A penitent by his own authority can substitute another for himself, to fulfill the penance in his place.

1116 16. Those who have provided a benefice can select as confessor for themselves a simple priest not approved by the ordinary.

1117 17. It is permitted a religious or a cleric to kill a calumniatorwho threatens to spread grave crimes about him or his order, when noother means of defense is at hand; as it seems not to be, if acalumniator be ready to spread the aforesaid about the religioushimself or his order publicly or among people of importance, unless hebe killed.

1118 18. It is permitted to kill a false accuser, false witnesses, andeven a judge, from whom an unjust sentence threatens with certainty, ifthe innocent can avoid harm in no other way.

1119 19. A husband does not sin by killing on his own authority a wife caught in adultery.

1120 20. The restitution imposed by Pius V* upon those who havereceived benefits but not reciting [the Divine Office in fulfillment oftheir obligation] is not due in conscience before the declaratorysentence of the judge, because it is a penalty.

1121 21. He who has a collective chaplaincy, or any otherecclesiastical benefit, if he is busy with the study of letters,satisfies his obligation, if he recites the office through another.

1122 22. It is not contrary to justice not to confer ecclesiasticalbenefits gratuitously, because the contributor who contributes thoseecclesiastical benefits with money intervening does not exact thatmoney for the contribution of the benefit, but for a temporal profit,which he was not bound to contribute to you.

1123 23. He who breaks a fast of the Church to which he is bound, doesnot sin mortally, unless he does this out of contempt and disobedience,e.g., because he does not wish to subject himself to a precept.

1124 24. Voluptuousness, sodomy, and bestiality are sins of thesame ultimate species, and so it is enough to say in confession thatone has procured a pollution.

1125 25. He who has had intercourse with an unmarried womansatisfies the precept of confession by saying: "I committed a grievoussin against chastity with an unmarried woman," without mentioning theintercourse.

1126 26. When litigants have equally probable opinions in theirdefense, the judge can accept money to bring a sentence in favor of oneover the other.

1127 27. If a book is published by a younger or modern person, itsopinion should be considered as probable, since it is not establishedthat it has been rejected by the Holy See as improbable.

1128 28. A nation does not sin, even if without any cause it does not accept a law promulgated by the ruler.

B. On the 18th day of March, 1666

1129 29. On a day of fasting, he who eats a moderate amountfrequently, even if in the end he has eaten a considerable quantity,does not break the fast.

1130 30. All officials who labor physically in the state areexcused from the obligation of fasting, and need not make certainwhether the labor is compatible with fasting.

1131 31. All those are entirely excused from fasting, who make ajourney by riding, under whatever circumstances they make the journey,even if it is not necessary and even if they make a journey of a singleday.

1132 32. It is not evident that the custom of not eating eggs and cheese in Lent is binding.

1133 33. Restitution of income because of the omission of stipends canbe supplied through any alms that a beneficiary has previously madefrom the income of his service.

1134 34. By reciting the paschal office on the day of Palms one satisfies the precept.

1135 35. By a single office anyone can satisfy a twofold precept, for the present day and tomorrow.

1136 36. Regulars can in the forum of conscience use their privileges which were expressly revoked by the Council of Trent.

1137 37. Indulgences conceded to regulars and revoked by Paul V are today revalidated.

1138 38. The mandate of the Council of Trent, made for the priest whoof necessity performs the Sacrifice while in mortal sin, to confess assoon as possible [see note 880], is a recommendation, not a precept.

1139 39. The expression "quamprimum" is understood to be when the priest will confess in his own time.

1140 40. It is a probable opinion which states that a kiss is onlyvenial when performed for the sake of the carnal and sensible * delightwhich arises from the kiss, if danger of further consent and pollutionis excluded.

1141 41. One living in concubinage is not bound to dismiss theconcubine, if she is very useful for the pleasure of him so living (inthe vernacular, "regalo")provided that if she [another reading: he]were missing, he would carry on life with very great difficulty, andother food would affect him living in concubinage with great loathing,and another maid servant would be found with very great difficulty.

1142 42. It is permitted one who borrows money to exact somethingbeyond the principal, if he obligates himself not to seek the principaluntil a certain time.

1143 43. An annual legacy left for the soul does not bind for more than ten years.

1144 44. So far as the forum of conscience is concerned, when theguilty has been corrected and the contumacy ceases, the censures cease.

1145 45. Books prohibited "until they are expurgated" can be retained until they are corrected by the application of diligence.

All these are condemned and prohibited, at least as scandalous.

Perfect and Imperfect Contrition *

[From the decree of the Sacred Office, May 5, 1667]

1146 Concerning the controversy:Whether that attrition, which isinspired by the fear of hell, excluding the will to sin, with the hopeof pardon, to obtain grace in the sacrament of penance requires inaddition some act of love of God, to some asserting this, and to othersdenying it, and in turn censuring the opposite opinion: . . . HisHoliness . . . orders . . . that if they later write about the matterof the aforementioned attrition, or publish books or writings or teachor preach or in any manner whatever instruct penitents or students andothers, let them not dare change either opinion with a note of anytheological censure or contumely, whether it be that of denying thenecessity of any love of God in the aforementioned attrition inspiredby the fear of hell, which seems to be the more common opinion amongscholastics today, or whether that of asserting the necessity of thislove, until something has been defined by the Holy See concerning thismatter.

CLEMENT IX 1667 - 1669 CLEMENT X 1670-1676

INNOCENT XI 1676-1689

Frequent and Daily Communion *

[From the Decree C. S. Conc., Feb. 12. 1679]

1147 Although the daily and frequent use of the most holy Eucharist hasalways been approved by the holy Fathers of the Church, yet never havethey appointed certain days either for receiving it more often orcertain days of the weeks and months for abstaining from it, which theCouncil of Trent did not prescribe; but, as if it considered thefrailty of human nature, although making no command, it merelyindicated what it would prefer when it said: "The Holy Council wouldindeed wish that at every Mass the faithful present would communicateby the sacramental reception of the Eucharist" [see n.944 ]. And thisnot without cause, for there are very many secret recesses ofconscience, various diversions because of the occupations of thespirit, likewise many graces and gifts of God granted to children, andsince we cannot scrutinize these with human eyes, nothing can beestablished concerning the worthiness or integrity of anyone, andconsequently nothing concerning the more frequent or daily partaking ofthe bread of life.

And thus, as far as concerns tradesmen themselves, frequentapproach to the receiving of the holy sustenance is to be left to thejudgment of the confessors who explore the secrets of the heart, whofrom the purity of consciences and from the fruit of frequency and fromthe progress in piety in the case of laity, tradesmen, and married men,will be obliged to provide for them whatever they see will be ofbenefit to their salvatlon.

In the case of married persons, however, let them seriouslyconsider this, since the blessed Apostle does not wish them to "defraudone another, except perhaps by consent for a time, that they may givethemselves to prayer" [cf. 1 Cor. 7:5], let them advise these seriouslythat they should give themselves more to continence, because ofreverence for the most holy Eucharist, and that they should cometogether for communion in the heavenly banquet with a purer mind.

1148 In this, then, will the diligence of pastors be especiallyalert, not that some may not be deterred from frequent or dailypartaking of holy communion by a single formula of precept, or thatdays for partaking be established generally, but rather let it bedecided what should be permitted to each, or should be decided forthemselves by themselves, or by the priests or confessors; and let thisbe prohibited entirely: that no one be repelled from the sacredbanquet, whether he approach it frequently or daily, and yet let itattend that everyone taste of the sweetness of the body of the Lordmore rarely or more frequently according to his measure of devotion andpreparation.

1149 Similarly nuns who desire holy communion daily will have to beadvised to receive communion on the days established by the rule oftheir order; if some, however, are distinguished by purity of mind andare so enkindled by fervor of spirit that they seem worthy of morefrequent or daily reception of the most holy Sacrament, let this bepermitted them by the superiors.

It will be of benefit, too, besides the diligence of priests andconfessors, to make use also of the services of preachers and to havean agreement with them, that, when the faithful have become used * tofrequenting the most holy Sacrament (which they should do), they preacha sermon on the great preparation for undertaking that, and show ingeneral that those who by devout zeal are stirred to a more frequent ordaily partaking of the health bringing Food, whether lay tradesmen, ormarried people, or any others, ought to understand their own weakness,so that because of the dignity of the Sacrament and the fear of thedivine judgment they may learn to revere the celestial table on whichis Christ; and if at any time they should feel themselves not prepared,to abstain from it and to gird themselves for a greater preparation.

But let bishops, in whose dioceses such devotion towards the mostBlessed Sacrament flourishes, give thanks to God for this, and theyshould nurture it by applying to it the proper measure of prudence andjudgment, and on their part they will especially prevail uponthemselves that no labor or diligence must be spared to do away withevery suspicion of irreverence and scandal in the reception of the trueand immaculate lamb, and to increase virtues and gifts in those whopartake of it; and this will happen abundantly, if those, who are boundby such devoted zeal, by surpassing divine grace, and who desire to berefreshed more frequently by the most holy bread, become accustomed toexpend their strength and to prove themselves with reverence and love.. . .

1150 Furthermore, let bishops and priests or confessors refute thosewho hold that daily communion is of divine right, . . . Let them notpermit that a confession of venial sins be made to a simple priestwithout the approbation of a bishop or ordinary.

Various Errors on Moral Subjects (II) *

[Condemned in a decree of the Holy Office, March 4, 1679]

1151 1. It is not illicit in conferring sacraments to follow aprobable opinion regarding the value of the sacrament, the saferopinion being abandoned, unless the law forbids it, convention or thedanger of incurring grave harm. Therefore, one should not make use ofprobable opinions only in conferring baptism, sacerdotal or episcopalorders.

1152 2. I think that probably a judge can pass judgment according to opinion, even the less probable.

1153 3. In general, when we do something confidently according toprobability whether intrinsic or extrinsic, however slight, providedthere is no departure from the bounds of probability, we always actprudently. *

1154 4. An infidel who does not believe will be excused of infidelity, since l he is guided by a less probable opinion.

1155 5. Even though one sins mortally, we dare not condemn him who uttered an act of love of God only once in his life.

1156 6. It is probable that the precept of love for God is of itself not of grave obligation even once every five years.

1157 7. Then only is it obligatory when we are bound to be justified, and we have no other way by which we can be justified.

1158 8. Eating and drinking even to satiety for pleasure only, are notsinful, provided this does not stand in the way of health, since anynatural appetite can licitly enjoy its own actions.

1159 9. The act of marriage exercised for pleasure only is entirely free of all 1. fault and venial defect.

1160 10. We are not bound to love our neighbor by an internal and formal act

1161 11. We can satisfy the precept of loving neighbor by external acts only.

1162 12. Scarcely will you find among seculars, even among kings,a superfluity for [his] state of life. And so, scarcely anyone is boundto give alms from what is superfluous to [his] state of life.

1163 13. If you act with due moderation, you can without mortalsin be sad about the moral life of someone and rejoice about hisnatural death, seek it with ineffectual desire and long for it, notindeed from dissatisfaction with the person but because of sometemporal emolument.

1164 14. It is licit with an absolute desire to wish for the death of afather, not indeed as an evil to the father, but as a good to him whodesires it, for a rich inheritance will surely come his way.

1165 15. It is licit for a son to rejoice over the parricide of hisparent perpetrated by himself in drunkenness, because of the greatriches that came from it by inheritance.

1166 16. Faith is not considered to fall under a special precept and by itself.

1167 17. It is enough to utter an act of faith once during life.

1168 18. If anyone is questioned by a public power, I advise him toconfess his faith to a noble person as to God and (to be) proud of hisfaith; I do not condemn silence as sinful of itself.

1169 19. The will cannot effect that assent to faith in itself be stronger than the weight of reasons impelling toward assent.

1170 20. Hence, anyone can prudently repudiate the supernatural assent which he had.

1171 21. Assent to faith is supernatural and useful to salvation withonly the probable knowledge of revelation, even with the fear by whichone fears lest God has not spoken.

1172 22. Only faith in one God seems necessary by a necessity of means, not, however, the explicit (faith) in a Rewarder.

1173 23. Faith widely so called according to the testimony of creature or by a similar reason suffices for justification.

1174 24. To call upon God as a witness to a slight lie is not agreat irreverence, because of which God wishes or can condemn man.

1175 25. With cause it is licit to swear without the intention of swearing, whether the matter be light or serious.

1176 26. If anyone swears, either alone or in the presence of others,whether questioned or of his own will, whether for sake of recreationor for some other purpose, that he did not do something, which in facthe did, understanding within himself something else which he did notdo, or another way than that by which he did it, or some other addedtruth, in fact does not lie and is no perjurer.

1177 27. A just reason for using these ambiguous words exists, as oftenas it is necessary or useful to guard the well-being of the body,honor, property, or for any other act of virtue, so that the concealingof the truth is then regarded as expedient and zealous.

1178 28. He who has been promoted to a magistracy or a public office bymeans of a recommendation or a gift can utter with mental reservationthe oath which is customarily exacted of similar persons by order ofthe king, without regard for the intent of the one exacting it, becausehe is not bound to confess a concealed crime.

1179 29. A grave, pressing fear is a just cause for pretending the administration of sacraments.

1180 30. It is right for an honorable man to kill an attacker who triesto indict calumny upon him, if this ignominy cannot be avoidedotherwise; the same also must be said if anyone slaps him with his handor strikes with a club and runs away after the slap of the hand or theblow of the club.

1181 31. I can properly kill a thief to save a single gold piece.

1182 32. It is not only permitted to defend, with a fataldefense, these things we possess actually, but also those things towhich we have a partial right, and which we hope to possess.

1183 33. It is permitted an heir as well as a legatee to defend himselfagainst one who unjustly prevents either an inheritance being assumed,or legacies being paid, just as it is permitted him who has a right toa chair or a benefice against one who unjustly impedes his possessionof them.

1184 34. It is permitted to bring about an abortion before theanimation of the foetus, lest the girl found pregnant be killed ordefamed.

1185 35. It seems probable that every foetus (as long as itis in the womb) lacks a rational soul and begins to have the same atthe time that it is born; and consequently it will have to be said thatno homicide is committed in any abortion.

1186 36. It is permitted to steal not only in extreme, but in grave necessity.

1187 37. Male and female domestic servants can secretly stealfrom their masters to gain compensation for their work which they judgeof greater worth than the salary which they receive.

1188 38. No one is bound under the pain of mortal sin to restorewhat has been taken away by small thefts, however great the sum totalmay be.

1189 39. Whoever moves or induces another to bring a serious lossupon a third party is not bound to a restitution of that loss incurred.

1190 40. A usurious contract is permitted even with respect tothe same person, and with a contract to sell back previously enteredupon with the intention of gain.

1191 41. Since ready cash is more valuable than that to be paid,and since there is no one who does not consider ready cash of greaterworth than future cash, a creditor can demand something beyond theprincipal from the borrower, and for this reason be excused from usury.

1192 42. There is no usury when something is exacted beyond theprincipal as due because of a kindness and by way of gratitude, butonly if it is exacted as due according to justice.

1193 43. What is it but venial sin if one detract authority by a false charge to prevent great harm to himself?

1194 44. It is probable that he does not sin mortally who imposesa false charge on someone, that he may defend his own justice andhonor. And if this is not probable, there is scarcely any probableopinion in theology.

1195 45. To give the temporal for the spiritual is not simony,when the temporal is not given for a price, but only as a motive forconferring and effecting the spiritual, or even because the temporal isonly a gratuitous compensation for the spiritual, or vice versa.

1196 46. And this also is admissable, even if the temporal is theprincipal motive for giving the spiritual; furthermore, even if it bethe end of the spiritual thing itself, so that it is considered ofgreater value than the spiritual thing.

1197 47. When the Council of: Trent says that they sin mortallyby sharing the sins of others who do not promote to the churches thosewhom they themselves judge to be more worthy and more useful for theChurch, the Council either first seems to mean to signify by "moreworthy" nothing else than the worthiness of being selected, using thecomparative rather than the positive; or secondly, in a less properexpression takes "more worthy" to exclude the unworthy, but not theworthy, or finally, and thirdly, it is speaking of what occurs duringan assembly.

1198 48. Thus it seems clear that fornication by its natureinvolves no malice, and that it is evil only because it is forbidden,so that the contrary seems entirely in disagreement with reason.

1199 49. Voluptuousness is not prohibited by the law of nature.Therefore, if God had not forbidden it, it would be good, and sometimesobligatory under pain of mortal sin.

1200 50. Intercourse with a married woman, with the consent ofher husband, is not adultery, and so it is enough to say in confessionthat one had committed fornication.

1201 51. A male servant who knowingly by offering his shouldersassists his master to ascend through windows to ravage a virgin, andmany times serves the same by carrying a ladder, by opening a door, orby cooperating in something similar, does not commit a mortal sin, ifhe does this through fear of considerable damage, for example, lest hebe treated wickedly by his master, lest he be looked upon with savageeyes, or, lest he be expelled from the house.

1202 52. The precept of keeping feast days is not obligatory under painof mortal sin, aside from scandal, if contempt be absent.

1203 53. He satisfies the precept of the Church of hearing theHoly Sacrifice, who hears two of its parts, even four simultaneously bydifferent celebrants.

1204 54. He who cannot recite Matins and Lauds, but can the remaininghours, is held to nothing, since the great part brings the lesser to it.

1205 55. He satisfies the precept of annual communion by the sacrilegious eating of the Lord.

1206 56. Frequent confession and communion, even in those who live like pagans, is a mark of predestination.

1207 57. It is probable that natural but honest imperfect sorrow for sins suffices.

1208 58. We are not bound to confess to a confessor who asks us about the habit of some sin.

1209 59. It is permitted to absolve sacramentally those who confessonly half, by reason of a great crowd of penitents, such as for examplecan happen on a day of great festivity or indulgence.

1210 60. The penitent who has the habit of sinning against the law ofGod, of nature, or of the Church, even if there appears no hope ofamendment, is not to be denied absolution or to be put off, provided heprofesses orally that he is sorry and proposes amendment.

1211 61. He can sometimes be absolved, who remains in a proximateoccasion of sinning, which he can and does not wish to omit, but ratherdirectly and professedly seeks or enters into.

1212 62. The proximate occasion for sinning is not to be shunnedwhen some useful and honorable cause for not shunning it occurs.

1213 63. It is permitted to seek directly the proximate occasionfor sinning for a spiritual or temporal good of our own or of aneighbor.

1214 64. A person is fit for absolution, however much he laborsunder an ignorance of the mysteries of the faith, and even if throughnegligence, even culpable, he does not know the mystery of the mostblessed Trinity, and of the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

1215 65. It is enough to have believed the mysteries once.

All condemned and prohibited, as they are here expressed,

at least as scandalous and in practice pernicious.

The Holy Pontiff concludes the decree with these words:

1216 Finally, in order that doctors, whether scholastics or any otherswhatsoever, may refrain from injurious contentions in the future, andthat there be deliberations for peace and charity, the same HolyPontiff commands them in virtue of holy obedience, to be on their guardin printing books and manuscripts, as well as theses, disputations, andsermons against any censure and note, and likewise violent railingsagainst such propositions which are still being carried on amongCatholics here and there, until the matter has been considered, and ajudgment is rendered * by the Holy See upon these same propositions.

Errors on "donated omnipotence"*

[Condemned in the decree of the Holy Office, Nov. 23, 1679]

1217 1. God gives us His omnipotence, that we may use it, just as someone gives another a villa or a book.

1218 2. God submits His omnipotence to us.

They are prohibited asat least rash andnovel.

Moral Systems *

[Decree of the Holy Office, June 26, 1680]

1219 In a report of the contents of the letters of Father GonzalesThirsus directed to His Holiness through Father Laurea of the Societyof Jesus, their most blessed Eminences said that the Secretary of Statehad written to the Apostolic Nuncio of the Spaniards, asking that heinform the said Father Thirsus what His Holiness commanded, after theletter was kindly received and read not without praise; that he himselffreely and boldly preach, teach, and defend with his pen the moreprobable opinion, and not vigorously attack the opinion of those whoassert that in the conflict of the less probable opinion with the moreprobable so recognized and judged, it is lawful to follow the lessprobable opinion; and to inform him that whatever he shall do and writein favor of the more probable will be pleasing to His Holiness. Let itbe enjoined on the Father General of the Society concerning this orderof His Holiness, that he not only permit the Fathers of the Society ofJesus to write in defense of the opinion of the more probable and tooppose the opinion of those who assert that in the controversy of theless probable opinion with the more probable so understood and judged,it is allowed to follow the less probable; but, moreover, let him alsowrite to all the universities of the Society that it is the mind of HisHoliness that anyone who will may freely write as he pleases in behalfof the more probable opinion and may attack the contrary opinion abovementioned; and let him order them to submit themselves in all things tothe orders of His Holiness. *

Error Concerning the Seal of. Confession *

[Condemned in the decree of the Holy Office, Nov. 18, 1862]

1220 Concerning the proposition:"It is lawful to use knowledge obtainedin confession, provided it is done without any direct or indirectrevelation, and without burden upon the penitent, unless some muchgreater evil follows from its nonuse, in comparison with which thefirst would be rightly held of little account," an explanation orlimitation then being added, that it is to be understood concerning theuse of the knowledge obtained from confession with burden to thepenitent, any revelation whatsoever being excluded, and in the case inwhich a much greater burden to the same penitent would follow from itsnonuse,

it is decided: "that the stated proposition, as far as it admitsthe use of said knowledge with the burden upon the penitent, must bealtogether prohibited, even with the aforesaid explanation orlimitation."

Errors of Michael of Molinos*

[Condemned in the decree of the Sacred Office, August 28, and in the Constitutions "Coelestis Pastor," Nov. 20, 1687]

1221 1. It is necessary that man reduce his own powers to nothingness, and this is the interior way.

1222 2. To wish to operate actively is to offend God, who wishesto be Himself the sole agent; and therefore it is necessary to abandononeself wholly in God and thereafter to continue in existence as aninanimate body.

1223 3. Vows about doing something are impediments to perfection.

1224 4. Natural activity is the enemy of grace, and impedes theoperations of God and true perfection, because God wishes to operate inus without us.

1225 5. By doing nothing the soul annihilates itself and returnsto its beginning and to its origin, which is the essence of God, inwhich it remains transformed and divinized, and God then remains inHimself, because then the two things are no more united, but are onealone,and in this manner God lives and reigns in us, and the soulannihilates itself in operative being.

1226 6. The interior way is that in which neither light, norlove, nor resignation is recognized, and it is not necessary tounderstand God, and in this way one makes progress correctly.

1227 7. A soul ought to consider neither the reward, nor punishment, nor paradise, nor hell, nor death, nor eternity.

1228 8. He ought not to wish to know whether he is progressing with thewill of God, or whether or not with the same resigned will he standsstill; nor is it necessary that he wish to know his own state or hisown nothingness; but he ought to remain as an inanimate body.

1229 9. The soul ought not to remember either itself, or God, oranything whatsoever, and in the interior life all reflection isharmful, even reflection upon its human actions and upon its owndefects.

1230 10. If one scandalizes others by one's own defects, it is notnecessary to reflect, as long as the will to scandalize is not present,and not to be able to reflect upon one's own defects, is a grace of God.

1231 11. It is not necessary to reflect upon doubts whether one is proceeding rightly or not.

1232 12. He who gives his own free will to God should care aboutnothing, neither about hell, nor about heaven; neither ought he to havea desire for his own perfection, nor for virtues, nor his own sanctity,nor his own salvation, the hope of which he ought to remove.

1233 13. After our free will has been resigned to God, reflection andcare about everything of our own must be left to that same God, and weought to leave it to Him, so that He may work His divine will in uswithout us.

1234 14. It is not seemly that he who is resigned to the divine will,ask anything of God; because asking is an imperfection, since the actis of one's own will and election, and this is wishing that the divinewill be conformed to ours, and not that ours be conformed to thedivine; and this from the Gospel: "Seek you shall find" [John 16:24],was not said by Christ for interior souls who do not wish to have freewill; nay indeed, souls of this kind reach this state, that they cannotseek anything from God.

1235 15. Just as they ought not ask anything from God, so should theynot give thanks to Him for anything, because either is an act of theirown will.

1236 16. It is not proper to seek indulgences for punishment due toone's own sins, because it is better to satisfy divine justice than toseek divine mercy, since the latter proceeds from pure love of God, andthe former from an interested love of ourselves, and that is not athing pleasing to God and meritorious, because it is a desire to shunthe cross.

1237 17. When free will has been surrendered to God, and the care andthought of our soul left to the same God, no consideration oftemptations need any longer be of concern; neither should any but anegative resistence be made to them, with the application of no energy,and if nature is aroused, one must let it be aroused, because it isnature.

1238 18. He who in his prayer uses images, figures, pretension, and hisown conceptions, does not adore God "in spirit and in truth" [John4:23].

1239 19. He who loves God in the way which reason points out or the intellect comprehends, does not love the true God.

1240 20. To assert that in prayer it is necessary to help oneself bydiscourse and by reflections, when God does not speak to the soul, isignorance. God never speaks; His way of speaking is operation, and Healways operates in the soul, when this soul does not impede Him by itsdiscourses, reflections, and operations.

1241 21. In prayer it is necessary to remain m obscure and universalfaith, with quiet and forgetfulness of any particular and distinctthought of the attributes of God and the Trinity, and thus to remain inthe presence of God for adoring and loving Him and serving Him, butwithout producing acts, because God has no pleasure in these.

1242 22. This knowledge through faith is not an act produced by acreature, but it is a knowledge given by God to the creature, which thecreature neither recognizes that he has, and neither later knows thathe had it; and the same is said of love.

1243 23. The mystics with Saint Bernard in theScala Claustralium*(The Ladder of the Recluses)distinguished four steps: reading,meditation, prayer, and infused contemplation. He who always remains inthe first, never passes over to the second. He who always persists inthe second, never arrives at the third, which is our acquiredcontemplation, in which one must persist throughout all life, providedthat God does not draw the soul (without the soul expecting it) toinfused contemplation; and if this ceases, the soul should turn back tothe third step and remain in that, without returning again to thesecond or first.

1244 24. Whatever thoughts occur in prayer, even impure, or againstGod, the saints, faith, and the sacraments, if they are not voluntarilynourished, nor voluntarily expelled, but tolerated with indifferenceand resignation, do not impede the prayer of faith, indeed make it moreperfect, because the soul then remains more resigned to the divine will.

1245 25. Even if one becomes sleepy and falls asleep, neverthelessthere is prayer and actual contemplation, because prayer andresignation, resignation and prayer are the same, and while resignationendures, prayer also endures.

1246 26. The three ways: the purgative, illuminative, and unitive, arethe greatest absurdity ever spoken about in mystical (theology), sincethere is only one way, namely, the interior way.

1247 27. He who desires and embraces sensible devotion, does not desirenor seek God, but himself; and anyone who walks by the interior way, inholy places as well as on feast days, acts badly, when he desires itand tries to possess it.

1248 28. Weariness for spiritual matters is good, if indeed by it one's own love is purified

1249 29. As long as the interior soul disdains discourses aboutGod, and disdains the virtues, and remains cold, feeling no fervor inhimself, it is a good sign.

1250 30. Everything sensible which we experience in the spiritual life, is abominable, base, and unclean.

1251 31. No meditative person exercises true interiorvirtues; these should not be recognized by the senses. It is necessaryto abandon the virtues.

1252 32. Neither before nor after communion is any otherpreparation or act of thanksgiving required for these interior soulsthan continuance in a customary passive resignation, because in a moreperfect way it supplies all acts of virtues, which can be practiced andare practiced in the ordinary way. And, if on this occasion ofcommunion there arise emotions of humility, of petition, or ofthanksgiving, they are to be repressed, as often as it is not discernedthat they are from a special impulse of God; otherwise they areimpulses of nature not yet dead.

1253 33. That soul acts badly which proceeds by this interiorway, if it wishes on feast days by any particular effort to excite somesensible devotion in itself, since for an interior soul all days areequal, all festal. And the same is said of holy places, because tosouls of this kind all places are alike.

1254 34. To give thanks to God by words and by speech is not forinterior souls which ought to remain in silence, placing no obstaclebefore God, because He operates in them; and the more they resignthemselves to God, they discover that they cannot recite the Lord'sprayer, i.e., the Our Father.

1255 35. It is not fitting for souls of this interior life toperform works even virtuous ones, by their own choice and activity;otherwise they would not be dead. Neither should they elicit acts oflove for the Blessed Virgin, saints, or the humanity of Christ, becausesince they are sensible objects, so, too, is their love toward them.

1256 36. No creature, neither the Blessed Virgin, nor the saintsought to abide in our heart, because God alone wishes to occupy andpossess it.

1257 37. On occasion of temptations, even violent ones, the soulought not to elicit explicit acts of opposite virtues, but shouldpersevere in the above mentioned love and resignation.

1258 38. The voluntary cross of mortifications is a heavy weight and fruitless, and therefore to be dismissed.

1259 39. The more holy works and penances, which the saintsperformed, are not enough to remove from the soul even a single tie.

1260 4o. The Blessed Virgin never performed any exterior work,and nevertheless was holier than all the saints. Therefore, one canarrive at sanctity without exterior work.

1261 41. God permits and wishes to humiliate us and to conduct usto a true transformation, because in some perfect souls, even thoughnot inspired, the demon inflicts violence on their bodies, and makesthem commit carnal acts, even in wakefulness and without thebewilderment of the mind, by physically moving their hands and othermembers against their wills. And the same is said as far as concernsother actions sinful in themselves, in which case they are not sins,but in them (Viva: quiahis,because with these) the consent is notpresent.

1262 42. A case may be given, that things of this kind contrary to thewill result in carnal acts at the same time on the part of two persons,for example man and woman, and on the part of both an act follows.

1263 43. God in past ages has created saints through the ministry oftyrants; now in truth He produces saints through the ministry ofdemons, who, by causing the aforesaid things contrary to the will,brings it about thatthey despise themselves the more and annihilate andresign themselves to God.

1264 44. Job blasphemed, and yet he did not sin with his lips because it was the result of the violence of the devil.

1265 45. Saint Paul suffered such violences of the devil in his body;thus he has written: "For the good that I will I do not do; but theevil which I will not, that I do" [ Rom. 7:19].

1266 46. Things of this kind contrary to the will are the moreproportionate medium for annihilating the soul, and for leading [Viva:et eam]it to true transformation and union, nor is there any other way;and this is the easier and safer way.

1267 47. When things of this kind contrary to the will occur, it isproper to allow Satan to operate, by applying no effort and making noreal attempt, but man should persist in his own nothingness; and evenif pollutions follow and obscene acts by one's own hands, and evenworse, there is no need to disquiet oneself [Viva:inquietari],butscruples must be banished, as well as doubts and fears, because themind becomes more enlightened, more confirmed, and more candid, andholy liberty is acquired. And above all there is no need to confessthese matters, and one acts in a most saintly way by not confessing,because the devil is overcome by this agreement, and the treasure ofpeace is acquired.

1268 48. Satan, who produces violences of this kind contrary to thewill, afterwards persuades that they are grave sins, so that the minddisturbsitself, lest it progress further in the interior way; hence forweakening his powers it is better not to confess them, because they arenot sins, not even venial.

1269 49. Job from the violence of the devil pollutedhimself with his own hands at the same time as "he offered pure prayerto God" (thus interpreting the passage from chapter 16. Job) [cf. Job.16:18 ].

1270 50. David, Jeremias, and many of the holy Prophets sufferedviolence of this kind, of these impure external operations contrary tothe will.

1271 51. In Sacred Scripture there are many examples of violence to thewill unto external sinful acts, as that of Samson, who by violencekilled himself with the Philistines [ Judg. 16:29 f.], entered amarriage with a foreigner [Judg. 14:1 ff.], and committed fornicationwith the harlot Dalila [Judg. 16:4 ff.], which in other times wereprohibited and would have been sins; that of Judith, who had lied toHolofernes, [ Judith. 2:4 ff.]; that of Elisaeus, who cursed children [2 Kings 2:24 ]; that of Elias, who burned the leaders with the troopsof King Achab [cf. 2 Kings 1:10 ff.]. But whether violence wasimmediately executed by God, or by the minister of the demons, as ithappens in some souls, is left in doubt.

1272 52. When such things contrary to the will, even impure,happen without confusion of the mind, then the soul can be united toGod, and de factois always the more united.

1273 53. To recognize in practice, whether an operation has beenviolence in some persons, the rule which I have for this is not theprotestations of those souls which protest that they have not consentedto the said violences or cannot swear that they have consented, andcannot see that they are the souls who make progress in the interiorlife, but I would adopt a rule from a certain light which is superiorto actual human and theological cognition, that makes me recognize forcertain, with internal certitude, that such operation is violence; andI am certain that this light proceeds from God, because it comes to mejoined with certitude that it comes forth from God, and it leaves in meno shadow of doubt to the contrary, in that way by which it sometimeshappens that God in revealing something reassures the soul at the sametime that it is He who reveals it, and the soul cannot doubt to thecontrary.

1274 54. Persons who lead ordinary spiritual lives, in the hourof death will find themselves deluded and confused with all thepassions to be purged in the other world.

1275 55. Through this interior life one reaches the point, althoughwith much suffering, of purging and extinguishing all passions, so thathe feels nothing more, nothing, nothing; nor is any disquietude felt,just as if the body were dead, nor does the soul permit itself to bemoved any more.

1276 56. Two laws and two desires (the one of the soul, the other ofself-love) endure as long as self-love endures; wherefore, when this ispurged and dead, as happens through the interior way, those two lawsand two desires are no longer present; nor, is any lapse incurredfurther, nor, is anything felt more, not even venial sin.

1277 57. Through acquired contemplation one comes to the state of not committing any more sins, neither mortal nor venial.

1278 58. One arrives at such a state by no longer reflecting on his own actions, because defects arise from reflection.

1279 59. The interior way is separated from confession, fromthose who confess, and from cases of conscience, from theology and fromphilosophy.

1280 60. For advanced souls, who begin to die from reflections,and who even arrive at the point that they are dead, God sometimesmakes confession impossible, and He Himself supplies it with such greatpreserving grace as they receive in the sacrament; and therefore forsuch souls it is not good in such a case to approach the sacrament ofpenance, because it is impossible for them.

1281 61. When the soul arrives at mystical death, it cannot wishfor anything more than what God desires, because it does no longer havea will, since God has taken it away from it.

1282 62. By the interior way it arrives at a continuous, immobile state in an imperturbable peace.

1283 63. By the internal way one even arrives at the death of thesenses; moreover, it is a sign that one remains in a state ofnothingness, that is, of mystical death, if the exterior senses nolonger represent sensible things (from which they are) as if they didnot exist, because they do not succeed in making the intellect applyitself to them.

1284 64. A theologian is less disposed than an ignorant man for thecontemplative state; in the first place, because he does not have suchpure faith; secondly, because he is not so humble; thirdly, because hedoes not care so much for his own salvation; fourthly, because he has ahead full of phantasms, images, opinions, and speculations, and cannotenter into that true light.

1285 65. One must obey directors in the exterior life, and the latitudeof the vow of obedience of religious extends only to the external. Inthe interior life the matter is different, because only God and thedirector enter.

1286 66. A certain new doctrine in the Church of God is worthy ofridicule, that the soul should be governed as far as its interior isconcerned by a bishop; but if the bishop is not capable, the soulshould go to him with his director. I speak a new doctrine; becauseneither Sacred Scripture, nor councils, nor bulls, nor saints, norauthors have ever transmitted it, nor can transmit it, because theChurch does not judge about hidden matters, and the soul has itsfaculty of choosing whatsoever shall seem good to it [Viva: anima inshabet eligendi quaecumque sibi bene visums].

1287 67. To say that the interior must be manifested to the exteriortribunal of directors, and that it is a sin not to do so, is a manifestdeception, because the Church does not pass judgment on hidden matters,and they prejudge their own souls by these deceptions and hypocrisies.

1288 68. In the world there is neither faculty nor jurisdiction forcommanding that the letters of a director, as far as the interiordirection of a soul is concerned, should be made manifest; therefore,it is necessary to assert that it is an insult of Satan, etc.

Condemnedas heretical, suspect, erroneous, scandalous,blasphemous, offensive to pious ears, rash, of relaxed Christiandiscipline, subversive, and seditious respectively.

ALEXANDER VIII 1689-1691

Errors Concerning the Goodness of an Act and Concerning

Philosophic Sin *

[Condemned in the Decr. S. Off., Aug. 24, 1690]

1289 1. Objective goodness consists in the agreement of an object withrational nature; but formal goodness consists in the conformity of anact with the rule of morals. For this it is sufficient that the moralact tend toward its ultimate end interpretatively. Man is not obligedto love this end, neither in the beginning nor in the course of hismoral life.

Declared and condemnedas heretical.

1290 2. Philosophic or moral sin is a human act not in conformitywith rational nature and right reason; but theological and mortal sinis a free transgression of the divine law. A philosophic sin, howevergrave, in a man who either is ignorant of God or does not think aboutGod during the act, is a grave sin, but is not an offense against God,neither a mortal sin dissolving the friendship of God, nor one worthyof eternal punishment.

Declared and condemnedas scandalous, rash, an offense to pious ears, and erroneous. *

Errors of the Jansenists *

[Condemned in a Decr. of the Holy Office, Dec. 7, 1690]

1291 1. In the state of fallen nature, for mortal [Viva: formale]sin and for demerit that liberty is sufficient by which the mortal sinor demerit was voluntary and free in its cause, namely, in original sinand in the will of Adam sinning.

1292 2. Although there is such a thing as invincible ignorance of thelaw of nature, this, in the state of fallen nature, does not excusefrom formal sin anyone acting out of ignorance.

1293 3. It is not permitted to follow a (probable) opinion or among the probables the most probable.*

1294 4. Christ gave Himself for us as an oblation to God, not for the elect only, but for all the faithful only.

1295 5. Pagans, Jews, heretics, and others of this kind do not receivein any way any influence from Jesus Christ, and so you will rightlyinfer from this that in them there is a bare and weak will without anysufficient grace.

1296 6. Grace sufficient for our state is not so much useful aspernicious, so that we can justly pray: From sufficient grace deliverus, O Lord.

1297 7. Every human act is a deliberate choice of God or of the world;if of God, it is love of the Father; if of the world, it isconcupiscence of the flesh, that is, it is evil.

1298 8. Of necessity, an infidel sins in every act.

1299 9. In truth he sins who hates sin merely because of its vilenessand its inconsistency with nature, without any reference to the offenseto God.

1300 10. The intention with which anyone detests evil and follows aftergood, merely that he may obtain heavenly glory, is not right norpleasing to God.

1301 11. Everything which is not in accordance with supernatural Christian faith, which works through charity, is a sin.

1302 12. When in great sinners all love is lacking, faith also islacking; and even if they seem to believe, their faith is not divinebut human.

1303 13. Whoever serves God even in view of an eternal reward, if helacks charity, is not free from fault, as often as he acts even in viewof his eternal reward.

1304 14. Fear of hell is not supernatural.

1305 15. Attrition, which is conceived through a fear ofhell and punishments, with a love of benevolence for God in Himself, isnot a good and supernatural motive.

1306 16. Neither the policy nor institution of the Church hasintroduced the order of placing satisfaction before absolution, but thelaw and prescription of Christ, since the nature of the thing in a waydemands that very order.

1307 17. By that practice of absolving first the order of penance is inverted.

1308 18. The modern custom as regards the administration of thesacrament of penance, even if the authority of many men sustains it andlong duration confirms it, is nevertheless not considered by the Churchas a usage but as an abuse.

1309 19 Man ought to do penance during his whole life for original sin.

1310 20. Confessions made to religious are generally either sacrilegious or invalid.

1311 21. The parish priest can suspect mendicants who live on commonalms, of imposing too light and unsuitable a penance or satisfactionbecause of the advantage or gain of some temporal aid.

1312 22. They are to be judged sacrilegious who claim the right toreceive Communion before they have done worthy penance for their sins.

1313 23. Similarly, they must be prevented from Holy Communion, who have not yet a pure love of God, without any admixture.

1314 24. The oblation in the Temple, which was made by the BlessedVirgin Mary on the day of her purification by means of two turtledoves, one for a holocaust and the other for sins, sufficientlytestifies that she was in need of purification, and that her Son (whowas being offered) was also stained with the stain of His mother,according to the words of the law.

1315 25. It is unlawful to place in a Christian temple an image of God the Father [Viva: sedentis, sitting].

1316 26. Praise which is offered to Mary, as Mary, is vain.

1317 27. Sometimes baptism is valid when conferred under this form: "Inthe name of the Father, etc. . . . ," omitting these words: "I baptizethee."

1318 28. Baptism is valid when conferred by a minister who observes allthe external rite and form of baptizing, but within his heart resolves,I do not intend what the Church does.

1319 29. Futile and many times refuted is the assertion about theauthority of the Roman Pontiff being superior to that of an ecumenicalCouncil and about his infallibility in deciding questions of faith.

1320 30. When anyone finds a doctrine clearly established in Augustine,he can absolutely hold and teach it, disregarding any bull of the pope.

1321 31. The Bull of Urban VIII, "In Eminenti," is false.*

Condemned and prohibited asrash, scandalous, evil-sounding,injurious, close to heresy, smacking of heresy, erroneous, schismatic,and heretical respectively.

Articles (Erroneous) of the Gallican Clergy

(about the Power of the Roman Pontiff) *

[Declared void in Constit., "Inter multiplices," Aug. 4, 1690]

1322 1.To blessed Peter and his successors the vicars of Christ, and tothe Church herself power over spiritual things and over thosepertaining to eternal salvation has been given by God, but not powerover civil and temporal affairs, since the Lord said: "My Kingdom isnot of this world" [John 18:36], and again: "Render therefore to Caesarthe things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's"[Luke 20:25], and hence the statement of the Apostle: "Let every soulbe subject to higher powers: for there is no power but from God: andthose that are, are ordained of God. Therefore he that resisteth thepower, resisteth the ordinance of God" [ Rom. 13:1 f.]. Therefore, bythe command of God, kings and princes cannot be subject toecclesiastical power in temporal affairs, nor can they be deposed bythe authority of the keys of the Church, either directly or indirectly;nor can their subjects be released from loyalty and obedience and befreed from fulfilling their oath of allegiance; and this opinion, whichis necessary for public tranquillity, and vhich is no less useful tothe Church than to the Empire, must by every means be retained as beingin harmony with the Word of God, the tradition of the Fathers, and theexamples of the saints.*

1323 2. So there is in the Apostolic See and in the successors ofPeter, the vicars of Christ, such full power over spiritual things thatthe decree concerning the authority of the General Councils which arecontained* in the fourth and fifth sessions of the sacred ecumenicalCouncil of Constance are valid, and at the same time always remainunchanged, since these decrees have been approved by the Apostolic Seeand confirmed by the use of the Roman Pontiffs themselves, and by thewhole Church and have been observed by the Gallican Church incontinuous religious worship; and they are not to be approved by theGallican Church who destroy the force of these decrees, as if they wereof doubtful authority or have been less approved, or who distort thewords of the Council in accordance only with the time of the schism.

1324 3. Hence the use of the apostolic power must be moderated by thecanons which have been established by the Spirit of God and consecratedby the reverence of the whole world; likewise, the rules, customs, andinstitutes accepted by the kingdom and the Gallican Church are valid,and the limitations of the Fathers remain unshaken; and this pertainsto the fullness of the Apostolic See, namely, that these statutes andcustoms, confirmed by the consent of both so great a See and of theChurches, retain their proper stability.

1325 4. In questions of faith also, the duties of the Supreme Pontiffare principal ones, and his decrees pertain to all and individualchurches, and yet this judgment is not unalterable unless the consentof the Church has been added to it.

Concernig these statements Alexander VIII decreed as follows:

1326 "Each and everything that was considered and decreed in theabove mentioned assemblies of the Gallican clergy held in the year1682, both in regard to the extension of the right ofregaliaand thedeclaration concerning the ecclesiastical power and the fourpropositions contained in that declaration, with all and individualmandates, judgments, and confirmations, declarations, epistles, edicts,and decrees edited and published by whatsoever persons, ecclesiasticalor lay, in whatever way qualified, and no matter what authority andpower they enjoy, even the power which requires individualmention,--all these acts, we declare, by the tenor of these letters, tohave been from the very beginning, to be now, and always to be, byright itself, null and void, invalid, useless, entirely and whollylacking in strength and effectiveness, and that no one is bound totheir observance or to the observance of any one of them, even if theyhave been reinforced by an oath."

INNOCENT XII 1691-1700

Errors Concerning the Most Pure Love of God *

[Condemned in the brief "Cum alias," March 12, 1699]

1327 1. There is an habitual state of the love of God, which is purecharity and without any admixture of the motive of one's personalinterest. Neither fear of punishment nor desire of reward any longerhas a share in it. God is no longer loved for the sake of merit, norbecause of one's own perfection, nor because of the happiness to befound in loving Him.

1328 2. In the state of the contemplative or unitive life, every interested motive of fear and hope is lost.

1329 3. That which is essential in the direction of a soul is to donothing else than to follow grace, step by step with infinite patience,precaution, and subtlety. One should restrain himself within theselimits so that God may be permitted to act, and he should never aspireto pure love, except when God by an interior unction begins to open theheart to this word, which is so hard for souls heretofore attached toself, and can therefore scandalize them or cause them confusion.

1330 4. In the state of holy indifference, a soul no longer hasvoluntary and deliberate desires for its own interest, with theexception of those occasions on which it does not faithfully cooperatewith the whole of its grace

1331 5. In the same state of holy indifference we wish nothing forourselves, all for God. We do not wish that we be perfect and happy forself interest, but we wish all perfection and happiness only in so faras it pleases God to bring it about that we wish for these states bythe impression of His grace.

1332 6. In this state of holy indifference we no longer seek salvationas our own salvation, as our eternal liberation, as a reward of ourmerits, nor as the greatest of all our interests, but we wish it withour whole will as the glory and good pleasure of God, as the thingwhich He wishes, and which He wishes us to wish for His sake.

1333 7. Dereliction is nothing else than the abnegation or renunciationof oneself, which Jesus Christ requires of us in the Gospel, after wehave left all external things. This denial of ourselves is only withregard to our own interest. . . . The extreme trials in which thisabnegation or dereliction of self must be exercised are the temptationsby means of which a jealous God seeks to purify love, by holding out toit no refuge, nor any hope for its welfare, even eternal.

1334 8. All sacrifices, which are wont to be made by souls who are asdisinterested as possible about their eternal happiness, areconditional. . . . But this sacrifice cannot be absolute in theordinary state. Only in the case of extreme trials does this sacrificebecome in some manner absolute.

1335 9. In extreme trials a soul can be invincibly persuaded by areflex persuasion (and this is not the deep foundation of conscience)that it has been justly rejected by God.

1336 10. Then a soul separated from itself expires with Christ on theCross, saying: "My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken me?" [Matt.27:46]. In this involuntary expression of despair there is completedthe absolute sacrifice of one's own interest in so far as eternity isconcerned.

1337 11. In this state a soul loses all hope of its own interest;but never does it lose in its higher part, that is in its direct andinner acts, a perfect hope, which is a disinterested longing for thepromises.

1338 12. Then a director can permit this soul to acquiesce simplyin the loss of its own interest, and in the just condemnation which itbelieves has been enjoined on it by God.

1339 13. The inferior part of Christ on the Cross did not communicate his involuntary disturbances to his superior part.

1340 14. In the extreme trials for the purification of love theretakes place a certain separation of the upper part of the soul from thelower. . . . In that separation the acts of the lower part flow from acompletely blind and involuntary disturbance, for, whatever isvoluntary and intellectual is of the higher part.

1341 15. Meditation consists of discursive acts which are easilydistinguished from one another. . . . The putting together of thediscursive and reflex acts is the proper exercise of an interested love.

1342 16. There is a state of contemplation so sublime and so perfectthat it becomes habitual; so that, as often as a soul actually prays,its prayer is contemplative, not discursive. Then it no longer needs toreturn to meditation and to its methodical acts.

1343 17. Contemplative souls are deprived of a distinct, sensible, andreflex vision of Jesus Christ at two different times: first, in thenewborn fervor of their contemplation; secondly, when the soul losesthe vision of Jesus Christ in extreme trials.

1344 18. In the passive state all the distinct virtues are exercisedwithout any thought that they are virtues. At every moment no otherthought is in the mind than to do that which God wishes, and a zealouslove likewise brings it about that no one any longer desires virtue forhimself nor is he ever so endowed with virtue as when he is no longerattached to virtue.

1345 19.In this sense it can be said that a soul in a passive anddisinterested state no longer wishes even love itself, in so far as itis its perfection and its happiness, but only in so far as it is thatwhich God wishes of us.

1346 20. In confession transformed souls must detest their sins andcondemn themselves, and desire the remission of their sins not as apersonal purification and liberation, but as the thing which God willsand which He wills us to will because of His glory.

1347 21. Holy mystics have excluded from the state of transformed souls the practices of virtues.

1348 22. Although this doctrine (about pure love) was designateda pure and simple evangelical perfection in universal tradition, theancient pastors did not propose it indiscriminately to the multitude ofthe just, unless the practice of their interested love wasproportionate to their grace.

1349 23. Pure love itself alone constitutes the whole interiorlife; and thence arises the only principle and the only motive of allacts which are deliberate and meritorious.

Condemned and rejected as, either in the obvious sense of thesewords, or in the extended meaning of the thoughts, rash, scandalous,ill-sounding, offensive to pious ears, pernicious, and likewiseerroneous in practice.

CLEMENT XI 1700-1721

Concerning Truths which Necessarily Must be Explicitly Believed *

[Response of the Sacred Office to the Bishop of

Quebec, Jan. 25, 1703]

1349a Whether a minister is bound, before baptism is conferred on anadult, to explain to him all the mysteries of our faith, especially ifhe is at the point of death, because this might disturb his mind. Or,whether it is sufficient, if the one at the point of death will promisethat when he recovers from the illness, he will take care to beinstructed, so that he may put into practice what has been commandedhim.

Resp.A promise is not sufficient, but a missionary is bound toexplain to an adult, even a dying one who is not entirelyincapacitated, the mysteries of faith which are necessary by anecessity of means, as are especially the mysteries of the Trinity andthe Incarnation.

[Response of the Sacred Office, May 10, 1703]

1349b Whether it is possible for a crude and uneducated adult, as itmight be with a barbarian, to be baptized, if there were given to himonly an understanding of God and some of His attributes, especially Hisjustice in rewarding and in punishing, according to this remark of theApostle "He that cometh to God must believe that he is and that he is arewarder'; [Heb . 11:23], from which it is inferred that a barbarianadult, in a certain case of urgent necessity, can be baptized althoughhe does not believe explicitly in Jesus Christ.

Resp. Amissionary should not baptize one who does not believeexplicitly in the Lord Jesus Christ, but is bound to instruct him aboutall those matters which are necessary, by a necessity of means, inaccordance with the capacity of the one to be baptized.

An Obsequious Silence in Regard to Dogmatic Facts *

[From the Constitution, "Vineam Domini Sabaoth," July 16. 1705]

1350 (Sec. 6 or 25) In order that, for the future, every occasion oferror may be prevented, and that all sons of the Catholic Church maylearn to listen to the Church herself, not in silence only (for, "eventhe wicked are silent in darkness"[ 1 Samuel 2:9]), but with aninterior obedience, which is the true obedience of an orthodox man, letit be known that by this constitution of ours, to be valid forever, theobedience which is due to the aforesaid apostolic constitutions is notsatisfied by any obsequious silence; but the sense of that book ofJansen which has been condemned in the five propositions (see n. 1092ff.) mentioned above, and whose meaning the words of those propositionsexpress clearly, must be rejected and condemned as heretical by all thefaithful of Christ, not only by word of mouth but also in heart; andone may not lawfully subscribe to the above formula with any othermind, heart, or belief, so that all who hold or preach or teach orassert by word or writing anything contrary to what all thesepropositions mean, and to what each single one means we declare,decree, state, and ordain, with this same apostolic authority, thatall, as transgressors of the aforementioned apostolic constitutions,come under each and every individual censure and penalty of thoseconstitutions.

Errors of Paschasius Quesnel *

[Condemned in the dogmatic Constitution, "Unigenitus," * Sept. 8, 1713]

1351 (Sec. 3) 1. What else remains for the soul that has lost Godand His grace except sin and the consequences of sin, a proud povertyand a slothful indigence, that is, a general impotence for labor, forprayer, and for every good work?

1352 2. The grace of Jesus Christ, which is the efficaciousprinciple of every kind of good, is necessary for every good work;without it, not only is nothing done, but nothing can be done.

1353 3. In vain, O Lord, do You command, if You do not give what you command.

1354 4. Thus, O Lord, all things are possible to him for whom You makeall things possible by effecting those same things in him.

1355 5. When God does not soften a heart by the interior unctionof His grace, exterior exhortations and graces are of no service exceptto harden it the more.

1356 6. The difference between the Judaic dispensation and theChristian is this, that in the former God demanded flight from sin anda fulfillment of the Law by the sinner, leaving him in his ownweakness; but in the latter, God gives the sinner what He commands, bypurifying him with His grace.

1357 7. What advantage was there for a man in the old covenant, inwhich God left him to his own weakness, by imposing on him His law? Butwhat happiness is it not to be admitted to a convenant in which Godgives us what He asks of us?

1358 8. But we do not b long to the new covenant, except in sofar as we are participators in that new grace which works in us thatwhich God commands us.

1359 9. The grace of Christ is a supreme grace, without which we can never confess Christ, and with which we never deny Him.

1360 10. Grace is the working of the omnipotent hand of God, which nothing can hinder or retard.

1361 11. Grace is nothing else than the omnipotent Will of God, ordering and doing what He orders.

1362 12. When God wishes to save a soul, at whatever time and at whatever place, the undoubted effect follows the Will of God.

1363 13. When God wishes to save a soul and touches it with the interior hand of His grace, no human will resists Him.

1364 14. Howsoever remote from salvation an obstinate sinner is,when Jesus presents Himself to be seen by him in the salutary light ofHis grace, the sinner is forced to surrender himself, to have recourseto Him, and to humble himself, and to adore his Savior.

1365 15. When God accompanies His commandment and His eternalexhortation by the unction of His Spirit and by the interior force ofHis grace, He works that obedience in the heart that He is seeking.

1366 16. There are no attractions which do not yield to the attractions of grace, because nothing resists the Almighty.

1367 17. Grace is that voice of the Father which teaches men interiorlyand makes them come to Jesus Christ; whoever does not come to Him,after he has heard the exterior voice of the Son, is in no wise taughtby the Father.

1368 18. The seed of the word, which the hand of God nourishes, always brings forth its fruit.

1369 19. The grace of God is nothing else than His omnipotent Will;this is the idea which God Himself gives us in all His Scriptures.

1370 20. The true idea of grace is that God wishes Himself to be obeyedby us and He is obeyed; He commands, and all things are done; He speaksas the Lord, and all things are obedient to Him.

1371 21. The grace of Jesus Christ is a strong, powerful, supreme,invincible grace, that is, the operation of the omnipotent Will, theconsequence and imitation of the operation of God causing theincarnation and the resurrection of His Son.

1372 22. The harmony of the all powerful operation of God in the heartof man with the free consent of man's will is demonstrated, therefore,to us in the Incarnation, as in the fount and archetype of all otheroperations of mercy and grace, all of which are as gratuitous and asdependent on God as the original operation itself.

1373 23. God Himself has taught us the idea of the omnipotent workingof His grace, signifying it by that operation which produces creaturesfrom nothing and which restores life to the dead.

1374 24. The right idea which the centurion had about the omnipotenceof God and of Jesus Christ in healing bodies by a single act of Hiswill, [Matt. 8:8] is an image of the idea we should have about theomnipotence of His grace in healing souls from cupidity.

1375 25. God illumines the soul, and heals it, as well asthe body, by His will only; He gives orders and He is obeyed.

1376 26. No graces are granted except through faith.

1377 27. Faith is the first grace and the source of all others.

1378 28. The first grace which God grants to the sinner Is the remission of sin.

1379 29. Outside of the Church, no grace is granted.

1380 30. All whom God wishes to save through Christ, are infallibly saved.

1381 31. The desires of Christ always have their effect; He brings peace to the depth of hearts when He desires it for them.

1382 32. Jesus Christ surrendered Himself to death to free forever fromthe hand of the exterminating angel, by His blood, the first born, thatis, the elect.

1383 33. Ah, how much one ought to renounce earthly goods andhimself for this, that he may have the confidence of appropriating, soto speak, Christ Jesus to himself, His love, death, and mysteries, asSt. Paul does, when he says: "He who loved me, and delivered Himselffor me" [Gal.2:20].

1384 34. The grace of Adam produced nothing except human merit.

1385 35. The grace of Adam is a consequence of creation and was due to his whole and sound nature.

1386 36. The essential difference between the grace of Adam and of hisstate of innocence and Christian grace, is that each one would havereceived the first in his own person, but the second is not receivedexcept in the person of the risen Jesus Christ to whom we are united.

1387 37. The grace of Adam by sanctifying him in himself wasproportionate to him; Christian grace, by sanctifying us in JesusChrist, is omnipotent, and worthy of the Son of God.

1388 38. Without the grace of the Liberator, the sinner is not free except to do evil.

1389 39. The will, which grace does not anticipate, has no light exceptfor straying, no eagerness except to put itself in danger, no strengthexcept to wound itself, and is capable of all evil and incapable of allgood.

1390 40. Without grace we can love nothing except to our own condemnation.

1391 41. All knowledge of God, even natural knowledge, even inthe pagan philosophers, cannot come except from God; and without graceknowledge produces nothing but presumption, vanity, and opposition toGod Himself, instead of the affections of adoration, gratitude, andlove.

1392 42. The grace of Christ alone renders a man fit for the sacrificeof faith; without this there is nothing but impurity, nothing butunworthiness.

1393 43. The first effect of baptismal grace is to make us die to sinso that our spirit, heart, and senses have no more life for sin than adead man has for the things of the world.

1394 44. There are but two loves, from which all our volitions andactions arise: love of God, which does all things because of God andwhich God rewards; and the love with which we love ourselves and theworld, which does not refer to God what ought to be referred to Him,and therefore becomes evil.

1395 45. When love of God no longer reigns in the heart of sinners, itneeds must be that carnal desire reign in it and corrupt all of itsactions.

1396 46. Cupidity or charity makes the use of the senses good or evil.

1397 47. Obedience to the law ought to flow from the source, and thissource is charity. When the love of God is the interior principle ofobedience and the glory of God is its end, then that is pure whichappears externally; otherwise, it is but hypocrisy and false justice.

1398 48. What else can we be except darkness, except aberration, andexcept sin, without the light of faith, without Christ, and withoutcharity?

1399 49. As there is no sin without love of ourselves, so there is no good work without love of God.

1400 50. In vain we cry out to God: MyFather,if it is not the spirit of charity which cries out.

1401 51. Faith justifies when it operates, but it does not operate except through charity.

1402 52. All other means of salvation are contained in faith as intheir own germ and seed; but this faith does not exist apart from loveand confidence.

1403 53. Only charity in the Christian way makes (Christian actions) through a relation to God and to Jesus Christ.

1404 54. It is charity alone that speaks to God; it alone that God hears.

1405 55. God crowns nothing except charity; he who runsthrough any other incentive or any other motive, runs in vain.

1406 56. God rewards nothing but charity; for charity alone honors God.

1407 57. All fails a sinner, when hope fails him; and there is no hope in God, when there is no love of God.

1408 58. Neither God nor religion exists where there is no charity.

1409 59. The prayer of the impious is a new sin; and what God grants to them is a new judgment against them.

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1410 60. If fear of punishment alone animates penance, the more intense this is, the more it leads to despair.

1411 61. Fear restrains nothing but the hand, but the heart is addictedto the sin as long as it is not guided by a love of justice.

1412 62. He who does not refrain from evil except through fear ofpunishment, commits that evil in his heart, and is already guiltybefore God.

1413 63. A baptized person is still under the law as a Jew, if he doesnot fulfill the law, or if he fulfills it from fear alone.

1414 64. Good is never done under the condemnation of the law, becauseone sins either by doing evil or by avoiding it only through fear.

1415 65. Moses, the prophets, priests, and doctors of the Law diedwithout having given any son to God, since they produced only slavesthrough fear.

1416 66. He who wishes to approach to God, should not come to Him withbrutal passions, nor be led to Him by natural instinct, or through fearas animals, but through faith and love, as sons.

1417 67. Servile fear does not represent God to itself except as a stern imperious, unjust, unyielding master.

1418 68. The goodness of God has shortened the road to salvation, by enclosing all in faith and in prayers.

1419 69. Faith, practice of it, increase, and reward of faith, all are a gift of the pure liberality of God.

1420 70. Never does God afflict the innocent; and afflictions always serve either to punish the sin or to purify the sinner.

1421 71. For the preservation of himself man can dispense himself from that law which God established for his use.

1422 72. A mark of the Christian Church is that it is catholic,embracing all the angels of heaven, all the elect and the just onearth, and of all times.

1423 73. What is the Church except an assembly of the sons of Godabiding in His bosom, adopted in Christ, subsisting in His person,redeemed by His blood, living in His spirit, acting through His grace,and awaiting the grace of the future life?

1424 74. The Church or the whole Christ has the Incarnate Word as head, but all the saints as members.

1425 75. The Church is one single man composed of many members,of which Christ is the head, the life, the subsistence and the person;it is one single Christ composed of many saints, of whom He is thesanctifier

1426 76. There is nothing more spacious than the Church of God;because all the elect and the just of all ages comprise it.

1427 77. He who does not lead a life worthy of a son of God and amember of Christ, ceases interiorly to have God as a Father and Christas a head.

1428 78. One is separated from the chosen people, whose figurewas the Jewish people, and whose head is Jesus Christ, both by notliving according to the Gospel and by not believing in the Gospel.

1429 79. It is useful and necessary at all times, in all places, andfor every kind of person, to study and to know the spirit, the piety,and the mysteries of Sacred Scripture.

1430 80. The reading of Sacred Scripture is for all.

1431 81. The sacred obscurity of the Word of God is no reason for the laity to dispense themselves from reading it.

1432 82. The Lord's Day ought to be sanctified by Christians withreadings of pious works and above all of the Holy Scriptures. It isharmful for a Christian to wish to withdraw from this reading.

1433 83. It is an illusion to persuade oneself that knowledge of themysteries of religion should not be communicated to women by thereading of Sacred Scriptures. Not from the simplicity of women, butfrom the proud knowledge of men has arisen the abuse of the Scriptures,and have heresies been born.

1434 84. To snatch away from the hands of Christians the New Testament,or to hold it closed against them by taking away from them the means ofunderstanding it, is to close for them the mouth of Christ.

1435 85. To forbid Christians to read Sacred Scripture, especially theGospels, is to forbid the use of light to the sons of light, and tocause them to suffer a kind of excommunication.

1436 86. To snatch from the simple people this consolation of joiningtheir voice to the voice of the whole Church is a custom contrary tothe apostolic practice and to the intention of God.

1437 87. A method full of wisdom, light, and charity is to give soulstime for bearing with humility, and for experiencing their state ofsin, for seeking the spirit of penance and contrition, and forbeginning at least to satisfy the justice of God, before they arereconciled.

1438 88. We are ignorant of what sin is and of what true penance is,when we wish to be restored at once to the possession of the goods ofwhich sin has despoiled us, and when we refuse to endure the confusionof that separation.

1439 89. The fourteenth step in the conversion of a sinner is that,after he has already been reconciled, he has the right of assisting atthe Sacrifice of the Church.

1440 90. The Church has the authority to excommunicate, so that it mayexercise it through the first pastors with the consent, at leastpresumed, of the whole body.

1441 91. The fear of an unjust excommunication should never hinder usfrom fulfilling our duty; never are we separated from the Church, evenwhen by the wickedness of men we seem to be expelled from it, aslong aswe are attached to God, to Jesus Christ, and to the Church herself bycharity.

1442 92. To suffer in peace an excommunication and an unjust anathemarather than betray truth, is to imitate St. Paul; far be it fromrebelling against authority or of destroying unity.

1443 93. Jesus sometimes heals the wounds which theprecipitous haste of the first pastors inflicted without His command.Jesus restored what they, with inconsidered zeal, cut off.

1444 94. Nothing engenders a worse opinion of the Church among herenemies than to see exercised there an absolute rule over the faith ofthe faithful, and to see divisions fostered because of matters which donot violate faith or morals.

1445 95. Truths have descended to this, that they are, as it were, aforeign tongue to most Christians, and the manner of preaching them is,as it were, an unknown idiom, so remote is the manner of preaching fromthe simplicity of the apostles, and so much above the common grasp ofthe faithful; nor is there sufficient advertence to the fact that thisdefect is one of the greatest visible signs of the weakening of theChurch and of the wrath of God on His sons.

1446 96. God permits that all powers be opposed to the preachers oftruth, so that its victory cannot be attributed to anyone except todivine grace.

1447 97. Too often it happens that those members, who are united to theChurch more holily and more strictly, are looked down upon, and treatedas if they were unworthy of being in the Church, or as if they wereseparated from Her; but, "the just man liveth by faith" [Rom. 1:17],and not by the opinion of men.

1448 98. The state of persecution and of punishment which anyoneendures as a disgraceful and impious heretic, is generally the finaltrial and is especially meritorious, inasmuch as it makes a man moreconformable to Jesus Christ.

1449 99. Stubbornness, investigation, and obstinacy in being unwillingeither to examine something or to acknowledge that one has beendeceived, daily changes into an odor, as it were, of death, for manypeople, that which God has placed in His Church to be an odor of lifewithin it, for instance, good books, instructions, holy examples, etc.

1450 100 Deplorable is the time in which God is believed to be honoredby persecution of the truth and its disciples! This time has come. . .. To be considered and treated by the ministers of religion as impiousand unworthy of all commerce with God, as a putrid member capable ofcorrupting everything in the society of saints, is to pious men a moreterrible death than the death of the body. In vain does anyone flatterhimself on the purity of his intentions and on a certain zeal forreligion, when he persecutes honest men with fire and sword, if he isblinded by his own passion or carried away by that of another onaccount of which he does not want to examine anything. We frequentlybelieve that we are sacrificing an impious man to God, when we aresacrificing a servant of God to the devil.

1451 101. Nothing is more opposed to the spirit of God and to thedoctrine of Jesus Christ than to swear common oaths in Church, becausethis is to multiply occasions of perjury, to lay snares for the weakand inexperienced, and to cause the name and truth of God to servesometimes the plan of the wicked.

Declared and condemnedas false, captious, evil-sounding,offensive to pious ears, scandalous, pernicious, rash, injurious to theChurch and her practice, insulting not only to the Church but also thesecular powers, seditious, impious, blasphemous, suspected of heresy,and smacking of heresy itself, and, besides, favoring heretics andheresies, and also schisms, erroneous, close to heresy, many timescondemned, and finally heretical, clearly renewing many heresiesrespectively and most especially those which are contained in theinfamous propositions of Jansen, and indeed accepted in that sense inwhich these have been condemned.

INNOCENT XIII 1721-1724 BENEDICT XIII 1724-1730

CLEMENT XII 1730-1740

BENEDICT XIV 1740-1758

Clandestine Marriages in Belgium (and Holland) *

[From the Declaration, "Matrimonia, quae in locis," Nov. 4, 1741]

1452 Marriages which are wont to be entered into in placessubject to the dominion of the Federated Orders in Belgium, whetherbetween heretics on both sides, or between an heretical man on one sideand a Catholic woman on the other, or, viceversa, without havingobserved the form prescribed by the Sacred Council of Trent, whethersuch marriages are valid or not has been for a long time greatlydisputed in the minds of men, and there are divided and diverseopinions; a situation which has furnished a rather fruitful source ofanxiety and the seed of danger for many years, especially sincebishops, parish priests, and missionaries of these regions have nocertainty in regard to the matter and do not dare to decree and todeclare anything without consulting the Holy See. .

1453 (1) Our Most Holy Father, having taken time to ponder the matter,recently enjoined that this declaration and instruction be set down,which should be employed hereafter as a definite rule and norm by allBelgian bishops, priests, and missionaries of these regions, and vicarsapostolic, in matters of this kind.

1454 (2) Namely, first, in regard to marriages celebrated betweenheretics in places subject to the authority of the Federated Orders,which did not observe the form prescribed by Trent, although HisHoliness knows that at other times, in certain particular cases and incircumstances attendant and explained at the time, the SacredCongregation of the Council has said that they are invalid;nevertheless, His Holiness, being equally certain that nothing has beengenerally or universally defined by the Apostolic See regardingmarriages of this kind, and, on the other hand, that, in order tofurnish advice to all the faithful residing in those places and toavert more grave disorders, he ought to declare what must be generallyheld regarding such marriages, after giving mature consideration to thematter, and sedulously balancing all the weighty reasons pro and con,has declared and decreed that marriages which have been contracted upto now, and which will be contracted hereafter in the said federatedprovinces of Belgium between heretics, even if the form prescribed byTrent shall not have been observed in their celebration, provided noother canonical impediment interferes, are to be considered as valid,and furthermore, if it should happen that each spouse be received intothe bosom of the Catholic Church, they are held bound by the sameconjugal tie as before, even if their mutual consent is not renewedbefore the Catholic priest; but, if only one of the spouses, either manor woman, should be converted, neither can, as long as the other isliving, enter into another marriage.

1455 (3) Now as regards those marriages which likewise in thesame federated provinces of Belgium are contracted by Catholics withheretics without the form established by Trent, whether a Catholic mantakes an heretical woman in marriage, or a Catholic woman marries anheretical man; grieving very much that there are among Catholics thosewho, becoming shamefully deranged by a mad love, do not wholeheartedlyabhor and think that they should refrain from these detestablemarriages which Holy Mother Church has continually condemned andinterdicted, and praising greatly the zeal of those bishops, who, byproposing severe penalties, endeavor to restrain Catholics from unitingthemselves to heretics in this sacrilegious bond, His Holinessencourages, exhorts, and advises seriously and gravely all bishops,vicars apostolic, parish priests, missionaries, and every otherfaithful minister of God and of the Church who reside in those regions,to deter, in so far as they can, Catholics of both sexes from enteringinto marriages of this kind to the destruction of their own souls, andto make it their business to avert in every good way and efficaciouslyto hinder these same marriages. But if by chance some marriage of thissort, without observing the Tridentine form, has already beencontracted there, or may be contracted in the future (which Godforbid!), His Holiness declares that such a marriage, provided that noother canonical impediment exists, must be considered valid, and thatneither of the spouses, as long as the other one lives, can in any wayenter into a new marriage under the pretext that the prescribed formwas not observed; that the Catholic spouse, whether man or woman,should especially bear this in mind, that in proportion to the verygrave fault he has committed he should do penance and ask pardon fromGod, and should try, in proportion to his strength, to draw the otherspouse, who is straying from the true faith, back to the bosom of theCatholic Church, and to win her or his soul, which indeed would be avery excellent means of obtaining pardon for the crime committed,knowing besides, as has just been said, that he will be perpetuallybound by the bond of that marriage.

1456 (4) In addition, the Holy See declares that whatever up tonow has been sanctioned and pronounced about marriages, either betweenheretics or between Catholics and heretics, in those regions subject tothe rule of the Federated Orders in Belgium, is likewise sanctioned andpronounced for similar marriages contracted outside the limits of thedominion of these same Federated Orders by those who have been assignedto the legions, or military forces which are customarily sent by thesesame Federated Orders to guard and to defend the frontier partscommonly called diBarriera; sothat, indeed, marriages entered intothere without the Tridentine form between heretics on both sides, orbetween Catholics and heretics, retain their validity, provided thespouse in each case belongs to these same military forces or legions;and His Holiness wishes this declaration to include also the city ofMosa Traiectensis, which is possessed by the Commonwealth of theFederated Orders, not, however, by right of dominion, but only underthe name of a pledge, as they say.

1457 (5) Finally, in regard to marriages which are contractedeither in the regions of Catholic princes by those who have a domicilein the federated provinces, or in the federated provinces by those whohave a domicile in the regions of Catholic princes, His Holiness hasthought that nothing new should be decreed and declared, wishing thatwhenever a dispute arises concerning them, they be decided according tothe canonical principles of the common law, and by the resolutionapproved in similar cases at other times and published by the SacredCongregation of the Council, and so he has declared and decreed andcommanded that it be observed by all for the future.

The Minister of Confirmation *

[From the Constitution, "Etsi Pastoralis," for Italian-Greeks, May 26, 1742]

1458 (3) Let Latin bishops unconditionally confirm infants or othersbapsized in their dioceses and signed on the forehead with chrism byGreek priests, since neither by our predecessors nor by us has thefaculty been granted, nor is it granted to Greek priests in Italy andthe adjacent islands to confer the sacrament of confirmation onbaptized infants. . . . *

Profession of Faith which Is Prescribed for Orientals (Maronites)*

[From the Constitution, "Nuper ad nos.,, March 16. 1743]

1459 5. . . . I, N., with firm faith, etc. I believe in one, etc., [as in the Nicene-Constantinople Creed, see n. 86, 994].

1460 I revere also and accept the universal Synods as follows, namely;The first Nicean [see n. 54 ], and I profess what has been defined init against Arius of execrable memory, that the Lord Jesus Christ is theSon of God, the only-begotten Son of the Father, who is born of thesubstance of the Father, not made, that He is consubstantial with theFather, that those impious statements have been rightly condemned inthe same Synod, such as: "That at some time He did not exist," or,"that He was made of those things which are not, or of some othersubstance or essence," or, "that the Son of God is mutable orchangeable."

1461 The first Constantinople, second in order [see n. 85 f.], and Iprofess that which was defined in it against Macedonius of execrablememory that the Holy Spirit is not a servant but Lord, not a creaturebut God, and possessing the one divinity with the Father and the Son.

1462 The first Ephesian [see n. III a f.], third in order, and Iprofess that which was defined against Nestorius of execrable memory,that divinity and humanity by an ineffable and incomprehensible unionin the one person of the Son of God have constituted for us one JesusChrist, and that for this reason the most Blessed Virgin is truly theMother of God.

1463 Chalcedon [see n. 148], fourth in order, and I profess that whichwas defined against Eutyches and Dioscorus, both of execrable memory,that the one and same Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, was perfect indivinity and perfect in humanity, true God and true man consisting ofrational soul and body, consubstantial with the Father in regard to Hisdivinity, and consubstantial with us in regard to His humanity, in allthings similar to us, without sin; that before time He was born of theFather according to divinity, but that in these latter days the sameOne, for us and for our salvation, was born of the Virgin Mary, Motherof God, according to humanity, and that the one same Christ, Son, Lord,Only-begotten must be recognized in the two natures without confusion,immutably, indivisibly, inseparably, never removing the difference ofthe natures because of their union, and preserving the peculiarcharacter of each nature joined in one Person and substance; that thissame Lord is not separated and divided into two persons, but is one andthe same Son and Only-begotten God, the Word, the Lord Jesus Christ:likewise that the divinity of our same Lord Jesus Christ, according towhich He is consubstantial with the Father and the Holy Spirit, isimpassible and immortal; moreover, the same Lord was crucified and diedonly in the flesh, as was also defined in the said Synod and in theletter of St. Leo, the Roman Pontiff [cf. n.143 f.], by whose mouth,the Fathers in the same Synod declared that Blessed Peter the Apostlespoke, and by this definition there is condemned also that impiousheresy of those who, when the Trisagion transmitted by the angels wasbeing sung in the aforementioned Synod of Chalcedon: "Holy God, strongGod, immortal God, have mercy on us," added these words: "Who wascrucified for us," and thereby asserted that the divine nature of thethree Persons was passible and mortal.

1464 Second Council of Constantinople [see n. 212 ff.], fifth in order,in which the definition of the aforementioned Synod of Chalcedon wasrenewed.

1465 Third Council of Constantinople [see n.289 ff.], sixth in order,and I profess what was defined in it against the Monothelites, that inour one same Lord, Jesus Christ, there are two natural wills and twonatural operations without division, change, separation, or confusion,and that His human will is not contrary to, but subject to His divineand omnipotent will.

1466 Second Nicean Council [see n. 302 ff.], seventh in order,and I profess what was defined in it against the Iconoclasts, thatimages of Christ and of the Virgin Mother of God, as well as of othersaints, should be kept and retained, and that due honor and venerationshould be given.to them

1467 The fourth of Constantinople [see n. 336 ff.], eighth inorder, and I profess that in it Photius was rightly condemned, and thatSaint Ignatius, the Patriarch, was rightly reinstated (restored).

1468 I venerate also and accept all the other universal Synods whichhave been lawfully held and confirmed by the authority of the RomanPontiff, and especially the Synod of Florence; [there follows what isgathered and excerpted as far as the meaning goes from the decree onthe union of the Greeks (namely, n.691-693), and from the decree forthe Armenians (see n. 712 f.), of the Council of Florence]. . . .

1469 Likewise, I revere and accept the Council of Trent [see n. 782ff.], and I profess what was defined and declared in it, and especiallythat there is offered to God in the Mass a true, proper, andpropitiatory sacrifice, for the living and the dead, and that in theMost Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist, in accordance with the faith thathad always been in the Church of God, there is contained truly, really,and substantially the body and blood together with the soul anddivinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and hence the whole Christ, and thatthere is made a change of the whole substance of the bread into thebody, and of the whole substance of the wine into the blood, whichchange the Catholic Church most fittingly calls transubstantiation, andthat under each species and in each single part of each species, when adivision is made, the whole Christ is contained.

1470 Likewise, I profess that there are seven sacraments of the New Lawinstituted by Christ, our Lord, for the salvation of the human race,although not all of them are necessary for each individual: namely,baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, andmatrimony; and (I profess) that these confer grace, and that of these,baptism, confirmation, and orders cannot be repeated without sacrilege.Likewise (I profess) that baptism is necessary for salvation, andhence, if there is imminent danger of death, it should be conferred atonce and without delay, and that it is valid if conferred with theright matter and form and intention by anyone, and at any time.Likewise (I profess) that the bond of the sacrament of matrimony isindissoluble, and that, although a separation of bed and board may bepossible between the Spouses because of adultery, heresy, and someother causes, nevertheless it is not lawful for them to contractanother marriage

1471 Likewise, (I profess) that the apostolic and ecclesiasticaltraditions must be accepted and revered; also, that power of grantingindulgences has been left to the Church of Christ, and that their useis very salutary for Christian people.

1472 Likewise, I accept and profess what was defined in the aforesaidSynod of Trent about original sin, about justification, about the listand interpretation of the sacred books of both the New Testament andthe Old [cf. n. 787 ff., 783 ff.]

1473 Likewise, all other things I accept and profess, which theHoly Roman Church accepts and professes, and I likewise condemn,reject, and anathematize, at the same time all contrary things, bothschisms and heresies, which have been condemned, rejected, andanathematized by the same Church. In addition, I promise and swear trueobedience to the Roman Pontiff, the successor of Blessed Peter, theprince of the Apostles and the vicar of Jesus Christ. And that thisfaith of the Catholic Church, without which no one can be saved, etc. .. . [as in the Tridentine profession of faith, see n. 1000 ].

About not Demanding the Name of an Accomplice*

[From the Brief, "Supreme omnium Ecclesiarum sollicitudo,"July 7, 1745]

1474 (1) For it came to our attention not so long ago that someconfessors of those parts, allowing themselves to be seduced by a falseidea of zeal, but straying far from the zeal "according to knowledge"[cf. Rom. 10:2], have begun to bring in and to introduce a certain eviland pernicious practice in hearing the confessions of the faithful ofChrist, and in administering the very saving sacrament of penance:namely, that if by chance they should happen upon penitents who have anassociate in their sin, they demand at times from these penitents thename of such an accomplice or companion, and they attempt to inducethem to reveal this to them not only by persuasion, but what is moredetestable, they directly force and compel them to reveal it, under athreat of denying them sacramental absolution; nay more, they demandthat not only the name of the accomplice be made known but also theplace of residence, and this intolerable imprudence they do nothesitate to disguise by the specious pretext of procuring thecorrection of the accomplice and of accomplishing other good effects,nor to defend it by falsifying the opinions of learned men, when, intruth, by following false and erroneous opinions of this sort, or bymaking a bad application of true and sound principles, they bringdestruction not only to their own souls but also to those of theirpenitents, and, besides, they render themselves guilty before God, theeternal judge, of many serious evils which they ought to have foreseenwould easily follow from their action. . . . (3) Moreover, in orderthat we may not seem to be lacking in our apostolic ministry to anydegree in so great a danger to souls, and so that we may not permit ourmind on this matter to be obscure or ambiguous to you, we wish you toknow that the practice mentioned above must be entirely repudiated, andthis same practice is reproved and condemned by Us through our presentletters in the form of a brief, as scandalous and dangerous, and asharmful to the reputation of one's neighbor as it is to the sacramentitself, and tending to the violation of the most sacred sacramentalseal and alienating the faithful from so advantageous and necessary ause of this same sacrament of penance.

Usury*

[From the Encyclical "Vix pervenit" to the bishops of Italy, Nov. 1, 1745]

1475 (Sec. 3), T. That species of sin which is called usury, and whichhas its proper seat and place in a contract of lending, consists inthis: that someone, from the loan itself, which of its very naturedemands that only as much be returned as was received, wishes more tobe returned to him than was received, and therefore contends that someprofit beyond the principal, by reason of the lending, is due to him.Therefore, all profit of this sort, which surpasses the principal, isunlawful and is usurious.

1476 2. Nor may any defense be summoned to justify that guilt, eitherfrom this fact, that the gain is not excessive and over much, butmoderate, is not great but meager; or from this, that he from whom thatprofit is asked, because of the loan itself, is not a poor man butrich, who is not going to leave the sum given to him as a loan idle butis going to spend it advantageously to increase his fortune either bybuying new estates or by transacting profitable business. Indeed, thatperson is convicted of acting contrary to the law of lending, whichnecessarily is concerned with the equality of what is given andreturned, who, although that same equality has already once beenrendered, does not fear to demand something more from someone, byreason of the lending itself, for which satisfaction has already beenmade on equal terms; and hence, if he should receive it, he will beobligated to restitution by reason of his obligation in justice, whichthey call commutative justice, and whose purpose it is both to preserveinviolably in human contracts the equality proper to each one, and torepair it exactly when it is not observed.

1477 3. But by this it is not at all denied that sometimes therecan perhaps occur certain other titles, as they say, together with thecontract of lend ing, and these not at all innate or intrinsic ingeneral to the nature of a loan, from which titles there arises a justand entirely legitimate cause of rightly demanding something more abovethe principal than is due from the loan. Likewise, it is not deniedthat many times one's own money can be rightly invested and expended inother contracts of a different nature from the nature of lending,either to secure an annual income for oneself, or also to practicelegitimate commerce and business, and thus procure an honest profit.

1478 4. But, just as in so many different kinds of contracts of thisnature, it is well known that if the equality of each one is notobserved, whatever is received more than is just, pertains, if not tousury (for the reason that there is no loan either open or secret),certainly does pertain to some other real injustice carrying likewisethe burden of retribution; so, also, if all things are rightlytransacted and carried out according to the scale of justice, there isno doubt that in these same contracts there occurs a multifold lawfulmanner and method of maintaining and carrying on human commerce andprofitable business itself for the common good. For, far be it fromChristian minds that they should think that, by making use of usury orsimilar harmful injustices, there could flourish a profitable commerce;since, on the contrary, we should learn from the divine proverb that"justice exalteth a nation, but sin maketh nations miserable" [ Prov.14:34].

1479 5. But this must be diligently borne in mind, that one wouldfalsely and certainly rashly persuade himself that there is alwaysfound and is everywhere present, either some legitimate titles togetherwith a loan, or, even excluding a loan, other just contracts, by theaid of which titles or contracts, it is permitted, as often as money,grain, or something of that kind is lent to another, just so often toreceive a moderate increase beyond the whole and sound principal. Andso, if anyone thinks in this manner, he will without any doubt be inopposition not only to the divine Scriptures and to the judgment of theCatholic Church about usury, but even to human common sense itself, andto natural reason. For, this at least cannot escape anyone, that inmany cases a man is bound to succor another with a pure and simple actof lending, especially when Christ the Lord teaches: "From him thatwould borrow of thee, turn not away" [ Matt. 5:42]; and that,similarly, in many circumstances, besides the loan itself, there can beplace for no other just and true contract. Whoever, therefore, iswilling to consult his conscience, ought first to inquire whether, witha loan there is truly any other just title, or, apart from a loan thereis a just contract, by reason of which the profit which he seeks may bereturned immune and free of all guilt.

The Baptism of Jewish Children *

[From the epistle "Postremo menses to the Viceregent in the City, Feb. 28, 1747]

1480 3. . . . The first point to be considered is whether Hebrewchildren can be lawfully baptized, if the parents are unwilling andreluctant. Secondly, if we say that this is unlawful, then we mustconsider whether any case might occur, in which this could not only bedone, but would be even lawful and clearly fitting. Thirdly, we mustconsider whether the baptism bestowed on Hebrew children at a time whenit is now lawful, should be considered valid or invalid. Fourthly, wemust consider what must be done when Hebrew children are brought to bebaptized, or when it is discovered that they have been admitted tosacred baptism; finally, how it can be proved that these same childrenhave already been purified by the saving waters.

1481 If there is any discussion of the first chapter of the first part,whether Hebrew children can be baptized if the parents object, weopenly assert that this has already been defined in three places by St.Thomas, namely, in Quodl. 2, a. 7; in II-II ae, q. 10, a. 12. where,recalling for examination the question proposed in the Quodlibeta:"Whether the children of Jews and of other unbelievers should bebaptized against the will of the parents," he answered thus: "I replythat it must be said that the custom of the Church has great authority,which should always be followed in all things, etc. Moreover, the usageof the Church never held that the children of Jews should be baptizedagainst their parents' wishes. . . ," and in addition he says this inIII a, q. 68, a. 10: "I reply that it must be said that children, sonsof unbelievers. . ., if they do not yet have the use of free will, are,according to the natural law, under the care of their parents, as longas they cannot provide for themselves. . ., and, therefore, it would beagainst natural justice, if such children were baptized without theparents' consent; just as if someone having the use of reason should bebaptized against his will. It would even be dangerous. . .

1482 Scotus in 4 Sent. dist. 4, q. 9, n. 2, and in questions related ton. 2, thought that a prince could laudably command that small childrenof Hebrews and unbelievers be baptized, even against the will of theparents, provided one could prudently see to it that these samechildren were not killed by the parents. . . . Nevertheless, theopinion of St. Thomas prevailed in courts . . . and is more widespreadamong theologians and those skilled in canon law *. . . .

1483 7. Therefore, this having been established, that it is unlawful tobaptize Hebrew children against the will of their parents, now,following the order proposed in the beginning, we must take up thesecond part: namely, whether any occasion could ever occur in whichthat would be lawful and fitting. . .

1484 8. . . . Since this may happen, that a child of Hebrew parentagebe found by some Christian to be close to death, he will certainlyperform a deed which I think is praiseworthy and pleasing to God, if hefurnishes the child with eternal salvation by the purifying water. . . .

1485 9. If, likewise, it should happen that any Hebrew child had beencast out and abandoned by its parents, it is the common opinion of alland has also been confirmed by many decisions, that the child ought tobe baptized, even if the parents protest against this and demand thechild back. . . .

1486 After we have explained the most obvious cases in which thisrule of ours prohibits the baptizing of Hebrew children against thewishes of their parents, we add some other declarations pertaining tothis rule, the first of which is this: If parents are lacking, but theinfants have been entrusted to the guardianship of a Hebrew, they canin no way be lawfully baptized without the assent of the guardian,since all the authority of the parents has passed to the guardians. . .. 15. The second is this, if the father should enlist in the Christianmilitia and order his infant son to be baptized, he should be baptized,even though the Hebrew mother protests, since the child must beconsidered to be, not under the power of the mother, but under that ofthe father. * . . . 16. The third is this, that although the motherdoes not have her children under her own right, nevertheless, if shebelongs to the Christian faith and offers her child for baptism,although the Hebrew father protests, nevertheless, the child should becleansed by the water of baptism. . . . 17. The fourth is that, if itis a certainty that the will of parents is necessary for the baptism ofchildren, since under the name of parent a paternal grandfather also isincluded . . ., then it necessarily follows that, if the paternalgrandfather has embraced the Catholic faith and brings his grandchildto the font of saving water, although the Hebrew mother objects, whenthe father is dead, nevertheless, the child should be baptized withouthesitation. * . . .

1487 18. It is not an imaginary case that sometimes a Hebrewfather says that he wants to embrace the Catholic religion and presentshimself and his infant sons to be baptized, but afterwards regrets hisintention and refuses to have his son baptized. This happened atMantua. . . . The case was brought for examination in the Congregationof the Holy Office, and the Pope on the 24th day of September in theyear 1699 decreed that action should be taken as follows: "HisHoliness, having listened to the wishes of the Cardinals, decreed thattwo infant sons, one three years old, the other five, be baptized. Theother children, namely a son of eight years and a daughter twelve,should be placed in the house of catechumens, if there is one atMantua, but if not, at the home of a pious and honorable person for thepurpose of finding out their will and of instructing them. . . . "

1488 19. Also some unbelievers are accustomed to bring theirchildren to Christians to be washed with the saving waters, not howeverthat they may merit the satisfactions of Christ, nor that the guilt oforiginal sin may be washed from their soul, but they do this, motivatedby some base superstition, namely because they think that by thebenefit of baptism, these same children may be freed from malignantspirits, from infection, or some illness. . . .

1489 21. Some unbelievers, when they have represented this ideato themselves, that by the grace of baptism their children will befreed from illnesses and the persecution of the demons, are brought tosuch a pass of madness that they have also threatened Catholic priestswith death. . . . But, in opposition to this belief, the Congregationof the Holy Office in the presence of the Pope on the 5th day ofSeptember, 1625, contested: "The Sacred Congregation of the generalInquisition held in the presence of His Holiness, having read theletters of the Bishop Antibarensis, in which he made supplication for asolution of the doubt written below: Whether, when priests arecompelled by Turks to baptize their children, not that they may makethem Christians, but for their bodily health, so that they may be freedfrom infection, epilepsy, the danger of bewitchment, and wolves,whether in such a case they could pretend to baptize them, making useof the matter of baptism without the prescribed form? He replied in thenegative, because baptism is the door of the sacraments and aprofession of faith, and that in no way can it be simulated. . . . "

1490 29. And so our discourse comes now to those who are presented forbaptism neither by their parents nor by others who have any right overthem, but by someone who has no authority. In addition, there is aquestion about those whose cases are not comprehended under thedispositions which permits baptism to be conferred, even if the consentof their elders is withheld. In this case, indeed, they ought not to bebaptized, but be sent back to those in whose power and trust they arelawfully placed. But, if they have been already admitted to thesacrament, either they must be detained or recovered from their Hebrewparents and handed over to the faithful of Christ, so that they may bepiously and religiously trained by them; for this is the effect ofbaptism, which,though it be unlawful, nevertheless is true and valid.

Errors Concerning Duelling *

[Condemned in the Constitution, "Detestabilem," Nov. 10, 1752]

1491 1. A military man who would be considered fearful, timid,abject, and unfit for military offices unless he offers or accepts aduel, and hence would be deprived of an office by which he supportshimself and his family, or who would be perpetually deprived of thehope of promotion otherwise due him and merited by him, is free fromguilt and penalty, whether he offers a duel or accepts one.

1492 2. Those who accept a duel, or even provoke a duel for thesake of protecting their honor, or of avoiding the disrepute of men,can be excused when they know for certain that the combat will not takeplace, inasmuch as it will be prevented by others.

1493 3. A leader or military officer who accepts a duel throughgrave fear of losing his reputation or his office, does not incur theecclesiastical penalties brought by the Church against duelists.

1494 4. It is permitted in the natural state of man to accept and tooffer a duel to preserve one's fortunes with honor, when their losscannot be prevented by any other means.

1495 5. This permission, claimed for the natural state, can also beapplied to the state of the commonwealth which is badly regulated, thatis to say, in which justice is openly denied, either because of thenegligence or the wickedness of the magistracy.

Condemned and prohibitedas false, scandalous, and pernicious.

CLEMENT XIII 1758 -- 1769 CLEMENT XIV 1769 -- 1774

PIUS VI 1775-1799

Mixed Marriages in Belgium *

[From the Rescript of Pius Vl to Card. de Franckenberg, Archbishop of Mechlin, and to the Bishops of Belgium,July 13, 1782]

1496 . . . And therefore we must not depart from the uniform opinion ofour predecessors and from ecclesiastical discipline, which do notapprove marriages between parties who are both heretics, or between aCatholic on the one hand and a heretic on the other, and this much lessin a case where there is need of a dispensation of some sort. . . .

1497 Passing now to that point about the requested assistance of parishpriests in mixed marriages, we say that if the above named admonitionto recall the Catholic party from the unlawful marriage has beenfulfilled, and nevertheless he persists in his will to contract it, andit is foreseen that the marriage will inevitably follow, then theCatholic priest can lend his material presence, nevertheless in suchwise that he is bound to observe the following precautions: First, thathe does not assist at such a marriage in a sacred place, nor clothed inany vestment betokening a sacred function, nor will he recite over thecontracting parties any prayers of the Church, and in no way shall hebless them. Secondly, that he will exact and receive from thecontracting heretic a declaration in writing, in which with an oath inthe presence of two witnesses, who also ought to sign their names, heobligates himself to permit his partner the free use of the Catholicreligion, and to educate in it all the children who shall be bornwithout any distinction of sex. . . . Thirdly, that the contractingCatholic make a declaration signed by himself and two witnesses, inwhich he promises with an oath not only never to apostatize from hisCatholic religion, but to educate in it all his future offspring, andto procure effectively the conversion of the other contractingnon-Catholic.

1498 Fourthly, that which concerns the proclamations commanded by theimperial decree, which the bishops hold to be civil rather than sacredacts, we answer: Since they have been preordained for the futurecelebration of marriage and consequently contain a positive cooperationwith it, a thing which certainly exceeds the limits of simpletolerance, we cannot consent that these be made. . . .

1499 It remains now to speak about one more point, concerning which,although we have not been expressly interrogated, nevertheless we donot think it should be passed over in silence, insomuch as, inpractice, it could too frequently happen; namely, this: Whether thecontracting Catholic, afterwards wishing to share in the sacraments,ought to be admitted to them? To this we say that as long as he shalldemonstrate that he is sorry for his sinful union, this can be grantedto him, provided he shall sincerely declare before confession that hewill procure the conversion of his heretical spouse, that he renews hispromise of educating his children in the orthodox religion, and that hewill repair the scandal he has given to the other faithful. If theseconditions obtain, we are not opposed to the Catholic party receivingthe sacraments.*

Concerning the Power of the Roman Pontiff

(Against Febronianism) *

[From the Brief, "Super soliditate," Nov. 28, 1786

1500 And since truly, as Augustine teaches,* God has placed thedoctrine of truth in the chair of unity, that unfortunate writer on thecontrary leaves nothing undone with which to harass and attack in everyway this See of Peter, in which See the Fathers have taught withunanimous agreement that that chair was established, in which aloneunity might be preserved by all; from which the rights of the venerablecommunion emanate to all the others; and to which it is necessary thatevery church and all the faithful everywhere come [cf. Vatican Council,n.1824]. He has not hesitated to call fanatic the crowd which he sawbreaking forth into these words at the sight of the Pontiff: "He is theman who has received from God the keys of the kingdom of heaven withthe power of binding and loosing, to whom no other bishop can be madeequal, from whom these very bishops receive their authority as hehimself received his supreme power from God; moreover, he is the vicarof Christ, the visible head of the Church, the supreme judge of thefaithful." Could, therefore (a thing horrible to say), that voice ofChrist have been fanatical, which promised [Matt. 16:19] Peter the keysof the kingdom of heaven with the power of binding and loosing; whichkeys Optatus Milevitanus, following Tertullian, did not hesitate toconfess that Peter alone received to be communicated to the others? Or,are so many solemn decrees of the Popes and Councils repeated so manytimes to be called fanatic, by which those have been condemned whodenied that in blessed Peter, the prince of the Apostles, hissuccessor, the Roman Pontiff, was established by God as the visiblehead of the Church and the vicar of Jesus Christ, that to him has beentransmitted full power of ruling the Church, and that true obedience isdue him from all who are considered Christians; and that such is thepower of the primacy, which he holds by divine right, that he issuperior to other bishops not only by his rank of honor but by theplenitude of his supreme power? All the more must be deplored thatblind and rash temerity of the man who was eager to renew in hisunfortunate book errors which have been condemned by so many decrees,who has said and insinuated indiscriminately by many ambiguities, thatevery bishop, no less than the pope, was called by God to govern theChurch, and was endowed with no less power; that Christ gave the samepower Himself to all the apostles; and that whatever some peoplebelieve is obtained and granted only by the pope, that very thing,whether it depends on consecration or ecclesiastical jurisdiction, canbe obtained just as well from any bishop; that Christ wished His Churchto be governed in the manner of a republic; and that, indeed, for thatgovernment there is need of a head for the good of unity, but one whodoes not dare to interfere in the affairs of others (bishops) who ruleat the same time; nevertheless, he has the privilege of exhorting thosewho are negligent to the fulfillment of their duties; that the power ofthe primacy is contained in this one prerogative, of making up for thenegligence of others, of looking after the preservation of unity byencouragement and example; that the popes have no power in anotherdiocese except in an extraordinary case; that the pope is the headbecause he holds his power and strength from the Church; that thePontiffs have made it lawful for themselves to violate the rights ofbishops, to reserve to themselves absolutions, dispensations,decisions, appeals, bestowal of benefices, in a word all other dutieswhich he enumerates one by one and derides as unjust reservations andinjurious to bishops.

The Power of the One Church in the Marriage of Baptized Persons *

[From the Epistle, "Deessemus nobis," to the Bishop of Motula, Sept. 16, 1788]

1500a It is not unknown to us that there are some, who,attributing too much to the authority of the secular princes, andcaptiously interpreting the words of this canon [see n. 982], haveundertaken to defend this: That, since the Tridentine Fathers did notmake use of this form of speaking, "to ecclesiasticaljudgesalone,"or,"allmatrimonial cases,"--they (the Tridentine Fathers)have left to lay judges the power of at least invest) gatingmatrimonial cases which are of pure fact. But we know that even thissophism and this false kind of quibbling are devoid of all foundation.For the words of the canon are so general that they embrace andcomprise all cases. Moreover, the spirit or purpose of the law extendsso widely that it leaves no place for exception or limitation. For ifthese cases pertain to the tribunal of the Church alone for no otherreason than because the marriage contract is truly and properly one ofthe seven sacraments of the evangelical law, then, just as this notionof the sacrament is common to all matrimonial cases, so all these casesought to pertain to the ecclesiastical judges alone.

Errors of the Synod of Pistoia*

[Condemned in the Constitution, "Auctorem fidei," Aug. 28, 1794]

[A.Errors about the Church *

Obscuring of Truths in the Church

[From the Decree de Grat., sec. I]

1501 1. The proposition, which asserts "that in these later timesthere has been spread a general obscuring of the more important truthspertaining to religion, which are the basis of faith and of the moralteachings of Jesus Christ,"--heretical.

The Power Attributed to the Community of the Church,

in Order That by This the Power May Be Communicated

to the Pastors

[Episcopal Convocation]

1502 2. The proposition which states "that power has been given by Godto the Church, that it might be communicated to the pastors who are itsministers for the salvation of souls"; if thus understood that thepower of ecclesiastical ministry and of rule is derived from theCOMMUNITY of the faithful to the pastors,--heretical.

The Name Ministerial Head Attributed to the Roman Pontiff

[ Decree de fide( on faith), sec. 8]

1503 3. In addition, the proposition which states "that the RomanPontiff is the ministerial head," if it is so explained that the RomanPontiff does not receive from Christ in the person of blessed Peter,but from the Church, the power of ministry, which as successor ofPeter, true vicar of Christ and head of the whole Church he possessesin the universal Church,--heretical. *

The Power of the Church for the Establishing and the Sanctioning

of Exterior Discipline

[ Decree de fide, sees. 13, 14 ]

1504 4. The proposition affirming, "that it would be a misuse of theauthority of the Church, when she transfers that authority beyond thelimits of doctrine and of morals, and extends it to exterior matters,and demands by force that which depends on persuasion and love"; andthen also, "that it pertains to it much less, to demand by forceexterior obedience to its decrees"; in so far as by those undefinedwords, "extends to exterior matters," the proposition censures as anabuse of the authority of the Church the use of its power received fromGod, which the apostles themselves used in establishing and sanctioningexterior discipline--heretical.

1505 5. In that part in which the proposition insinuates that theChurch "does not have authority to demand obedience to its decreesotherwise than by means which depend on persuasion; in so far as itintends that the Church has not conferred on it by God the power, notonly of directing by counsel and persuasion, but also of ordering bylaws, and of constraining and forcing the inconstant and stubborn byexterior judgment and salutary punishments" [from Benedict XIV in theBrief, "Ad assiduas," of the year 1755, to the Primate, Archbishops,and Bishops of the Kingdom of Poland ],--leading toward a systemcondemned elsewhere as heretical.

Rights Attributed to Bishops Beyond What is Lawful

[ Decree de ord., sec. 25 ]

1506 6. The doctrine of the synod by which it professes that "it isconvinced that a bishop has received from Christ all necessary rightsfor the good government of his diocese," just as if for the goodgovernment of each diocese higher ordinances dealing either with faithand morals, or with general discipline, are not necessary, the right ofwhich belongs to the supreme Pontiffs and the General Councils for theuniversal Church,--schismatic, at least erroneous.

1507 7. Likewise, in this, that it encourages a bishop "to pursuezealously a more perfect constitution of ecclesiastical discipline,"and this "against all contrary customs, exemptions, reservations whichare opposed to the good order of the diocese, for the greater glory ofGod and for the greater edification of the faithful"; in that itsupposes that a bishop has the right by his own judgment and will todecree and decide contrary to customs, exemptions, reservations,whether they prevail in the universal Church or even in each province,without the consent or the intervention of a higher hierarchic power,by which these customs, etc., have been introduced or approved and havethe force of law,--leading to schism and subversion of hierarchic rule,erroneous.

1508 8. Likewise, in that it says it is convinced that "the rights of abishop received from Jesus Christ for the government of the Churchcannot be altered nor hindered, and, when it has happened that theexercise of these rights has been interrupted for any reasonwhatsoever, a bishop can always and should return to his originalrights, as often as the greater good of his church demands it"; in thefact that it intimates that the exercise of episcopal rights can behindered and coerced by no higher power, whenever a bishop shall judgethat it does not further the greater good of his church,--leading toschism, and to subversion of hierarchic government, erroneous.

The Right Incorrectly Attributed to Priests of Inferior Rank

in Decrees of Faith and Discipline

[Episcopal Convocation]

1509 9. The doctrine which states, that "the reformation of abuses inregard to ecclesiastical discipline ought equally to depend upon and beestablished by the bishop and the parish priests in diocesan synods,and that without the freedom of decision, obedience would not be due tothe suggestions and orders of the bishops,'' * --false, rash, harmfulto episcopal authority, subversive of hierarchic government, favoringthe heresy of Aerius, which was renewed by Calvin [cf. Benedict XIV DeSyn. dioc.(concerning diocesan synods), 13. 1].

[From the Episcopal Convocation. From the Epistle to the

Vic. For. From the Oration to the Synod, sec. 8.

From session 3.]

1510 10. Likewise, the doctrine by which parish priests and otherpriests gathered in a synod are declared judges of faith together withthe bishop, and at the same time it is intimated that they arequalified for judgment in matters of faith by their own right and haveindeed received it by ordination,--false, rash, subversive ofhierarchic order, detracting from the strength of dogmatic definitionsor judgments of the Church, at least erroneous.

Oration to the Synod, sec. 8 ]

1511 11. The opinion enunciating that by the long-standing practice ofour ancestors, handed down even from apostolic times, preserved throughthe better ages of the Church, it has been accepted that "decrees, ordefinitions, or opinions even of the greater sees should not beaccepted, unless they had been recognized and approved by the diocesansynod,"-- false, rash, derogatory, in proportion to its generality, tothe obedience due to the apostolic constitutions, and also to theopinions emanating from the legitimate, superior, hierarchic power,fostering schism and heresy.

Calumnies Against Some Decisions in the Matter of Faith

Which Have Come Down from Several Centuries

[Faith, sec.12]

1512 12. The assertions of the synod, accepted as a whole concerningdecisions in the matter of faith which have come down from severalcenturies, which it represents as decrees originating from oneparticular church or from a few pastors, unsupported by sufficientauthority, formulated for the corruption of the purity of faith and forcausing disturbance, introduced by violence, from which wounds, stilltoo recent, have been inflicted,--false, deceitful, rash, scandalous,injurious to the Roman Pontiffs and the Church, derogatory to theobedience due to the Apostolic Constitutions, schismatic, dangerous, atleast erroneous.

The So-called Peace of Clement IX

[Oration to the Synod, sec. 2 in the note ]

1513 13. The proposition reported among the acts of the synod, whichintimates that Clement IX restored peace to the Church by the approvalof the distinction of right and deed in the subscription to theformulary written by Alexander VII (see n. 1099 ),--false, rash,injurious to Clement IX.

1514 14. In so far as it approves that distinction by extolling itssupporters with praise and by berating their opponents,--rash,pernicious, injurious to the Supreme Pontiffs, fostering schism andheresy.

The Composition of the Body of the Church

[ Appendix n.28]

1515 15. The doctrine which proposes that the Church "must beconsidered as one mystical body composed of Christ, the head, and thefaithful, who are its members through an ineffable union, by which in amarvelous way we become with Him one sole priest, one sole victim, onesole perfect adorer of God the Father, in spirit and in truth,"understood in this sense, that no one belongs to the body of the Churchexcept the faithful, who are perfect adorers in spirit and intruth,--heretical.

[B. Errors about justification, Grace, the Virtues]

The State of Innocence

[Grace, sees. 4, 7: the sacraments in general, sec. 1;

penance, sec. 4 ]

1516 16. The doctrine of the synod about the state of happyinnocence, such as it represents it in Adam before his sin, comprisingnot only integrity but also interior justice with an inclination towardGod through love of charity, and primeval sanctity restored in some wayafter the fall; in so far as, understood comprehensively, it intimatesthat that state was a consequence of creation, due to man from thenatural exigency and condition of human nature, not a gratuitous giftof God, false, elsewhere condemned in Baius [see n. 1001 ff.], and inQuesnel [see n. 1384 ff.], erroneous, favorable to the Pelagian heresy.

Immortality Viewed as a Natural Condition of Man[ Baptism, sec. 2]

1517 17. The proposition stated in these words: "Taught by the Apostle,we regard death no longer as a natural condition of man, but truly as ajust penalty for original guilt," since, under the deceitful mention ofthe name of the Apostle, it insinuates that death, which in the presentstate has been inflicted as a just punishment for sin by the justwithdrawal of immortality, was not a natural condition of man, as ifimmortality had not been a gratuitous gift, but a naturalcondition,--deceitful, rash, injurious to the Apostle, elsewherecondemned [see n. 1078 ].

The Condition of Man in the State of Nature

[On Grace, see.10]

1518 18. The doctrine of the synod stating that "after the fall ofAdam, God announced the promise of a future Redeemer and wished toconsole the human race through hope of salvation, which Jesus was tobring"; nevertheless, "that God willed that the human race should passthrough various states before the plenitude of time should come"; andfirst, that in the state of nature "man, left to his own lights, wouldlearn to distrust his own blind reason and would move himself from hisown aberrations to desire the aid of a superior light"; the doctrine,as it stands, is deceitful, and if understood concerning the desire ofthe aid of a superior light in relation to the salvation promisedthrough Christ, that man is supposed to have been able to move himselfto conceive this desire by his own proper lights remaining after thefall,--suspected, favorable to the Semipelagian heresy.

The Condition of Man under the Law

[Ibid.]

1519 19.Likewise, the doctrine which adds that under the Law man"became a prevaricator, since he was powerless to observe it, notindeed by the fault of the Law, which was most sacred, but by the guiltof man, who, under the Law, without grace, became more and more aprevaricator"; and it further adds, "that the Law, if it did not healthe heart of man, brought it about that he would recognize his evil,and, being convinced of his weakness, would desire the grace of amediator"; in this part it generally intimates that man became aprevaricator through the nonobservance of the Law which he waspowerless to observe, as if "He who is just could command somethingimpossible, or He who is pious would be likely to condemn man for thatwhich he could not avoid" (from St. Caesarius Serm. 73,in append., St.Augustine, Serm. 273,edit. Maurin; from St. August.,De nat, et "rat.,e. 43; De "rat. et lib. arb., e.16,Enarr. in psalm. 56,n. I),--falsescandalous, impious, condemned in Baius (see n. 1504).

1520 20. In that part in which it is to be understood that man, whileunder the Law and without grace, could conceive a desire for the graceof a Mediator related to the salvation promised through Christ, as if"grace itself does not effect that He be invoked by us" (from Conc.Araus. II, can. 3[ v.n.176]),--the proposition as it stands, deceitful,suspect, favorable to the Semipelagian heresy.

Illuminating and Exciting Grace

[ Grace, sec. 11 ]

1521 21. The proposition which asserts "that the light of grace, whenit is alone, effects nothing but to make us aware of the unhappiness ofour state and the gravity of our evil; that grace, in such a case,produces the same effect as the Law produced: therefore, it isnecessary that God create in our heart a sacred love and infuse asacred delight contrary to the love dominating in us; that this sacredlove, this sacred delight is properly the grace of Jesus Christ, theinspiration of charity by which, when it is perceived, we act by asacred love; that this is that root from which grow good works; thatthis is the grace of the New Testament, which frees us from theservitude of sin, makes us sons of God"; since it intimates that thatalone is properly the grace of Jesus Christ, which creates in the hearta sacred love, and which impels us to act, or also, by which man, freedfrom the slavery of sin, is constituted a son of God; and that thatgrace is not also properly the grace of Jesus Christ, by which theheart of man is touched through an illumination of the Holy Spirit(TRID. sess. 6, C. 5 [see n.797 ]), and that no true interior grace ofChrist is given, which is resisted,--false, deceitful, leading to theerror condemned in the second proposition of Jansen as heretical, andrenewing it [see n. 1093].

Faith as the First Grace

[Faith, sec. I]

1522 22. The proposition which declares that faith, "from which beginsthe series of graces, and through which, as the first voice, we arecalled to salvation and to the Church": is the very excellent virtueitself of faith by which men are called and are the faithful; just asif that grace were not prior, which "as it precedes the will, so itprecedes faith also" (from St. August.,De dono persev., c.16, n.41),---suspected of heresy, and savoring of it, elsewhere condemned inQuesnel [see n. 1377], erroneous.

The Twofold love

[Grace, sec. 8]

1523 23. The doctrine of the synod about the twofold love of dominatingcupidity and of dominating charity, stating that man without grace isunder the power of sin, and that in that state through the generalinfluence of the dominating cupidity he taints and corrupts all hisactions; since it insinuates that in man, while he is under theservitude or in the state of sin, destitute of that grace by which heis freed from the servitude of sin and is constituted a son of God,cupidity is so dominant that by its general influence all his actionsare vitiated in themselves and corrupted; or that all his works whichare done before justification, for whatsoever reason they may be done,are sins; as if in all his acts the sinner is a slave to the dominatingcupidity,--false, dangerous, leading into the error condemned by theTridentine Council as heretical, again condemned in Baius, art. 40 [seen. 817, 1040 ].

Sec. 12

1524 24. But in this part, indeed, no intermediate affections areplaced between the dominating cupidity and the dominating charity,planted by nature itself and worthy of praise because of their ownnature, which, together with love of the beatitude and a naturalinclination to good "have remained as the last outline and traces ofthe image of God" (from St. August., De spirit. et litt., c. 28); justas if "between the divine love which draws us to the kingdom, andillicit human love which is condemned, there should not be given alicit human love which is not censured" (from St. August., Serm. 349 deear., edit. Maurin),--false, elsewhere condemned [see n. 1038, 1297].

Servile Fear

[On Penance, sec. 3]

1525 25. The doctrine which in general asserts that the fear ofpunishment"cannot be called evil if it, at least, prevails to restrainthe hand"; as if the fear itself of hell, which faith teaches must beimposed on sin, is not in itself good and useful as a supernaturalgift, and a motion inspired by God preparing for the love ofjustice,--false, rash, dangerous, injurious to the divine gifts,elsewhere condemned [see n. 746], contrary to the doctrine of theCouncil of Trent [see n. 798, 898], and to the common opinion of theFathers, namely "that there is need," according to the customary orderof preparation for justice, "that fear should first enter, throughwhich charity will come; fear is a medicine, charity is health" (fromS. August., In [1] epist. Io., c. 4, tract. 9; in lo. evang., tract,41, n. 10; Enarr. in psalm. 127, n. 7; Serm. 157 de verbis Apost, n.13. Serm. 161 de verbis Apost., n. 8; Serm. 349 de caritate, n. 7).

The Punishment of Those Who Die with Original Sin Only

[Baptism, sec. 3]

1526 26. The doctrine which rejects as a Pelagian fable, that place ofthe lower regions (which the faithful generally designate by the nameof the limbo of children) in which the souls of those departing withthe sole guilt of original sin are punished with the punishment of thecondemned, exclusive of the punishment of fire, just as if, by thisvery fact, that these who remove the punishment of fire introduced thatmiddle place and state free of guilt and of punishment between thekingdom of God and eternal damnation, such as that about which thePelagians idly talk,--false, rash, injurious to Catholic schools.

[C.Errors] about the Sacraments, and First about the

Sacramental Form with a Condition Attached

[Baptism, sec. 12]

1527 27. The deliberation of the synod which, under pretext of clingingto ancient canons in the case of doubtful baptism, declares itsintention of omitting mention of the conditional form,--rash, contraryto practice, to the law, to the authority of the Church.

The Partaking of the Victim in the Sacrifice of the Mass

[The Eucharist, sec. 6]

1528 28. The proposition of the synod in which, after it states that "apartaking of the victim is an essential part in the sacrifice," itadds, "nevertheless, it does not condemn as illicit those Masses inwhich those present do not communicate sacramentally, for the reasonthat they do partake of the victim, although less perfectly, byreceiving it spiritually," since it insinuates that there is somethinglacking to the essence of the sacrifice in that sacrifice which isperformed either with no one present, or with those present who partakeof the victim neither sacramentally nor spiritually, and as if thoseMasses should be condemned as illicit, in which, with the priest alonecommunicating, no one is present who communicates either sacramentallyor spiritually,--false, erroneous, suspected of heresy and savoring ofit.

The Efficacy of the Rite of Consecration

[The Eucharist, sec. 2]

1529 29. The doctrine of the synod, in that part in which, undertakingto explain the doctrine of faith in the rite of consecration, anddisregarding the scholastic questions about the manner in which Christis in the Eucharist, from which questions it exhorts priests performingthe duty of teaching to refrain, it states the doctrine in these twopropositions only: I) after the consecration Christ is truly, really,substantially under the species; 2) then the whole substance of thebread and wine ceases, appearances only remaining; it (the doctrine)absolutely omits to make any mention of transubstantiation, orconversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body, and ofthe whole substance of the wine into the blood, which the Council ofTrent defined as an article of faith [see n. 877, 884], and which iscontained in the solemn profession of faith [see n. 997]; since by anindiscreet and suspicious omission of this sort knowledge is taken awayboth of an article pertaining to faith, and also of the wordconsecrated by the Church to protect the profession of it, as if itwere a discussion of a merely scholastic question,--dangerous,derogatory to the exposition of Catholic truth about the dogma oftransubstantiation, favorable to heretics.

The Application of the Fruit of the Sacrifice

[The Eucharist, sec. 8]

1530 30. The doctrine of the synod, by which, while it professes "tobelievethat the oblation of the sacrifice extends itself to all, insuch a way, however, that in the liturgy there can be made a specialcommemoration of certain individuals, both living and dead, by prayingGod specially for them," then it immediately adds: "Not, however, thatwe should believe that it is in the will of the priest to apply thefruit of the sacrifice to whom He wishes, rather we condemn this erroras greatly offending the rights of God, who alone distributes the fruitof the sacrifice to whom He wishes and according to the measure whichpleases Him"; and consequently, from this it derides "as false theopinion foisted on the people that they who give alms to the priest onthe condition that he celebrate a Mass will receive from it specialfruit"; thus understood, that besides the special commemoration andprayer a special offering itself, or application of the Sacrifice whichis made by the priest does not benefit, other things being equal, thosefor whom it is applied more than any others, as if no special fruitwould come from a special application, which the Church recommends andcommands should be made for definite persons or classes of persons,especially by pastors for their flock, and which, as if coming downfrom a divine precept, has been clearly expressed by the sacred synodof Trent (sees. 23, c. I De reform; BENED. XIV, Constit. "Cum semperoblatas," sec. 2),--false, rash, dangerous, injurious to the Church,leading into the error elsewhere condemned in Wycliffe [see n 599].

The Suitable Order to Be Observed in Worship

[The Eucharist, sec. 5]

1531 31. The proposition of the synod enunciating that it is fitting,in accordance with the order of divine services and ancient custom thatthere be only one altar in each temple, and therefore, that it ispleased to restore that custom,--rash, injurious to the very ancientpious custom flourishing and approved for these many centuries in theChurch, especially in the Latin Church.

Ibid.]

1532 32. Likewise, the prescription forbidding cases of sacred relicsor flowers being placed on the altar,--rash, injurious to the pious andapproved custom of the Church.

Ibid., sec. 6]

1533 33. The proposition of the synod by which it shows itself eager toremove the cause through which, in part, there has been induced aforgetfulness of the principles relating to the order of the liturgy,"by recalling it (the liturgy) to a greater simplicity of rites, byexpressing it in the vernacular language, by uttering it in a loudvoice"; as if the present order of the liturgy, received and approvedby the Church, had emanated in some part from the forgetfulness of theprinciples by which it should be regulated,--rash, offensive to piousears, insulting to the Church, favorable to the charges of hereticsagainst it.

The Order of Penance

[Penance, sec. 7]

1534 34. The declaration of the synod by which, after it previouslystated that the order of canonical penance had been so established bythe Church, in accord with the example of the apostles that it wascommon to all, and not merely for the punishment of guilt, butespecially for the disposition to grace, it adds that "it (the synod)recognizes in that marvelous and venerable order the whole dignity ofso necessary a sacrament, free from the subtleties which have beenadded to it in the course of time"; as if, through the order in whichwithout the complete course of canonical penance this sacrament hasbeen wont to be administered, the dignity of the sacrament had beenlessened,--rash, scandalous, inducing to a contempt of the dignity ofthe sacrament as it has been accustomed to be administered throughoutthe whole Church, injurious to the Church itself.

[Penance, sec. 10, n. 4]

1535 35. The proposition conceived in these words: "If charity in thebeginning is always weak, it behooves the priest, in obtaining anincrease of this charity in the ordinary way, to make those acts ofhumiliation and penance which have been recommended in every age by theChurch precede; to reduce those acts to a few prayers or to somefasting after absolution has already been conferred, seems to be amaterial desire of keeping for this sacrament the mere name of penance,rather than an illuminating and suitable means to increase that fervorof charity which ought to precede absolution; indeed we are far fromblaming the practice of imposing penances to be fulfilled afterabsolution; if all our good works have our defects always joined tothem, how much more ought we to fear lest we admit very manyimperfections into the very difficult and very important work of ourreconciliation"; since it implies that the penances which are imposed,to be fulfilled after absolution, are to be considered as a supplementfor the defects admitted in the work of our reconciliation, rather thanas truly sacramental penances and satisfactions for the sins confessed,as if, in order that the true reason for the sacrament, not the merename, be preserved, it would be necessary that in the ordinary way theacts of humiliation and penance, which are imposed as a means ofsacramental satisfaction, should precede absolution,-- false, rash,injurious to the common practice of the Church, leading to the errorcontained in the heretical note in Peter of Osma [see n. 728; cf. n.1306 f.]

The Previous Disposition Necessary for Admitting

Penitents to Reconciliation

[Grace, sec. 15]

1536 36. The doctrine of the synod, in which, after it stated that"when there are unmistakable signs of the love of God dominating in theheart of a man, he can deservedly be considered worthy of beingadmitted to participation in the blood of Jesus Christ, which takesplace in the sacraments," it further adds, "that false conversions,which take place through attrition (incomplete sorrow for sins), arenot usually efficacious nor durable," consequently, "the shepherd ofsouls must insist on unmistakable signs of the dominating charitybefore he admits his penitents to the sacraments"; which signs, as it(the decree) then teaches (sec. 17. "a pastor can deduce from a firmcessation of sin and from fervor in good works"; and this "fervor ofcharity," moreover, it prescribes De poenit. sec. 10) as thedisposition which "should precede absolution"; so understood that notonly imperfect contrition, which is sometimes called by the name ofattrition, even that which is joined with the love with which a manbegins to love God as the fountain of all justice [cf. n. 798], and notonly contrition formed by charity, but also the fervor of a dominatingcharity, and that, indeed, proved by a long continued practice throughfervor in good works, is generally and absolutely required in orderthat a man may be admitted to the sacraments, and penitents especiallybe admitted to the benefit of the absolution,--false, rash, disturbingto the peace of souls, contrary to the safe and approved practice ofthe Church, detracting from the efficacy of the sacrament and injuriousto it.

The Authority for Absolving

[Penance, sec. 10] n. 6]

1537 37. The teaching of the synod, which declares concerning theauthority for absolving received through ordination that "after theinstitution of dioceses and parishes, it is fitting that each oneexercise this judgment over those persons subject to him either byreason of territory or some personal right," because "otherwiseconfusion and disturbance would be introduced"; since it declares that,in order to prevent confusion, after dioceses and parishes have beeninstituted, it is merely fitting that the power of absolving beexercised upon subjects; so understood, as if for the valid use of thispower there is no need of ordinary or delegated jurisdiction, withoutwhich the Tridentine Synod declares that absolution conferred by apriest is of no value,--false, rash, dangerous, contrary and injuriousto the Tridentine Synod [see no. 903], erroneous.

[Ibid., sec. II]

1538 38. Likewise, that teaching in which, after the synod professedthat "it could not but admire that very venerable discipline ofantiquity, which (as it says) did not admit to penance so easily, andperhaps never, that one who, after a first sin and a firstreconciliation, had relapsed into guilt," it adds, that "through fearof perpetual exclusion from communion and from peace, even in the hourof death, a great restraint will be put on those who consider toolittle the evil of sin and fear it less," contrary to canon 13. of thefirst Council of Nicea [see n. 57], to the decretal of Innocent I toExuperius Tolos [see n. 95], and then also to the decretal of CelestineI to the Bishops of Vienne, and of the Province of Narbon [see n. III],redolent of the viciousness at which the Holy Pontiff is horrified inthat decretal.

The Confession of Venial Sins.

[Penance, sec. 12]

1539 39. The declaration of the synod about the confession of venialsins, which it does not wish, it says, to be so frequently resorted to,lest confessions of this sort be rendered too contemptible,--rash,dangerous, contrary to the practice of the saints and the pious whichwas approved [see n. 899] by the sacred Council of Trent.

Indulgences

[Penance, sec. 16]

1540 40. The proposition asserting "that an indulgence, according toits precise notion, is nothing else than the remission of that part ofthe penance which had been established by the canons for the sinner";as if an indulgence, in addition to the mere remission of the canonicalpenance, does not also have value for the remission of the temporalpunishment due to the divine justice for actual sins,---false, ras,,injurious to t to the merits of Christ, already condemned in article19. of Luther [see n. 759].

[Ibid.]

1541 41. Likewise, in this which is added, i.e., that "the scholastics,puffed up by their subtleties, introduced the poorly understoodtreasury of the merits of Christ and of the saints, and, for the clearnotion of absolution from canonical penance, they substituted aconfused and false notion of the application of merits"; as if thetreasures of the Church, whence the pope grants indulgences, are notthe merits of Christ and of the saints,-- false, rash, injurious to themerits of Christ and of the saints, previously condemned in art. 17. ofLuther [see n. 757; cf. n. 550 ff.].

[Ibid.]

1542 42. Likewise, in this which it adds, that "it is still morelamentable that that fabulous application is meant to be transferred tothe dead,"-- false, rash, offensive to pious ears, injurious to theRoman Pontiffs and to the practice and sense of the universal Church,leading to the error fixed [cf. n. 729] in the heretical note in Peterof Osma, again condemned in article 22 of Luther [see n. 762].

[Ibid.]

1543 43. In this, finally, that it most shamelessly inveighs againstlists of indulgences, privileged altars, etc.,--rash, offensive to theears of the pious, scandalous, abusive to the Supreme Pontiffs, and tothe practice common in the whole Church.

The Reservation of Cases

[Penance, sec. 19]

1544 44. The proposition of the synod asserting that the "reservationOf cases at the present time is nothing else than an improvident bondfor priests of lower rank, and a statement devoid of sense forpenitents who are accustomed to pay no heed to thisreservation,"--false, rash, evilsounding, dangerous, contrary to theCouncil of Trent [see n. 903], injurious to the hierarchic power.

[Ibid.]

1545 45. Likewise, concerning the hope which it expressed that "whenthe Ritual and the order of penance had been reformed, there would beno place any longer for reservations of this sort"; in so far as,considering the careful generality of the words, it intimates that, bya reformation of the Ritual and of the order of penance made by abishop or a synod, cases can be abolished which the Tridentine Synod(sees. 14, C. 7 [n. 903]) declares the Supreme Pontiffs could reserveto their own special judgment, because of the supreme power given tothem in the universal Church,--the proposition is false, rash,derogatory, and injurious to the Council of Trent and to the authorityof the Supreme Pontiffs.

Censures

[Penance, sees. 20 and 22]

1546 46. The proposition asserting that "the effect of excommunicationis merely exterior, because by its nature it merely excludes fromexterior communion with the Church"; as if excommunication were not aspiritual punishment, binding in heaven, obligating souls (from St.August., Epistle 250 to Bishop Auxilius; Tract 50 in lo., I2),--false,dangerous, condemned in art. 23 of Luther [see n. 763], at leasterroneous.

[Sees. 21. and 23]

1547 47. Likewise, the proposition which teaches that it is necessary,according to the natural and divine laws, for either excommunication orfor suspension, that a personal examination should precede, and that,therefore, sentences called "ipso facto" have no other force than thatof a serious threat without any actual effect,--false, rash,pernicious, injurious to the power of the Church, erroneous.

[Sec. 22]

1548 48. Likewise, the proposition which says that "useless and vain isthe formula introduced some centuries ago of general absolution fromexcommunications into which the faithful might have fallen,"--false,rash, injurious to the practice of the Church.

[Sec. 24]

1549 49. Likewise, the proposition which condemns as null and invalid"suspensions imposed from an informed conscience,"--false, pernicious,injurious to Trent.

[Ibid.]

1550 50. Likewise, in that decree which insinuates that a bishop alonedoes not have the right to make use of the power which, nevertheless,Trent confers on him (sees. 14, C. I de reform.) of legitimatelyinflicting suspensions "from an informed conscience,"--harmful to thejurisdiction of the prelates of the Church.

Orders

[Orders, sec. 4]

1551 51. The doctrine of the synod which says that in promoting toorders this method, from the custom and rule of the ancient discipline,was accustomed to be observed, "that if any cleric was distinguishedfor holiness of life and was considered worthy to ascend to sacredorders, it was the custom to promote him to the diaconate, or to thepriesthood, even if he had not received minor orders; and that at thattime such an ordination was not called 'per saltum,' as afterwards itwas so called,"--

[Sec. 5]

1552 52. Likewise, the doctrine which intimates that there was noothertitle for ordinations than appointment to some special ministry,such as was prescribed in the Council of Chalcedon; adding (Sec. 6)that, as long as the Church conformed itself to these principles in theselection of sacred ministers, the ecclesiastical order flourished; butthat those happy days have passed, and new principles have beenintroduced later, by which the discipline in the choice of ministersfor the sanctuary was corrupted;--

[Sec. 7]

1553 53. Likewise, that among these very principles of corruption itmentions the fact that there has been a departure from the old rule bywhich, as it says (Sec. 5) the Church, treading in the footsteps of theApostle, had prescribed that no one should be admitted to thepriesthood unless he had preserved his baptismal innocence, since itimplies that discipline has been corrupted by decrees and rules:

1) Whether by these ordinations "per saltum" have been forbidden;

2) or by these, for the need and advantage of churches,ordination without special title of office are approved, as theordination for the title of patrimony, specifically approved by Trent,that obedience having been assured by which those so ordained areobliged to serve the necessities of the Churches in fulfilling thoseduties, for which, considering the time and the place, they wereordained by the bishop, just as it was accus--tomed to be done fromapostolic times in the primitive Church;

3) or, by these a distinction was made by canon law of crimeswhich render the delinquents irregular; as if, by this distinction, theChurch departed from the spirit of the Apostle by not excluding ingeneral and without distinction from the ecclesiastical ministry all,whosoever they be, who have not preserved their baptismalinnocence,--the doctrine is false in its several individual parts,rash, disturbing to the order intro duced for the need and advantage ofthe churches, injurious to the discipline approved by the canons andespecially by the decrees of the Council of Trent.

[Sec. 13]

1554 54. Likewise, the doctrine which notes as a shameful abuse ever tooffer alms for the celebration of Masses, and for administering thesacraments, as well as to accept any offering so-called "of the stole,"and, in general, any stipend and honorarium which may be offered on theoccasion of prayers or of some parochial function; as if the ministersof the Church should be charged with a shameful abuse because they usethe right promulgated by the Apostle of accepting temporal aids fromthose to whom they furnish spiritual ministrations [Gal. 6:6],--false,rash, harmful to ecclesiastical and pastoral right, injurious to theChurch and its ministers.

[Sec. 14 ]

1555 55. Likewise, the doctrine by which it professes to desire verymuch that some way be found of removing the lesser clergy (under whichname it designates the clerics of minor orders) from cathedrals andcolleges by providing otherwise, namely through approved lay people ofmature age, a suitable assigned stipend for the ministry of serving atMasses and for other offices such as that of acolyte, etc., asformerly, it says, was usually done when duties of that sort had notbeen reduced to mere form for the receiving of major orders; inasmuchas it censures the rule by which care is taken that "the functions ofminor orders are to be performed or exercised only by those who havebeen established in them according to rank" (Cone. prov. IV of Milan),and this also according to the intention of the Tridentine Council(sees. 23, c. 17. "that the duties of sacred orders, from the diaconateto the porter, laudably received in he Church from apostolic times andneglected for a while m many laces, should be renewed according to thesacred canons, and should not be considered useless as they are byheretics,"--a rash suggestion, offento pious ears, disturbing to theecclesiastical ministry, lessening of the decency which should beobserved as far as possible in celebrating the mysteries' injurious tothe duties and functions of minor orders, as well as to the disciplineapproved by the canons and especially by the Tridentine Synod,favorable to the charges and calumnies of heretics against it.

[Sec. 18]

1556 56. The doctrine which states that it seems fitting that, in thecase of canonical impediments which arise from crimes expressed in thelaw, no dispensation should ever be granted or allowed,--harmful to thecanonical equity and moderation which has been approved by the sacredcouncil of Trent, derogatory to the authority and laws of the Church.

[Ibid., sec. 22]

1557 57. The prescription of the synod which generally andindiscriminately rejects as an abuse any dispensation that more thanone residential benefice be bestowed on one and the same person:likewise, in this which it adds that the synod is certain that,according to the spirit of the Church, no one could enjoy more than onebenefice, even if it is a simple one,--for its generality, derogatoryto the moderation of the Council of Trent (sees. 7, C. 5, and sess. 24,c. 17).

Betrothals and Matrimony

[Memorial Booklet about Betrothals, etc. sec. 8]

1558 58. The proposition which states that betrothals properlyso-called contain a mere civil act which disposes for the celebratingof marriage, and that these same betrothals are altogether subject tothe prescription of the civil laws. as if the act disposing for thesacrament is not, under this aspect, subject to the law of theChurch,--false, harmful to the right of the Church in respect to theeffects flowing even from betrothals by reason of the canonicalsanctions, derogatory to the discipline established by the Church.

[Matrimony, sees. 7, 11, 12]

1559 59. The doctrine of the synod asserting that "to the supreme civilpower alone originally belongs the right to apply to the contract ofmarriage impediments of that sort which render it null and are callednullifying": which "original right," besides, is said to be''essentially connected with the right of dispensing": adding that"with the secret consent or connivance of the principals, the Churchcould justly establish impediments which nullify the very contract ofmarriage"; as if the Church could not and cannot always in Christianmarriages, establish by its own rights impediments which not onlyhinder marriage, but also render it null as regards the bond, and alsodispense from those impediments by which Christians are held bound evenin the countries of infidels,--destructive of canons 3, 4, 9, 12 of the24th session of the Council of Trent, heretical [see n. 973 ff.].

[Cit. Memorial Booklet about Betrothals, sec. 10]

1560 60. Likewise, the proposal of the synod to the civil power, that"it remove from the number of impediments, whose origin is found in theCollection of Justinian, spiritual relationship and also that one whichis called of public honor"; then, that "it should tighten theimpediment of affinity and relationship from any licit or illicitconnection of birth to the fourth degree, according to the civilcomputation through the lateral and oblique lines, in such a way,nevertheless, that there be left no hope of obtaining a dispensation";in so far as it attributes to the civil power the right either ofabolishing or of tightening impediments which have been established andapproved by the authority of the Church; likewise, where it proposesthat the Church can be despoiled by the civil power of the right ofdispensing from impediments established or approved by theChurch,--subversive of the liberty and power of the Church, contrary toTrent, issuing from the heretical principle condemned above [see n. 973ff.].

[D. Errors] Concerning Duties, Practices, Rules Pertaining

to Religious Worship And First, the Adoration of the Humanity of Christ.

[Faith, sec. 3]

1561 61. The proposition which asserts that "to adore directly thehumanity of Christ, even any part of Him, would always be divine honorgiven to a creature"; in so far as, by this word "directly" it intendsto reprove the worship of adoration which the faithful show to thehumanity of Christ, just as if such adoration, by which the humanityand the very living flesh of Christ is adored, not indeed on account ofitself as mere flesh, but because it is united to the divinity, wouldbe divine honor imparted to a creature, and not rather the one and thesame adoration with which the Incarnate Word is adored in His ownproper flesh (from the 2nd council of Constantinople, 5th EcumenicalCouncil, canon 9 [see n. 221; cf. n. 120]),--false, deceitful,detracting from and injurious to the pious and due worship given andextended by the faithful to the humanity of Christ.

[Prayer, sec. 17]

1562 62. The doctrine which rejects devotion to the most Sacred Heartof Jesus among the devotions which it notes as new, erroneous, or atleast, dangerous; if the understanding of this devotion is of such asort as has been approved by the Apostolic See,--false, rash,dangerous, offensive to pious ears, injurious to the Apostolic See.

[Prayer sec. 10, and the appendix n. 32]

1563 63. Likewise, in this that it blames the worshipers of the Heartof Jesus also for this name, because they do not note that the mostsacred flesh of Christ, or any part of Him, or even the whole humanity,cannot be adored with the worship of latria when there is a separationor cutting off from the divinity; as if the faithful when they adorethe Heart of Jesus, separate it or cut it off from the divinity; whenthey worship the Heart of Jesus it is, namely, the heart of the personof the Word, to whom it has been inseparably united in that manner inwhich the bloodless body of Christ during the three days of death,without separation or cutting off from divinity, was worthy ofadoration in the tomb,--deceitful, injurious to the faithful worshipersof the Heart of Jesus.

The Order Prescribed in the Undertaking of Pious Exercises

[Prayer, sec. 14, Appendix n. 34]

1564 64. The doctrine which notes as universally superstitious "anyefficacy which is placed in a fixed number of prayers and of pioussalutations"; as if one should consider as superstitious the efficacywhich is derived not from the number viewed in itself, but from theprescript of the Church appointing a certain number of prayers or ofexternal acts for obtaining indulgences, for fulfilling penances and,in general, for the performance of sacred and religious worship in thecorrect order and due form,-- false, rash, scandalous, dangerous,injurious to the piety of the faithful, derogatory to the authority ofthe Church, erroneous.

Penance, sec. 10]

1565 65. The proposition stating that "the unregulated clamor of thenew Institutions which have been called exercises or missions . . .,perhaps never, or at least very rarely, succeed in effecting anabsolute conversion; and those exterior acts of encouragement whichhave appeared were nothing else than the transient brilliance of anatural emotion,"--rash evil-sounding, dangerous, injurious to thecustoms piously and salutarily practiced throughout the Church andfounded on the Word of God.

The Manner of Uniting the Voice of the People with the Voice

of the Church in Public Prayers

[Prayer, sec. 24]

1566 66. The proposition asserting that "it would be against apostolicpractice and the plans of God, unless easier ways were prepared for thepeople to unite their voice with that of the whole Church"; ifunderstood to signify introducing of the use of popular language intothe liturgical prayers,--false, rash, disturbing to the orderprescribed for the celebrant tion of the mysteries, easily productiveof many evils.

The Reading of Sacred Scripture

[From the note at the end of the decree on grace]

1567 67. The doctrine asserting that "only a true impotence excuses"from the reading of the Sacred Scriptures, adding, moreover, that thereis produced the obscurity which arises from a neglect of this preceptin regard to the primary truths of religion,--false, rash, disturbingto the peace of souls, condemned elsewhere in Quesnel [sec. 1429 ff.].

The Reading of Proscribed Books Publicly in Church

[Prayer, 29]

1568 68. The praise with which the synod very highly commends thecommentaries of Quesnel on the New Testament, and some works of otherwriters who favor the errors of Quesnel, although they have been prosscribed; and which proposes to parish priests that they should readthese same works, as if they were full of the solid principles ofreligion, each one in his own parish to his people after otherfunctions,--false, rash, scandalous, seditious, injurious to theChurch, fostering schism and heresy.

Sacred Images

[Prayer, sec. 17]

1569 69. The prescription which in general and without discriminationincludes the images of the incomprehensible Trinity among the images tobe removed from the Church, on the ground that they furnish an occasionof error to the untutored,--because of its generality, it is rash, andcontrary to the pious custom common throughout the Church, as if noimages of the Most Holy Trinity exist which are commonly approved andsafely permitted (from the Brief "Sollicitudini nostrae" of BenedictXIV in the year 1745).

1570 70. Likewise, the doctrine and prescription condemning in generalevery special cult which the faithful are accustomed to attachspecifically to some image, and to have recourse to, rather than toanother,--rash, dangerous' injurious to the pious custom prevalentthroughout the Church and also to that order of Providence, by which"God, who apportions as He wishes to each one his own propercharacteristics, did not want them to be common in every commemorationof the saints (from St. Augustine, Epistle 78 to the clergy, elders,and people of the church at Hippo).

1571 71. Likewise, the teaching which forbids that images, especiallyof the Blessed Virgin, be distinguished by any title other than thedenominations which are related to the mysteries, about which expressmention is made in Holy Scripture; as if other pious titles could notbe given to images which the Church indeed approves and commends in itspublic prayers,--rash, offensive to the ears of the pious, andespecially injurious to the due veneration of the Blessed Virgin.

1572 72. Likewise, the one which would extirpate as an abuse the customby which certain images are kept veiled,--rash, contrary to the customprevalent in the Church and employed to foster the piety of thefaithful.

Feasts

[Libell. memor. for the reformation of feasts, sec. 3]

1573 73. The proposition stating that the institution of new feastsderived its origin from neglect in the observance of the older feasts,and from false notions of the nature and end of thesesolemnities,--false, rash, scandalous, injurious to the Church,favorable to the charges of heretics against the feast days celebratedby the Church.

[Ibid., sec. 8]

1574 74. The deliberation of the synod about transferring to Sundayfeasts distributed through the year, and rightly so, because it isconvinced that the bishop has power over ecclesiastical discipline inrelation to purely spiritual matters, and therefore of abrogating theprecept of hearing Mass on those days, on which according to the earlylaw of the Church, even then that precept flourished; and then, also,in this statement which it (the synod) added about transferring toAdvent by episcopal authority the fasts which should be kept throughoutthe year according to the precept of the Church; insomuch as it assertsthat it is lawful for a bishop in his own right to transfer the daysprescribed by the Church for celebrating feasts or fasts, or toabrogate the imposed precept of hearing class,--a false proposition,harmful to the law of the general Council and of the Supreme Pontiffs,scandalous, favorable to schism.

Oaths

[Libell. memor. for the reformation of oaths, sec. 4]

1575 75. The teaching which says that in the happy days of the earlychurch oaths seemed so foreign to the model of the divine Preceptor andthe golden simplicity of the Gospel that "to take an oath withoutextreme and unavoidable need had been reputed to be an irreligious actUnworthy of a Christian person," further, that "the uninterrupted lineof the Fathers shows that oaths by common consent have been conSideredas forbidden"; and from this doctrine proceeds to condemn the oathswhich the ecclesiastical curia, having followed, as it says, the normof feudal jurisprudence, adopted for investitures and sacredordinations of bishops; and it decreed, therefore, that the law shouldbe invoked by the secular power to abolish the oaths which are demandedin ecclesiastical curias when entering upon duties and offices and, ingeneral, for any curial function,--false, injurious to the Church,harmful to ecclesiastical law, subversive of discipline imposed andapproved by the Canons.

Ecclesiastical Con f erences

[Ecclesiastical Conferences, sec. I]

1576 76. The charge which the synod brings against the scholasticmethod as that "which opened the way for inventing new systemsdiscordant with one another with respect to truths of a greater valueand which led finally to probabilism and laxism"; in so far as itcharges against the scholastic method the faults of individuals whocould misuse and have misused it,-- false, rash, against very holy andlearned men who, to the great good of the Catholic religion, havedeveloped the scholastic method, injurious, favorable to the criticismof heretics who are hostile to it.

[Ibid.]

1577 77. Likewise in this which adds that "a change in the form ofecclesiaStical government, by which it was brought about that ministersof the Church became forgetful of their rights, which at the same timeare their Obligations, has finally led to such a state of affairs as tocause the primitive notions of ecclesiastical ministry and pastoralsolicitude to be forgotten"; as if, by a change of government consonantto the discipline established and approved in the Church, there evercould be forgotten and lost the primitive notion of ecclesiasticalministry or pastoral solicitude,--a false proposition, rash, erroneous.

[Sec. 14]

1578 78. The prescription of the synod about the order of transactingbusiness in the conferences, in which, after it prefaced "in everyarticle that which pertains to faith and to the essence of religionmust be distinuished from that which is proper to discipline," it adds,"in this itself (discipline) there is to be distinguished what isnecessary or useful to retain the faithful in spirit, from that whichis useless or too burdensome for the liberty of the sons of the newCovenant to endure, but more so, from that which is dangerous orharmful, namely, leading to superstitution and materialism"; in so faras by the generality of the words it includes and submits to aprescribed examination even the discipline established and approved bythe Church, as if the Church which is ruled by the Spirit of God couldhave established discipline which is not only useless and burdensomefor Christian liberty to endure, but which is even dangerous andharmful and leading to superstition and materialism,--false, rash,scandalous, dangerous, offensive to pious ears, injurious to the Churchand to the Spirit of God by whom it is guided, at least erroneous.

Complaints against Some Opinions Which are Still Discussed

in "Catholic Schools"

[Oration to the Synod, sec. I]

1579 79. The assertion which attacks with slanderous charges theopinions discussed in Catholic schools about which the Apostolic Seehas thought that nothing yet needs to be defined or pronounced,--false,rash, injurious to Catholic schools, detracting from the obedience tothe Apostolic Constitutions.

[E.Errors Concerning the Reformation of Regulars]

The "three rules" set down as fundamental by the Synod

"for the reformation of regulars"

[Libel!. memor. for the reformation of regulars, sec. 9]

1580 80. Rule I which states universally and without distinction that"the regular or monastic stem by its very nature cannot be harmonizedwith the care of souls and with the duties of parochial life, andtherefore, cannot share in the ecclesiastical hierarchy withoutadversely opposing the principles of monastic life itself"--false,dangerous to the most holy Fathers and heads of the Church, whoharmonized the practices of the regular life with the duties of theclerical order,--injurious, contrary to the old, pious, approved customof the Church and to the sanctions of the Supreme Pontiff; as if"monks, whom the gravity of their manners and of their life and whomthe holy institution of Faith approves,', could not be duly "entrustedwith the duties of the clergy," not only without harm to religion, buteven with great advantage to the Church. (From the decretal epistle ofSt. Siricius to Himerius of Tarraco c. 13 [see n. 90].) *

1581 81. Likewise, in that which adds that St. Thomas and St.Bonaventure were so occupied in protecting Orders of Mendicants againstthe best of men that in their defenses less heat and greater accuracywere to be desired,--scandalous, injurious to the very holy Doctors,favorable to the impious slanders of condemned authors

1582 82. Rule II, that "the multiplicity and diversity of ordersnaturally produce confusion and disturbance," likewise, in that whichsec. 4 sets forth, "that the founders" of regulars who, after themonastic institutions came into being, "by adding orders to orders,reforms to reforms have accomplished nothing else than to increase moreand more the primary cause of evil"; if understood about the orders andinstitutes approved by the Holy See, as if the distinct variety ofpious works to which the distinct orders are devoted should, by itsnature, beget disturbance and confusion, --false, calumnious, injuriousnot only to the holy founders and their faithful disciples, but also tothe Supreme Pontiffs themselves.

1583 83. Rule III, in which, after it stated that "a small body livingwithin a civil society without being truly a part of the same and whichforms a small monarchy in the state, is always a dangerous thing," itthen charges with this accusation private monasteries which areassociated by the bond of a common rule under one special head, as ifthey were so many special monarchies harmful and dangerous to the civiccommonwealth,--false, rash, injurious to the regular institutesapproved by the Holy See for the advancement of religion, favorable tothe slanders and calumnies of heretics against the same institutes.

Concerning the "system" or list of ordinances drawn from rules

laid down and contained in the eight following articles "for the reformation of regulars" [Sec. 10]

1584 84. Art. I. "Concerning the one order to be retained in theChurch, and concerning the selection of the rule of St. Benedict inpreference to others, not only because of its excellence but also onaccount of the well-known merits of his order; however, with thiscondition that in those items which happen to be less suitable to theconditions of the times, the way of life instituted at Port-Royal * isto furnish light for discovering what it is fitting to add, what totake away;

1585 Art. II. "Those who have joined this order should not be a part ofthe ecclesiastical hierarchy; nor should they be promoted to HolyOrders, except one or two at the most, to be initiated as superiors, oras chaplains of the monastery, the rest remaining in the simple orderof the laity;

1586 Art. III. "One monastery only should be allowed in any one city,and this should be located outside the walls of the city in the moreretired and remote places;

1587 Art. IV. "Among the occupations of the monastic life, a properproportion should be inviolably reserved for manual labor, withsuitable time, nevertheless, left for devotion to the psalmody, oralso, if someone wishes, for the study of letters; the psalmody shouldbe moderate, because too much of it produces haste, weariness, anddistraction; the more psalmody, orisons, and prayers are increasedbeyond a just proportion of the whole time, so much are the fervor andholiness of the regulars diminished;

1588 Art V. "No distinction among the monks should be allowed, whetherthey are devoted to choir or to services; such inequality has stirredup very grave quarrels and discords at every opportunity, and hasdriven out the spirit of charity from communities of regulars;

1589 Art. VI. "The vow of perpetual stability should never be allowed;the older monks did not know it, who, nevertheless, were a consolationof the Church and an ornament to Christianity; the vows of chastity,poverty, and obedience should not be admitted as the common and stablerule. If anyone shall wish to make these vows, all or anyone, he willask advice and permission from the bishop who, nevertheless, will neverpermit them to be perpetual, nor to exceed the limits of a year; theopportunity merely will be given of renewing them under the sameconditions;

1590 Art. VII. "The bishop will conduct every investigation into theirlives, studies, and advancement in piety; it will be his duty to admitand to dismiss the monks, always, however, after taking counsel withtheir fellow monks

1591 Art. VIII. "Regulars of orders which still survive, although theyare priests, may also be received into this monastery, provided theydesire to be free in silence and solitude for their own sanctificationonly; in which case, there might be provision for the dispensationstated in the general rule, n. II, in such a way, however, that they donot follow a rule of life different from the others, and that not morethan one, or at most two Masses be celebrated each day, and that itshould be satisfactory to the other priests to celebrate in commontogether with the community;

Likewise "for the reformation of nuns"

[Sec. II]

1592 "Perpetual vows should not be permitted before the age of 40 or45; nuns should be devoted to solid exercises, especially to labor,turned aside from carnal spirituality by which many are distracted;consideration must also be given as to whether, so far as they areconcerned, it would be more satisfactory to leave the monastery in thecity,--

The system is subversive to the discipline now flourishing andalready approved and accepted in ancient times, dangerous, opposed andinjurious to the Apostolic Constitutions and to the sanctions of manyCouncils, even general ones, and especially of the Council of Trentfavorable to the vicious calumnies of heretics against monastic vowsand the regular institutes devoted to the more stable profession of theevangelical counsels.

[F. Errors] About Convoking a National Council

[Libel!. memor. for convoking a national council, sec. I]

1593 85. The proposition stating that any knowledge whatsoever ofecclesiastical history is sufficient to allow anyone to assert that theconvocation of a national council is one of the canonical ways by whichcontroversies in regard to religion may be ended in the Church of therespective nations; if understood to mean that controversies in regardto faith or morals which have arisen in a Church can be ended by anirrefutable decision made in a national council; as if freedom fromerror in questions of faith and morals belonged to a nationalcouncil,-- schismatic, heretical.

1594 Therefore, we command all the faithful of Christ of either sex notto presume to believe, to teach, or to preach anything about the saidpropositions and doctrines contrary to what is declared in thisConstitution of ours; that whoever shall have taught, defended orpublished them, or anyone of them, all together or separately, exceptperhaps to oppose them, will be subject ipso facto and without anyother declaration to ecclesiastical censures, and to the otherpenalties stated by law against those perpetrating similar offenses.

1595 But, by this expressed condemnation of the aforesaid propositionsand doctrines, we by no means intend to approve other things containedin the same book, particularly since in it very many propositions anddoctrines have been detected, related either to those which have beencondemned above, or to those which show an attitude not only of rashcontempt for the commonly approved doctrine and discipline, but ofspecial hostility toward the Roman Pontiffs and the Apostolic See.Indeed, we think two must be noted especially, concerning the mostaugust mystery of the Most Holy Trinity, sec. 2 of the decree aboutfaith, which have issued from the synod, if not with evil intent,surely rather imprudently' which could easily drive into errorespecially the untutored and the incautious.

1596 The first, after it is rightly prefaced that God in His beingremains one and most simple, while immediately adding that God isdistinct in three persons, has erroneously departed from the commonformula approved in institutions of Christian Doctrine, in which God issaid to be one indeed "in three distinct persons," not "distinct inthree persons"; and by the change in this formula, this risk of errorcrept into the meaning of the words, so that the divine essence isthought to be distinct in persons, which (essence) the Catholic faithconfesses to be one in distinct persons in such a way that at the sametime it confesses that it is absolutely undivided in itself.

1597 The second, which concerns the three divine Persons themselves,that they, according to their peculiar personal and incommunicableproperties, are to be described and named in a more exact manner ofspeaking, Father, Word, and Holy Spirit; as if less proper and exactwould be the name "Son," consecrated by so many passages of Scripture,by the very voice of the Father coming from the heavens and from thecloud, and by the formula of baptism prescribed by Christ, and by thatfamous confession in which Peter was pronounced "blessed" by ChristHimself; and as if that statement should not rather be retained whichthe Angelic Doctor,* having learned from Augustine, in his turn taughtthat "in the name of the Word the same peculiar property is meant as inthe name of the Son," Augustine * truly saying: "For the same reason heis called the Word as the Son."

1598 Nor should the extraordinary and deceitful boldness of the Synodbe passed over in silence, which dared to adorn not only with mostample praises the declaration (n. 1322 ff.) of the Gallican Council ofthe year 1682, which had long ago been condemned by the Apostolic See,but in order to win greater authority for it, dared to include itinsidiously in the decree written "about faith," openly to adoptarticles contained in it, and to seal it with a public and solemnprofession of those articles which had been handed down here and therethrough this decree. Therefore, surely, not only a far graver reasonfor expostulating with them is afforded us by the Synod than wasoffered to our predecessors by the assemblies, but also no light injuryis inflicted on the Gallican Church itself, because the synod thoughtits authority worth invoking in support of the errors with which thatdecree was contaminated.

1599 Therefore, as soon as the acts of the Gallican convention appearedOur predecessor, Venerable Innocent XI, by letters in the form of aBrief on the 11th day of April, in the year 1682, and afterwards, moreexpressly, Alexander VIII in the Constitution, "inter multiplices" onthe 4th day of August, in the year 1690 (see n. 1322 ff.), by reason oftheir apostolic duty "condemned, rescinded, and declared them null andvoid"; pastoral solicitude demands much more strongly of Us that we"reject and condemn as rash and scandalous" the recent adoption ofthese acts tainted with so many faults, made by the synod, and, afterthe publication of the decrees of Our predecessors, "as especiallyinjurious" to this Apostolic See, and we, accordingly, reject andcondemn it by this present Constitution of Ours, and we wish it to beheld as rejected and condemned.

PIUS VII 1800-1823

The Indissolubility of Marriage *

[From the Brief to Charles of Dalberg, Archbishop of

Mainz, November 8, 1803]

1600 "To the doubts proposed to him the Supreme Pontiff, amongother remarks, responds": The decision of lay tribunals and of Catholicassemblies by which the nullity of marriages is chiefly declared, andthe dissolution of their bond attempted, can have no strength andabsolutely no force in the sight of the Church. . . .

1601 Those pastors who would approve these nuptials by their presenceand confirm them with their blessing would commit a very grave faultand would betray their sacred ministry. For they should not be callednuptials, but rather adulterous unions. . . .

Versions of Sacred Scripture *

[From the epistle "Magno et acerbo" to the Archbishop of Mohileff, September 3, 1816]

1602 We were overcome with great and bitter sorrow when Welearned that a pernicious plan, by no means the first, had beenundertaken, whereby the most sacred books of the Bible are being spreadeverywhere in every vernacular tongue, with new interpretations whichare contrary to the wholesome rules of the Church, and are skillfullyturned into a distorted sense. For, from one of the versions ofthissort already presented to Us we notice that such a danger existsagainst the sanctity Of purer doctrine, so that the faithful mighteasily drink a deadly poison from those fountains from which theyshould drain "waters of saving wisdom" [ Sirach. 15:3 ]. . . .

1603 For you should have kept before your eyes the warnings whichOur predecessors have constantly given, namely, that, if the sacredbooks are permitted everywhere without discrimination in the vulgartongue, more damage will arise from this than advantage. Furthermore,the Roman Church, accepting only the Vulgate edition according to thewell-known prescription (see n.785 f.) of the Council of Trent,disapproves the versions in other tongues and permits only those whichare edited with the explanations carefully chosen from writings of theFathers and Catholic Doctors, so that so great a treasure may not beexposed to the corruptions of novelties, and so that the Church, spreadthroughout the world, may be "of one tongue and of the same speech"[Gen. 11:1].

1604 Since in vernacular speech we notice very frequent interchanges,varieties, and changes, surely by an unrestrained license of Biblicalversions that changelessness which is proper to the divine testimonywould be utterly destroyed, and faith itself would waver, when,especially, from the meaning of one syllable sometimes an understandingabout the truth of a dogma is formed. For this purpose, then, theheretics have been accustomed to make their low and base machinations,in order that by the publication of their vernacular Bibles, (of whosestrange variety and discrepancy they, nevertheless, accuse one anotherand wrangle) they may, each one, treacherously insert their own errorswrapped in the more holy apparatus of divine speech. "For heresies arenot born," St. Augustine used to say, "except when the true Scripturesare not well understood and when what is not well understood in them israshly and boldly asserted.'' * But, if we grieve that men renowned forpiety and wisdom have, by no means rarely, failed in interpreting theScriptures, what should we not fear if the Scriptures, translated intoevery vulgar tongue whatsoever, are freely handed on to be read by aninexperienced people who, for the most part, judge not with any skillbut with a kind of rashness? . . .

1605 Therefore, in that famous letter of his to the faithful of theChurch at Meta, Our predecessor, Innocent III, * quite wiselyprescribes as follows: "In truth the secret mysteries of faith are notto be exposed to all everywhere, since they cannot be understood by alleverywhere, but only by those who can grasp them with the intellect offaith. Therefore, to the more simple the Apostle says: "I gave you milkto drink as unto little ones in Christ, not meat" [ 1 Cor. 3:2]. Forsolid food is for the elders, as he said: "We speak wisdom . . . amongthe perfect" [1 Cor 2:6]; "for I judged not myself to know anythingamong you, but Jesus Christ and Him Crucified" [ 1 Cor. 2:2 ]. For sogreat is the depth of Divine Scripture that not only the simple and theunlettered, but even the learned and prudent are not fully able toexplore the understanding of it. Therefore, Scripture says that many"searching have failed in their search" [Ps. 63:7].

1606 "So it was rightly stated of old in the divine law, that even thebeast which touched the mountain should be stoned" [ Heb. 12:20 ;Exod.19:12] lest, indeed, any simple and ignorant person should presume toreach the sublimity of Sacred Scripture, or to preach it to others. Forit is written:Seek not the things that are too high for thee [ Sir 3:22] Therefore, the Apostle warns "not to be more wise than it behoovethto be wise, but to be wise unto sobriety" [Rom. 12:3]. But, noteworthyare the Constitutions, not only of Innocent III, just mentioned, butalso of Pius IV, * Clement VIII, * and Benedict XIV * in which theprecaution was laid down that, if Scripture should be easily open toall, it would perhaps become cheapened and be exposed to contempt, or,if poorly understood by the mediocre, would lead to error. But, whatthe mind of the Church is in regard to the reading and interpretationof Scripture your fraternity may know very clearly from the excellentConstitution of another of Our predecessors, CLEMENT XI, "Unigenitus,"in which those doctrines were thoroughly condemned in which it wasasserted that it is useful and necessary to every age, to every place,to every type of person to know the mysteries of Sacred Scripture, thereading of which was to be open to all, and that it was harmful towithdraw Christian people from it, nay more, that the mouth of Christwas closed for the faithful when the New Testament was snatched fromtheir hands [Propositions of Quesnel 79-85; n.1429-1435].

LEO XII 1823-1829

The Versions of Sacred Scripture *

[From the Encyclical "Ubi primum,' May 5, 1824]

1607 . . . The wickedness of our enemies is progressing to such adegree that, besides the flood of pernicious books hostile inthemselves to religion' they are endeavoring to turn to the harm ofreligion even the Sacred Literature given to us by divine Providencefor the progress of religion itself. It is not unknown to you,Venerable Brethren, that a certain "Society," commonly called"Biblical," is boldly spreading through the whole world, which,spurning the traditions of the Holy Fathers and against the well-knowndecree [see n. 786] of the Council of Trent, is aiming with all itsstrength and means toward this: to translate--or rathermistranslate--the Sacred Books into the vulgar tongue of every

1608 And to avert this plague, Our predecessors have published manyConstitutions [e.g., PIUS VII; see n. 1602 ff.]. . . . We, also, inaccord with our Apostolic duty, encourage you, Venerable Brothers, tobe zealous in every way to remove your flock away from these poisonouspastures. "Reprove, entreat, be instant in season, out of season, inall patience and doctrine" [2 Tim. 4:2], so that your faithful people,clinging exactly to the regulations of our Congregation of the Index,may be persuaded that, "if the Sacred Books are permitted everywherewithout discrimination in the vulgar tongue, more harm will arisetherefrom than advantage, because of the boldness of men." Experiencedemonstrates the truth of this and, besides other Fathers, St.Augustine has declared in these words: "For not . . ." [see n.1604].

PIUS VIII 1829-1830

Usury *

[Response of Pius Vlll to the Bishop of Rheims,*

given in audience, August 18, 1830]

1609 The Bishop of Rheims in France explains that. . ., the confessorsof his diocese do not hold the same opinion concerning the profitreceived from money given as a loan to business men, in order that theymay be enriched thereby. There is bitter dispute over the meaning ofthe Encyclical Letter, "Vix pervenit" [see n. 1475ff.]. On both sidesarguments are produced to defend the opinion each one has embraced,either favorable to such profit or against it. Thence come quarrels,dissensions, denial of the sacraments to many business men engaging inthat method of making money, and countless damage to souls. To meetthis harm to souls, some confessors think they can hold a middle coursebetween both opinions. If anyone consults them about gain of this sort,they try to dissuade him from it. If the penitent perseveres in hisplan of giving money as a loan to business men, and objects that anopinion favorable to such a loan has many patrons, and moreover, hasnot been condemned by the Holy See, although more than once consultedabout it, then these confessors demand that the penitent promise toconform in filial obedience to the judgment of the Holy Pontiffwhatever it may be, if he should intervene; and having obtained thispromise, they do not deny them absolution, although they believe anopinion contrary to such a loan is more probable. If a penitent doesnot confess the gain from money given as a loan, and appears to be ingood faith, these confessors, even if they know from other sources thatgain of this sort has been taken by him and is even now being takenthey absolve him, making no interrogation about the matter, becausethey fear that the penitent, being advised to make restitution or torefrain from such profit, will refuse.

1610 Therefore the said Bishop of Rheims inquires:

1. Whether he can approve the method of acting on the part of these latter confessors.

2. Whether he could encourage other more rigid confessors whocome to consult him to follow the plan of action of those others untilthe Holy See brings out an express opinion on this question.

Pius Vlll responded:

To 1: They are not to be disturbed. To II: Provided for in the first.

GREGORY XVI 1831-1846

Usury *

[Declarations about a response of PIUS VIII *]

1611 A. To the doubts of the Bishop of Viviers: *

1 "Whether the aforesaid judgment of the Most Holy Pontiff mustbe understood as its words sound, and aside from the title of the lawof the prince, about which the Most Eminent Cardinals speak in theseresponses, so that it is just a matter of a loan made to business men.

2. "Or whether the title from the law of the prince, about whichthe Eminent Cardinals speak, must be so understood that it is enoughthat the law of the prince declares that it is licit for anyone toagree about a gain made from a loan only, as happens in the civil codeof the Franks, without saying that it (law of the prince) grants theright to receive such gain."

The Congregation of the Holy Office responded August 31,1831:This has been taken care of in the decree of Wednesday, August 18,1830, and let the decrees be given.

1612 B. To the doubt of the Bishop of Nicea:

"Whether penitents, who have taken a moderate gain from a loanonly, under title of the law, in doubtful or bad faith, can besacramentally absolved without the imposition of the burden ofrestitution, provided they are sincerely sorry for the sin committedbecause of doubtful or bad faith, and are ready in filial obedience toobserve the commands of the Holy See."

The Congregation of the Holy' Office responded fan. 17, 1838:

Yes, provided they are ready to observe the commands of the Holy See. . . .*

Indifferentism (against Felicite de Lamennais) *

[From the Encyclical "Mirari vos arbitramur," Aug. 15, 1832]

1613 Now we examine another prolific cause of evils by which, welament, the Church is at present afflicted, namely indifferentism, orthat base opinion which has become prevalent everywhere through thedeceit of wicked men, that eternal salvation of the soul can beacquired by any profession of faith whatsoever, if morals are conformedto the standard of the just and the honest. . . . And so from this mostrotten source of indifferentism flows that absurd and erroneousopinion, or rather insanity, that liberty of conscience must be claimedand defended for anyone.

1614 Indeed, to this most unhealthy error that full and immoderateliberty of opinions which is spreading widely to the destruction of thesacred and civil welfare opens the way, with some men repeatedlyasserting with supreme boldness that some advantage flows therefrom toreligion itself. But "what death of the soul is worse than freedom forerror?" Augustine used to say [ep. 166* ]. For, since all restraint hasbeen removed by which men are kept on the paths of truth, since theirnature inclined to evil is now plunging headlong, we say that the"bottom of the pit" has truly been opened, from which John [Rev. 9:3 ]saw "smoke arising by which the sun was darkened with locusts" comingout of it to devastate the earth. . . .

1615 Nor can we foresee more joyful omens for religion and the statefrom the wishes of those who desire that the Church be separated fromthe State, and that the mutual concord of the government with thesacred ministry be broken. For it is certain that that concord isgreatly feared by lovers of this most shameless liberty, which hasalways been fortunate and salutary for the ecclesiastical and the civilwelfare.

1616 Having embraced with paternal affection those especially who haveapplied their mind particularly to the sacred disciplines and tophilosophic questions, encourage and support them so that they may not,by relying on the powers of their own talents alone, imprudently goastray from the path of truth into the way of the impious. Let themremember "that God is the guide of wisdom and the director of the wise"[cf.Wisd.7:15], and that it is not possible to learn to know Godwithout God, who by means of the Word teaches men to know God. * It ischaracteristic of the proud, or rather of the foolish man to test themysteries of faith "which surpasseth all understanding" [ Phil. 4:7] byhuman standards, and to entrust them to the reasoning of our mind,which by reason of the condition of our human nature is weak and infirm.

The False Doctrines of Felicite de Lamennais*

[From the Encyclical, "Singular) nos affecerant gaudio"

to the Bishops of France, June 25, 1834]

1617 But it is a very mournful thing, by which the ravings of humanreason go to ruin when someone is eager for revolution and, against theadvice of the Apostle, strives "to be more wise than it behooveth to bewise" [cf. Rom. 12:3 ], and trusting too much in himself, affirms thattruth must be sought outside of the Catholic Church in which truthitself is found far from even the slightest defilement of error, andwhich therefore, is called and is "the pillar and ground of the truth"[1 Tim. 3 15 ]. But you well understand, Venerable Brothers, that Weare here speaking in open disapproval of that false system ofphilosophy, not so long ago introduced, by which, because of anextended and unbridled desire of novelty, truth is not sought where ittruly resides, and, with a disregard for the holy and apostolictraditions, other vain, futile, uncertain doctrines, not approved bythe Church are accepted as true, on which very vain men mistakenlythink that truth itself is supported and sustained.

Condemnation of the Works of George Hermes *

[From the Brief "Dum acerbissimas," Sept. 26, 1835]

1618 To increase the anxieties by which we are overwhelmed day andnight because of this (namely, persecutions of the Church), thefollowing calamitous and highly lamentable circumstance is added: Amongthose who strive in behalf of religion by published works some dare tointrude themselves insincerely, who likewise wish to seem and who showthat they are fighting on behalf of the same religion, in order that,though retaining the appearance of religion yet despising the truth,they can the more easily seduce and pervert the incautious "byphilosophy" or by their false philosophic treatises "and vain deceit"[Col. 2:8], and hence deceive the people and extend helping hands moreconfidently to the enemies who openly rage against it (religion).Therefore, when the impious and insidious labors of any one of thesewriters have become known to us, we have not delayed by means of ourencyclicals and other Apostolic letters to denounce their cunning anddepraved plans, and to condemn their errors, and, at the same time, toexpose the deadly deceits by which they very cunningly endeavor tooverthrow completely the divine constitution of the Church andecclesiastical discipline, nay, even the whole public order itself.Indeed, it has been proved by a very sad fact that at length, layingaside the veil of pretense, they have already raised on high the bannerof hostility against whatever power has been established by God.

1619 But this alone is not the most grievous cause for mourning. For inaddition to those who, to the scandal of all Catholics, have giventhemselves over to the enemy, to add to our bitter sorrow we see someenter ing even into the study of theology who, through a desire andpassion for novelty "ever learning and never attaining to the knowledgeof the truth" [2 Tim. 3:7], are teachers of error, because they havenot been disciples of truth. In fact, they infect sacred studies withstrange and unapproved doctrines, and they do not hesitate to profaneeven the office of teacher, if they hold a position in the schools andacademies; they are known to falsify the most sacred deposit of faithitself, while boasting that they are protecting it Among the teachersof this sort of error, because of his constant and almost universalreputation throughout Germany, George Hermes is numbered as one whoboldly left the royal path, which universal tradition and the most HolyFathers have marked out in explaining and vindicating the truths offaith; nay, even haughtily despising and condemning it, he is nowbuilding a darksome way to error of all kinds on positive doubt as abasis for all theological inquiry, and on the principle which statesthat reason is the chief norm and only medium whereby man can acquireknowledge of supernatural truths. . . .

1620 Therefore, we ordered that these books be handed over to thetheologians most skilled in the German language to be diligentlyscrutinized in every part. . . . At length ... [the most EminentCardinal Inquisitors], weighing each and everything with great care, asthe gravity of the matter demanded, judged that the author "was growingvain in his thoughts" [Rom. 1:21], and had woven into the said worksmany absurd ideas foreign to the teaching of the Catholic Church; butespecially concerning the nature of faith and the rule of things to bebelieved, about Sacred Scripture, tradition, revelation, and theteaching office of the Church; about motives of credibility, aboutproofs by which the existence of God is wont to be established andconfirmed; about the essence of God Himself, His holiness, justice,liberty, and His purpose in works which the theologians call external;and also about the necessity of grace, the distribution of it and ofgifts, recompense of awards, and the infliction of penalties, about thestate of our first parents, original sin, and the powers of fallen man;these same books, inasmuch as they contain doctrines and propositionsrespectively false, rash, captious, inducive to skepticism andindifferentism, erroneous, scandalous, injurious to Catholic schools,destructive of divine faith, suggesting heresy and other thingscondemned by the Church (the Most Eminent Cardinals) decree must beprohibited and condemned.

1621 And so we condemn and reject the aforesaid books wherever and inwhatever idiom, in every edition or version so far published or to bepublished in the future, which God forbid, under tenor of these presentletters, and we further command that they be placed on the Index offorbidden books.

Faith and Reason (against Louis Eugene Bautain) *

[Theses written by Bautain under order of his bishop, Sept. 8,

1840]

1622 1. Reason can prove with certitude the existence of God andthe infinity of His perfections. Faith, a heavenly gift, is posteriorto revelation; hence it cannot be brought forward against an atheist toprove the existence of God [cf. n.1650].

1623 2. The divinity of the Mosaic revelation is proved with certitudeby the oral and written tradition of the synagogue and of Christianity.

1624 3. Proof drawn from the miracles of Jesus Christ, sensibleand striking for eyewitnesses, has in no way lost its force andsplendor as regards subsequent generations. We find this proof with allcertitude in the authenticity of the New Testament, in the oral andwritten tradition of all Christians. By this double tradition we shoulddemonstrate it (namely, revelation) to those who either reject it or,who, not having admitted it, are searching for it.

1625 4. We do not have the right to expect from an unbeliever that headmit the resurrection of our divine Savior before we shall haveproposed definite proofs to him; and these proofs are deduced by reasonfrom the same tradition.

1626 5. In regard to these various questions, reason precedes faith and should lead us to it [cf. n.1651].

1627 6. Although reason was rendered weak and obscure by original sin,yet there remained in it sufficient clarity and power to lead us withcertitude to a knowledge of the existence of God, to the revelationmade to the Jews by Moses, and to Christians by our adorable Man-God.*

The Matter of Extreme Unction *

[From the decree of the Sacred Office under Paul V,

Jan. 13. 1611, and Gregory XVI, Sept. 14, 1842]

1628 1. Proposition:"that without doubt the sacrament of extremeunctioncan be validly administered with oil not consecrated byepiscopal blessing." The Sacred Office on fan. 13, 1611, declared:it isdestructive and very close to error.

1629 2.Similarly, to the doubt:whether in a case of necessity asregards the validity of thesacrament of extreme unction, a parishpriest could useoil blessed by himself.

The Sacred Office, Sept. 14, 1842, replied:negatively, accordingto the form of the decree of Thursday in the presence of His Holiness,Jan. 13, 1611, which resolution Gregory XVI approved on the sameday.

Versions of Sacred Scripture*

[From the Encyclical, "Inter praecipuas," May 6, 1844]

1630 . . . Indeed, you are aware that from the first ages calledChristian ,it has been the peculiar artifice of heretics that,repudiating the traditional Word of God, and rejecting the authority ofthe Catholic Church ,they either falsify the Scriptures at hand, oralter the explanation of the meaning. In short, you are not ignorant ofhow much diligence andwisdomisneeded to translate faithfully intoanother tongue the words of the Lord; so that, surely, nothing couldhappen more easily than that in the versions of these Scriptures,multiplied by the Biblical societies, very grave errors creep in fromthe imprudence or deceit of so many translators; further, the verymultitude and variety of those versions conceal these errors for a longtime to the destruction of many. However, it is of little or nointerest at all to these societies whether the men likely to read theseBibles translated into the vulgar tongue, fall into some errors ratherthan others, provided they grow accustomed little by little to claimingfree judgment for themselves with regard to the sense of theScriptures, and also to despising the divine tradition of the Fatherswhich has been guarded by the teaching of the Catholic Church, and torepudiating the teaching office itself of the Church.

1631 Toward this end those same Biblical associates do not cease toslander the Church and this Holy See of PETER, as if it were attemptingfor these many centuries to keep the faithful people from a knowledgeof the Sacred Scriptures; although, on the other hand, there are extantmany very illuminating documents of remarkable learning which theSupreme Pontiffs and other Catholic bishops under their leadership,have used in these more recent times, that Catholic peoples might beeducated more exactly according to the written and traditional word ofGod.

1632 Among those rules, which have been written by the Fatherschosen by the Council of Trent and approved by Pius IV * . . . and setin the front part of the Index of prohibited books, in the generalsanction of the statutes one reads that Bibles published in a vulgartongue were not permitted to anyone, except to those to whom thereading of them was judged to be beneficial for the increase of theirfaith and piety. To this same rule, limited immediately by a newcaution because of the persistent deceits of heretics, this declarationwas at length appended by the authority of Benedict XIV, thatpermission is granted for reading vernacular versions which have beenapproved by the Apostolic See, or have been edited with annotationsdrawn from the Holy Fathers of the Church or from learned Catholic men.. . . All the aforesaid Biblical societies, condemned a short time agoby our predecessors, we again condemn with Apostolic authority.

1633 Hence, let it be known to everyone that all those will be guiltyof a very grave fault in the eyes of God and of the Church who persumeto enroll in any one of these societies, or to adapt their work to themor to favor them in any way whatsoever.

PIUS IX 1846-1878

Faith and Reason *

[From the Encyclical, "Qui pluribus," Nov. 9, 1846]

1634 For you know, Venerable Brethren, that these hostile enemies ofthe Christian name, unhappily seized by a certain blind force of madimpiety, proceed with this rashness of thought that "opening theirmouth unto blasphemies against God" [cf. Rev. 13:6] with a boldnessutterly unknown, are not ashamed to teach openly and publicly that themost holy mysteries of our religion are the fictions and inventions ofmen; that the teaching of the Catholic Church is opposed [see n. 1740]to the good and to the advantage of society, and they do not fear evento abjure Christ Himself and God. And, to delude the people more easilyand to deceive especially the incautious and the inexperienced, and todrag them with themselves into error, they pretend that the ways toprosperity are known to them alone; and do not hesitate to arrogate tothemselves the name of philosophers, just as if philosophy, which isoccupied wholly in investigating the truth of nature, ought to rejectthose truths which the supreme and most clement God Himself, author ofall nature, deigned to manifest to men with singular kindness andmercy, in order that men might obtain true happiness and salvation.

1635 Hence, by a preposterous and deceitful kind of argumentation, theynever cease to invoke the power and excellence of human reason, toproclaim it against the most sacred faith of Christ, and, what is more,they boldly prate that it (faith) is repugnant to human reason [see n.1706]. Certainly, nothing more insane, nothing more impious, nothingmore repugnant to reason itself can be imagined or thought of thanthis. For, even if faith is above reason, nevertheless, no truedissension or disagreement can ever be found between them, since bothhave their origin from one and the same font of immutable, eternaltruth, the excellent and great God, and they mutually help one anotherso much that right reason demonstrates the truth of faith, protects it,defends it; but faith frees reason from all errors and, by a knowledgeof divine things, wonderfully elucidates it, confirms, and perfects it[cf. n. 1799].

1636 And with no less deceit certainly, Venerable Brothers, thoseenemies of divine revelation, exalting human progress with the highestpraise, with a rash and sacrilegious daring would wish to introduce itinto the Catholic religion, just as if religion itself were not thework of God but of men, or were some philosophical discovery which canbe perfected by human means [cf. n. 1705]. Against such unhappilyraving men applies very conveniently, indeed, what Tertulliandeservedly made a matter of reproach to the philosophers of his owntime: "Who have produced a stoic and platonic and dialecticChristianity.''* And since, indeed, our most holy religion has not beeninvented by human reason but has been mercifully disclosed to men byGod, thus everyone easily understands that religion itself acquires allits force from the authority of the same God speaking, and cannot everbe drawn from or be perfected by human reason.

1637 Indeed, human reason, lest it be deceived and err in a matter ofso great importance, ought to search diligently for the fact of divinerevelation so that it can know with certainty that God has spoken, andso render to Him, as the Apostle so wisely teaches, "a rationalservice" [ Rom. 12:1]. For who does not know, or cannot know that allfaith is to be given to God who speaks, and that nothing is moresuitable to reason itself than to acquiesce and firmly adhere to thosetruths which it has been established were revealed by God, who canneither deceive nor be deceived?

1638 But, how many, how wonderful, how splendid are the proofs at handby which human reason ought to be entirely and most clearly convincedthat the religion of Christ is divine, and that "every principle of ourdogmas has received its root from above, from the Lord of theheavens,"* and that, therefore, nothing is more certain than our faith,nothing more secure, that there is nothing more holy and nothing whichis supported on firmer principles. For, in truth, this faith is theteacher of life, the index of salvation, the expeller of all faults,and the fecund parent and nurse of virtues, confirmed by the birth,life, death, resurrection, wisdom, miracles, prophecies of its authorand consummator, Christ Jesus; everywhere resplendent with the light ofa supernatural teaching and enriched with the treasures of heavenlyriches, especially clear and significant by the predictions of so manyprophets, by the splendor of so many miracles, by the constancy of somany martyrs, by the glory of so many saints, revealing the salutarylaws of Christ and acquiring greater strength every day from these mostcruel persecutions, (this faith) has pervaded the whole earth by landand sea, from the rising to the setting of the sun, under the onestandard of the Cross, and also, having overcome the deceits ofidolaters and torn away the mist of errors and triumphed over enemiesof every kind, it has illuminated with the light of divine knowledgeall peoples, races, nations, howsoever barbarous in culture anddifferent in disposition, customs, laws, and institutions; and hassubjected them to the most sweet yoke of Christ Himself, "announcingpeace" to all, "announcing good" [Isa. 52:7]. All of this certainlyshines everywhere with so great a glory of divine wisdom and power thatthe mind and intelligence of each one clearly understands that theChristian Faith is the work of God.

1639 And so, human reason, knowing clearly and openly from these mostsplendid and equally strong proofs that God is the author of the samefaith, can proceed no further; but, having completely cast aside andremoved every difficulty and doubt, it should render all obedience tothis faith, since it holds as certain that whatever faith itselfproposes to man to be believed or to be done, has been transmitted byGod.*

Civil Marriage *

[From the Allocution, "Acerbissimum vobiscum," Sept. 27, 1857]

1640 We say nothing about that other decree in which, after completelydespising the mystery, dignity, and sanctity of the sacrament ofmatrimony; after utterly ignoring and distorting its institution andnature; and after completely spurning the power of the Church over thesame sacrament, it was proposed, according to the already condemnederrors of heretics, and against the teaching of the Catholic Church,that marriage should be considered as a civil contract only, and thatdivorce, strictly speaking, should be sanctioned in various cases (seen.1767); and that all matrimonial cases should be deferred to laytribunals and be judged by them (see n.1774); because no Catholic isignorant or cannot know that matrimony is truly and properly one of theseven sacraments of the evangelical law, instituted by Christ the Lord,and that for that reason, there can be no marriage between the faithfulwithout there being at one and the same time a sacrament, and that,therefore, any other union of man and woman among Christians, exceptthe sacramental union, even if contracted under the power of any civillaw, is nothing else than a disgraceful and death-bringing concubinagevery frequently condemned by the Church, and, hence, that the sacramentcan never be separated from the conjugal agreement (see n. 1773), andthat it pertains absolutely to the power of the Church to discern thosethings which can pertain in any way to the same matrimony.

Definition of the Immaculate Conception of the B.V.M. *

[From the Bull, "Ineffabilis Deus," Dec. 8, 1854]

1641 . . . To the honor of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, to theglory and adornment of the Virgin Mother of God, to the exaltation ofthe Catholic Faith and the increase of the Christian religion, by theauthority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the blessed Apostles, Peter andPaul, and by Our own, We declare, pronounce, and define that thedoctrine, which holds that the most Blessed Virgin Mary at the firstinstant of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege ofAlmighty God, in virtue of the merits of Christ Jesus, the Savior ofthe human race, was preserved immaculate from all stain of originalsin, has been revealed by God, and on this account must be firmly andconstantly believed by all the faithful. Wherefore, if any shouldpresume to think in their hearts otherwise than as it has been definedby Us, which God avert, let them know and understand that they arecondemned by their own judgment; that they have suffered shipwreck inregard to faith, and have revolted from the unity of the Church; andwhat is more, that by their own act they subject themselves to thepenalties established by law, if, what they think in their heart, theyshould to signify by word or writing or any other external means.

Rationalism and Indifferentism*

[From the Allocution, "Singular) quadem," Dec. 9, 1854]

1642 There are, besides, Venerable Brothers, certain men pre-eminent inlearning, who confess that religion is by far the most excellent giftgiven by God to men, who, nevertheless, hold human reason at so high avalue, exalt it so much, that they very foolishly think that it is tobe held equal to religion itself. Hence, according to the rash opinionof these men, theological studies should be treated in the same manneras philosophical studies [see n.1708], although, nevertheless, theformer are based on the dogmas of faith, than which nothing is morefixed and certain, while the latter are explained and illustrated byhuman reason, than which nothing is more uncertain, inasmuch as theyvary according to the variety of natural endowments and are subject tonumberless errors and delusions. Therefore, the authority of the Churchbeing rejected, a very broad field lies open to every difficult andabstract question, and human reason, trusting too freely in its ownweak strength, has fallen headlong into most shameful errors, whichthere is neither time nor inclination to mention here; for, they arewell known to you and have been examined by you, and they have broughtharm, and that very great, to both religious and civil affairs.Therefore, it is necessary to show to those men who exalt more than isjust the strength of human reason that it (their attitude) isdefinitely contrary to those true words of the Doctor of the Gentiles:"If any man think himself to be something, whereas he is nothing, hedeceiveth himself" [Gal. 6:3]. And so it is necessary to show them howgreat is their arrogance in examining the mysteries which God in Hisgreat goodness has deigned to reveal to us, and in pretending tounderstand and to comprehend them by the weakness and narrowness of thehuman mind, since those mysteries far exceed the power of our intellectwhich, in the words of the same Apostle, should be made captive untothe obedience of faith [cf. 2 Cor. 10:5].

1643 And so, such followers, or rather worshipers of humanreason, who set up reason as a teacher of certitude, and who promisethemselves that all things will be fortunate under its leadership, havecertainly forgotten how grave and terrible a wound was inflicted onhuman nature from the fault of our first parent; for darkness hasspread over the mind, and the will has been inclined to evil. For thisreason, the famous philosophers of ancient times, although they wrotemany things very clearly, have nevertheless contaminated theirteachings with most grave errors; hence that constant struggle which weexperience in ourselves, of which the Apostle says: "I see a law in mymembers fighting against the law of my mind" [Rom. 7 23]

1644 Now, since it is agreed that by the original sin propagated in allthe posterity of Adam, the light of reason has been decreased; andsince the human race has most miserably fallen from its pristine stateof justice and innocence, who could think that reason is sufficient toattain to truth? Who, lest he fall and be ruined in the midst of suchgreat dangers and in such great weakness of his powers, would deny thathe needs the aid of a divine religion, and of heavenly grace forsalvation? These aids, indeed, God most graciously bestows on those whoask for them by humble prayer, since it is written: "God resisteth theproud and giveth grace to the humble" [ Jas. 4:6]. Therefore, turningtoward the Father, Christ our Lord affirmed that the deepest secrets oftruth have not been disclosed "to the wise and prudent of this world,"who take pride in their own talents and learning, and refuse to renderobedience to faith, but rather (have been revealed) to humble andsimple men who rely and rest on the oracle of divine faith [cf.Matt.11:25 ; Luke 10:21 ].

1645 You should inculcate this salutary lesson in the souls of thosewho exaggerate the strength of human reason to such an extent that theyventure by its help to scrutinize and explain even mysteries, althoughnothing is more inept, nothing more foolish. Strive to withdraw themfrom such perversity of mind by explaining indisputably that nothingmore excellent has been given by the providence of God to man than theauthority of divine faith; that this is for us, as it were, a torch inthe darkness, a guide which we follow to life; that this is absolutelynecessary for salvation; for, "without faith . . . it is impossible toplease God" [ Heb. 11:6] and "he that believeth not, shall becondemned"[Mark 16:16].

1646 Not without sorrow we have learned that another error, no lessdestructive, has taken possession of some parts of the Catholic world,and has taken up its abode in the souls of many Catholics who thinkthat one should have good hope of the eternal salvation of all thosewho have never lived in the true Church of Christ [see n. 1717].Therefore, they are wont to ask very often what will be the lot andcondition after death of those who have not submitted in any way to theCatholic faith, and, by bringing forward most vain reasons, they make aresponse favorable to their false opinion. Far be it from Us, VenerableBrethren, to presume on the limits of the divine mercy which isinfinite; far from Us, to wish to scrutinize the hidden counsel and"judgments of God" which are 'a great deep" [ Ps. 35:7] and cannot bepenetrated by human thought. But, as is Our Apostolic duty, we wishyour episcopal solicitude and vigilance to be aroused, so that you willstrive as much as you can to drive from the mind of men that impiousand equally fatal opinion, namely, that the way of eternal salvationcan be found in any religion whatsoever. May you demonstrate with thatskill and learning in which you excel, to the people entrusted to yourcare that the dogmas of the Catholic faith are in no wise opposed todivine mercy and justice.

1647 For, it must be held by faith that outside the Apostolic RomanChurch, no one can be saved; that this is the only ark of salvation;that he who shall not have entered therein will perish in the flood;but, on the other hand, it is necessary to hold for certain that theywho labor in ignorance of the true religion, if this ignorance isinvincible, are not stained by any guilt in this matter in the eyes ofGod. Now, in truth, who would arrogate so much to himself as to markthe limits of such an ignorance, because of the nature and variety ofpeoples, regions, innate dispositions, and of so many other things?For, in truth, when released from these corporeal chains "we shall seeGod as He is" [ 1 John 3:2], we shall understand perfectly by how closeand beautiful a bond divine mercy and justice are united; but, as longas we are on earth, weighed down by this mortal mass which blunts thesoul, let us hold most firmly that, in accordance with Catholicteaching, there is "one God, one faith, one baptism" [ Eph. 4:5 ]; itis unlawful to proceed further in inquiry.

1648 But, just as the way of charity demands, let us pour forthcontinual prayers that all nations everywhere may be converted toChrist; and let us be devoted to the common salvation of men inproportion to our strength, "for the hand of the Lord is not shortened"[Isa. 9:1] and the gifts of heavenly grace will not be wanting thosewho sincerely wish and ask to be refreshed by this light. Truths ofthis sort should be deeply fixed in the minds of the faithful, lestthey be corrupted by false doctrines, whose object is to foster anindifference toward religion, which we see spreading widely and growingstrong for the destruction of souls.

False Traditionalism (against Augustine Bonnetty) *

[From the Decree of the S.C. of the Index, 11, (15) June, 1855]

1649 1 "Although faith is above reason, nevertheless no truedissension, no disagreement can ever be found between them, since botharise from the one same immutable source of truth, the most excellentand great God, and thus bring mutual help to each other" * [cf. n.1635and 1799]

1650 2. Reason can prove with certitude the existence of God, thespirituality of the soul, the freedom of man. Faith is posterior torevelation, and hence it cannot be conveniently alleged to prove theexistence of God to an atheist, or to prove the spirituality and thefreedom of the rational soul against a follower of naturalism andfatalism [cf. n.1622,1625 ].

1651 3. The use of reason precedes faith and leads men to it by the help of revelation and of grace [cf. n. 1626 ].

1652 4. The method which St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure and otherscholastics after them used does not lead to rationalism, nor has itbeen the reason why philosophy in today's schools is falling intonaturalism and pantheism. Therefore, it is not lawful to charge as areproach against these doctors and teachers that they made use of thismethod, especially since the Church approves, or at least keepssilent.*

The Misuse of Magnetism*

[From the Encyclical of the Holy Office, Aug. 4, 1856]

1653 . . Already some responses on this subject have been givenby the Holy See to particular cases, in which those experiments arecondemned as illicit which are arranged for a purpose not natural, nothonest, and not attained by proper means; therefore, in similar casesit was decreed on Wednesday, April 21, 1841: "The use of magnetism, asit is explained, is not permitted." Similarly, the Sacred Congregationdecreed that certain books stubbornly disseminating errors of this kindshould be condemned. But because, aside from particular cases, the useof magnetism in general had to be considered, by way of a ruletherefore it was so stated on Wednesday, July 28, 1847: "When allerror, soothsaying, explicit or implicit invocation of the demon isremoved, the use of magnetism, i.e., the mere act of employing physicalmedia otherwise licit, is not morally forbidden, provided it does nottend to an illicit end or to one that is in any manner evil. However,the application of principles and purely physical means to things andeffects truly supernatural, in order to explain them physically, isnothing but deception altogether illicit and heretical."

1654 Although by this general decree the lawfulness and unlawfulness inthe use or misuse of magnetism were satisfactorily explained,nevertheless the wickedness of men grew to such an extent thatneglecting the legitimate study of the science, pursuing rather thecurious, with great loss to souls and detriment to civil societyitself, they boast that they have discovered the principle offoretelling and divining. Thus, girls with the tricks of sleepwalkingand of clear-gazing, as they call it, carried away by delusions andgestures not always modest, proclaim that they see the invisible, andthey pretend with rash boldness to hold talks even about religion, toevoke the souls of the dead, to receive answers, to reveal the unknownand the distant, and to practice other superstitious things of thatsort, intending to acquire great gain for themselves and for theirmasters through their divining. Therefore, in all these, whatever artor illusion they employ, since physical media are used for unnaturaleffects, there is deception altogether illicit and heretical, and ascandal against honesty of morals.*

The False Doctrine of Anton Guenther*

[From the Brief, "Eximiam tuam" to Cardinal de Geissel. Archbishop of Cologne, June 15, 1857]

1655 Not without sorrow are We especially aware that in these booksthat erroneous and most dangerous system of rationalism, oftencondemned by this Apostolic See, is particularly dominant; and likewisewe know that in the same books these items among many others are found,which are not a little at variance with the Catholic Faith and with thetrue explanation of the unity of the divine substance in threedistinct, eternal Persons. Likewise, we have found that neither betternor more accurate are the statements made about the mystery of theIncarnate Word, and about the unity of the divine Person of the Word intwo natures, divine and human. We know that in the same books there isharm to the Catholic opinion and teaching concerning man, who is socomposed of body and soul that the soul, and that rational, may ofitself be the true and immediate form of the body. * And we are notunaware that in the same books those teachings are stated and defendedwhich are plainly opposed to the Catholic doctrine about the supremeliberty of God, who l is free from any necessity whatsoever in creatingthings.

1656 And also that extremely wicked and condemned doctrine which inGuenther's books rashly attributes the rights of a master both to humanreason and philosophy, whereas they should be wholly handmaids, notmasters in religious matters; and therefore all those things aredisturbed which should remain most stable, not only concerning thedistinction between science and faith, but also concerning the eternalimmutability of faith, which is always one and the same, whilephilosophy and human studies are not always consistent, and are notimmune to a multiple variety of errors.

1657 In addition, the Holy Fathers are not held in that reverencewhich the canons of the Councils prescribe, and which these splendidlights of the Catholic Church so altogether deserve, nor does herefrain from the slurring remarks against Catholic Schools, which Ourpredecessor of cherished memory, PIUS VI, solemnly condemned [seen.1576].

1658 Nor shall we pass over in silence that in Guenther's books "thesound form of speaking" is completely outraged, as if it were lawful toforget the words of the Apostle Paul [2 Tim. 1:13], or those whichAugustine most earnestly advised: "It is right for us to speakaccording to a fixed rule, lest liberty with words give birth to animpious opinion, even about the things which are signified by them''*[see n.1714a].

Errors of the Ontologists*

[From the decree of the Sacred Office, Sept. 18, 1861, "they cannot be safely taught"]

1659 1. Immediate knowledge of God, habitual at least, is essential tothe human intellect, so much so that without it the intellect can knownothing, since indeed it is itself intellectual light.

1660 2. That being which is in all things and without which we understand nothing, is the divine being.

1661 3. Universals considered on the part of the thing are not really distinguished from God.

1662 4. Congenital knowledge of God as being simply involves inan eminent way all other cognition, so that by it we hold as knownimplicitly all being, under whatever aspect it is knowable

1663 5. All other ideas do not exist except as modifications of the idea by which God is understood as Being simply.

1664 6. Created things exist in God as a part in the whole, not indeedin the formal whole, but in the infinite whole, the most simple, whichputs its parts, as it were, without any division and diminution ofitself outside itself.

1665 7. Creation can be thus explained: God, by that special act bywhich He knows Himself, and wills Himself as distinct from a determinedcreature, man, for example, produces a creature.

The False Freedom of Science (against James Frohschammer) *

[From the epistle, "Gravissimas inter,', to the Archbishop of Munich-Freising,

Dec. 11, 1862]

1666 Amidst the terrible anguish by which we are pressed on all sidesin the great restlessness and iniquity of these times, we are sorelygrieved to learn that in various regions of Germany are found some men,even Catholics, who, betraying sacred theology as well as philosophy,do not hesitate to introduce a certain freedom of teaching and writinghitherto unheard of in the Church, and to profess openly and publiclynew and altogether reprehensible opinions, and to disseminate themamong the people.

1667 Hence, We were affected with no light grief, Venerable Brother,when the sad message reached Us that the priest, James Frohschammer,teacher of philosophy in the Academy at Munich, was displaying, beyondall the rest, freedom of teaching and writing in this manner, and wasdefending these most dangerous errors in his works that have beenpublished. Therefore, with no delay We commanded Our Congregationappointed for censuring books to weigh with great diligence and carethe particular volumes which are circulating under the name of the samepriest, Frohschammer, and to report all findings to Us. These volumeswritten in German have the title: Introductio in Philophiam, DeLibertate scientiae, Athenaeum, the first of which was published in theyear 1858, the second in the year 1861, but the third at the turn ofthis year 1862, by the Munich press. And so the said Congregation . . .judged that the author in many matters does not think correctly, andthat his doctrine is far from Catholic truth.

1668 And this, especially in a twofold direction; the first, indeed,because the author attributes such powers to human reason which are notat all appropriate to reason itself; and the second, because he grantsto the same reason such liberty of judging all things, and of alwaysventuring anything, that the rights of the Church itself, its officeand authority are completely taken away.

1669 For the author teaches especially that philosophy, if a rightnotion of it is held, cannot only perceive and understand thoseChristian dogmas which natural reason has in common with faith (as, forinstance, a common object of perception), but also those whichparticularly and properly affect Christian religion and faith, namely,the supernatural end of man, and all that is related to it; and also,that the most holy mystery of the Incarnation of the Lord belongs tothe province of human reasoning and philosophy; and that reason, whenthis object is presented to it, can by its own proper principles,arrive at those (dogmas) with understanding. But, although the authormakes some distinction between these (natural) dogmas and those(Christian), and assigns these latter with less right to reason,nevertheless, he clearly and openly teaches that these (Christian)dogmas also are contained among those which constitute the true andproper matter of science or philosophy. Therefore, according to theteaching of the same author, it can and should be definitely concludedthat, even in the deepest mysteries of divine wisdom and goodness, nay,even of Its free will, granted that the object of revelation beposited, reason can of itself, no longer on the principle of divineauthority, but on its own natural principles and strength, reachunderstanding or certitude. How "false" and "erroneous" this teachingof the author is, there is no one, even though lightly imbued with therudiments of Christian doctrine, who does not see immediately andclearly understand.

1670 For, if these worshipers of philosophy were protecting the trueand sole principles and rights of reason and philosophic study, theyshould certainly be honored with merited praise. Indeed, true and soundphilosophy has its own most noble position, since it is thecharacteristic of such philosophy to search diligently into truth, andto cultivate and illustrate rightly and carefully human reason,darkened as it is by the guilt of the first man, but by no meansextinct; and to perceive, to understand well, to advance the object ofits cognition and many truths; and to demonstrate, vindicate, anddefend, by arguments sought from its own principles, many of thosetruths, such as the existence, nature, attributes of God which faithalso proposes for our belief; and, in this way, to build a road tothose dogmas more correctly held by faith, and even to those moreprofound dogmas which can be perceived by faith alone at first, so thatthey may in some way be understood by reason. The exacting and mostbeautiful science of true philosophy ought, indeed, to do such thingsand to be occupied with them. If the learned men in the academies ofGermany would make efforts to excel in this, in proportion to thatpeculiar well-known inclination of that nation to cultivate the moreserious and exacting studies, their zeal would be approved andcommended by Us, because they would be turning to the utility andprogress of sacred things that which they have learned for their ownuses.

1671 But, in truth, We can never tolerate that in so grave a matter asthis surely is, that all things be rashly confused, and that reasonshould seize upon and disturb those things which pertain also to faith,since the limits beyond which reason in its own right has neveradvanced nor can advance, are fixed and well-known to all. To dogmas ofthis sort pertain particularly and openly all those which treat of thesupernatural elevation of man and his supernatural intercourse withGod, and which are known to have been revealed for this purpose. Andsurely, since these dogmas are above nature, the' cannot, therefore, bereached by natural reason and natural principles. For, indeed, reasonby its own natural principles can never be made fit to handlescientifically dogmas of this sort. But, if those men dare to assertthis rashly, let them know that they are withdrawing, not merely fromthe opinion of a few learned persons, but from the common and neverchanging doctrine of the Church.

1672 For, from the divine Scriptures and from the tradition of the HolyFathers, it is agreed indeed that the existence of God and many othertruths were known [cf. Rom. 1] by the natural light of reason, even bythose who had not yet received the faith, but that God alone manifestedthose more hidden dogmas when He wished to make known "the mystery,which had been hidden from ages and generations" [Col. 1:26]. And insuch a way indeed that, "at sundry times and in diverse manners He hadformerly spoken to the fathers by the prophets, last of all . . . Hemight speak to us by His Son, . . . by whom He also made the world"[Heb. 1:1 f.]. For "no man hath seen God at any time: the only-begottenSon, who is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared Him" [John1:18]. Therefore, the Apostle who testifies that the gentiles knew Godby those things which were made, discoursing about "grace and truth"which "came by Jesus Christ" [John 1:17], says, "We speak of the wisdomof God in a mystery, a wisdom which is hidden . . . which none of theprinces of this world know . . . But to us God hath revealed them byHis Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea the deep things ofGod. For, what man knoweth the things of man but the spirit of a manthat is in him? So the things also that are of God, no man knoweth butthe Spirit of God" [1 Cor. 2:7 f].

1673 Adhering to these and other almost innumerable divine texts, theHoly Fathers, in transmitting the teaching of the Church, haveconstantly taken care to distinguish the knowledge of divine thingswhich is common to all by the power of natural intelligence, from theknowledge of those things which is received on faith through the HolySpirit; and they have continuously taught that through this (faith)those mysteries are revealed to us in Christ which transcend not onlyhuman philosophy but even the angelic natural intelligence, and which,although they are known through divine revelation and have beenaccepted by faith, nevertheless, remain still covered by the sacredveil of faith itself, and wrapped in an obscuring mist as long as weare absent from the Lord * in this mortal life. From all this, it isclear that the proposition of Frohschammer is wholly foreign to theteaching of the Catholic Church, since he does not hesitate to assertthat all the dogmas of the Christian religion without discriminationare the object of natural science or philosophy, and that human reason,cultivated so much throughout history, provided these dogmas have beenproposed to reason itself as an object, can from its own natural powersand principle, arrive at the true understanding concerning all, eventhe more hidden dogmas [see n. 1709].

1674 But now, in the said writings of this author another opinionprevails which is plainly opposed to the teaching and understanding ofthe Catholic Church. For, he attributes that freedom to philosophywhich must be called not the freedom of science but an utterlyreprobate and intolerable license of philosophy. For, having made acertain distinction between a philosopher and philosophy, he attributesto a "philosopher" the right and duty of submitting himself to theauthority which he himself has approved as true, but he denies both(right and duty) to philosophy, so that taking no account of revealeddoctrine he asserts that it (philosophy) ought never and can neversubmit itself to authority. And this might be tolerable and perhapsadmissible, if it were said only about the right which philosophy hasto use its own principles or methods, and its own conclusions, as alsothe other sciences, and if its liberty consisted in employing thisright in such a way that it would admit nothing into itself which hadnot been acquired by it under its own conditions, or was foreign to it.But, such true freedom of philosophy must understand and observe itsown limitations. For, it will never be permitted either to aphilosopher, or to philosophy, to say anything contrary to those thingswhich divine revelation and the Church teaches, or to call any of theminto doubt because (he or it) does not understand them, or to refusethe judgment which the authority of the Church decides to bring forwardconcerning some conclusion of philosophy which was hitherto free.

1675 It also happens that the same author so bitterly, so rashly fightsfor the liberty, or rather the unbridled license of philosophy that hedoes not at all fear to assert that the Church not only ought never topay any attention to philosophy, but should even tolerate the errors ofphilosophy itself, and leave it to correct itself [see n. 1711]; fromwhich it happens that philosophers necessarily share in this liberty ofphilosophy and so even they are freed from all law. Who does not seehow forcefully an opinion and teaching of this sort of Frohschammer'sshould be rejected, reproved, and altogether condemned? For the Church,from her divine institution, has the duty both to hold most diligentlyto the deposit of faith, whole and inviolate, and to watch continuallywith great earnestness over the salvation of souls, and with thegreatest care to remove and eliminate all those things which can beopposed to faith or can in any way endanger the salvation of souls

1676 Therefore, the Church, by the power entrusted to it by its divineFounder, has not only the right, but particularly the duty of nottolerating but of proscribing and condemning all errors, if theintegrity of faith and the salvation of souls so demand; and on everyphilosopher who wishes to be a son of the Church, and also onphilosophy, it lays this duty--never to say anything against thosethings which the Church teaches, and to retract those about which theChurch has warned them Moreover, We proclaim and declare that adoctrine which teaches the contrary is entirely erroneous andespecially harmful to faith itself, to the Church and its authority.

Indifferentism *

[From the Encyclical, "Quanto conficiamur moerore," to the bishops of Italy,

Aug. 10, 1863]

1677 And here, beloved Sons and Venerable Brothers, We should mentionagain and censure a very grave error in which some Catholics areunhappily engaged, who believe that men living in error, and separatedfrom the true faith and from Catholic unity, can attain eternal life[see n. 1717]. Indeed, this is certainly quite contrary to Catholicteaching. It is known to Us and to you that they who labor ininvincible ignorance of our most holy religion and who, zealouslykeeping the natural law and its precepts engraved in the hearts of allby God, and being ready to obey God, live an honest and upright life,can, by the operating power of divine light and grace, attain eternallife, since God who clearly beholds, searches, and knows the minds,souls, thoughts, and habits of all men, because of His great goodnessand mercy, will by no means suffer anyone to be punished with eternaltorment who has not the guilt of deliberate sin. But, the Catholicdogma that no one can be saved outside the Catholic Church iswell-known; and also that those who are obstinate toward the authorityand definitions of the same Church, and who persistently separatethemselves from the unity of the Church, and from the Roman Pontiff,the successor of PETER, to whom "the guardianship of the vine has beenentrusted by the Savior," * cannot obtain eternal salvation.

1678 But, God forbid that the sons of the Catholic Church ever in anyway be hostile to those who are not joined with us in the same bonds offaith and love; but rather they should always be zealous to seek themout and aid them, whether poor, or sick, or afflicted with any otherburdens, with all the offices of Christian charity; and they shouldespecially endeavor to snatch them from the darkness of error in whichthey unhappily lie, and lead them back to Catholic truth and to themost loving Mother the Church, who never ceases to stretch out hermaternal hands lovingly to them, and to call them back to her bosom sothat, established and firm in faith, hope, and charity, and "beingfruitful in every good work" [Col. 1:10], they may attain eternalsalvation.

The Conventions of the Theologians of Germany *

[From the letter, "Tuas libenter," to the Archbishop

of Munich-Freising, Dec. 21, 1863]

1679 . . . Indeed we were aware, Venerable Brother, that some Catholicswho devote their time to cultivating the higher studies, trusting toomuch in the powers of human ability, have not been frightened by thedangers of errors, lest, in asserting the false and insincere libertyof science, they be snatched away beyond the limits beyond which theobedience due to the teaching power of the Church, divinely appointedto preserve the integrity of all revealed truth, does not permit themto proceed. Therefore, it happens that Catholics of this sort areunhappily deceived, and often agree with those who decry and protestagainst the decrees of this Apostolic See and of Our Congregations,that they (decrees) hinder the free progress of science [see n. 1712];and they expose themselves to the danger of breaking those sacred tiesof obedience by which, according to the will of God, they are bound tothis same Apostolic See which has been appointed by God as the teacherand defender of truth.

1680 Nor, are We ignorant that in Germany also there prevailed a falseopinion against the old school, and against the teaching of thosesupreme doctors [see n. 1713], whom the universal Church veneratesbecause of their admirable wisdom and sanctity of life. By this falseopinion the authority of the Church itself is called into danger,especially since the Church, not only through so many continuouscenturies has permitted that theological science be cultivatedaccording to the method and the principles of these same Doctors,sanctioned by the common consent of all Catholic schools, but it (theChurch) also very often extolled their theological doctrine with thehighest praises, and strongly recommended it as a very strong buttressof faith and a formidable armory against its enemies. . . .

1681 Indeed, since all the men of this assembly, as you write, haveasserted that the progress of science and its happy result in avoidingand refuting the errors of our most wretched age depend entirely on aclose adherence to revealed truths which the Catholic Church teaches,they themselves have recognized and professed that truth, which trueCatholics devoted to cultivating and setting forth knowledge, havealways held and handed down. And so, relying on this truth, these wiseand truly Catholic men could cultivate these sciences in safety,explain them, and make them useful and certain. And this could not beachieved if the light of human reason, circumscribed by limits ininvestigating those truths also which it can attain by its own powersand faculties, did not venerate above all, as is just, the infallibleand uncreated light of the divine intellect which shines forthwonderfully everywhere in Christian revelation. For, although thosenatural disciplines rely on their own proper principles, apprehended byreason, nevertheless, Catholic students of these disciplines shouldhave divine revelation before their eyes as a guiding star, by whoselight they may guard against the quicksands of errors, when theydiscover that in their investigations and interpretations they can beled by them (natural principles)--as often happens---to profess thosethings which are more or less opposed to the infallible truth of thingswhich have been revealed by God.

1682 Hence, We do not doubt that the men of this assembly, knowing andprofessing the truth mentioned above, have wished at one and the sametime clearly to reject and repudiate that recent and preposterousmethod of philosophizing which, even if it admits divine revelation asan historical fact, nevertheless, submits the ineffable truths madeknown by divine revelation to the investigations of human reason; justas if those truths had been subject to reason, or, as if reason, by itsown powers and principles, could attain understanding and knowledge ofall the supernal truths and mysteries of our holy faith, which are sofar above human reason that it can never be made fit to understand ordemonstrate them by its own powers, and on its own natural principles[see n. 1709]. Indeed, We honor with due praise the men of this sameconvention because, rejecting, as We think, the false distinctionbetween philosopher and philosophy, about which We have spoken in ourother letter to you [see n. 1674], they have realized and professedthat all Catholics in their learned interpretations should inconscience obey the dogmatic decrees of the infallible Catholic Church.

1683 While, in truth, We laud these men with due praise because theyprofessed the truth which necessarily arises from their obligation tothe Catholic faith, We wish to persuade Ourselves that they did notwish to confine the obligation, by which Catholic teachers and writersare absolutely bound, only to those decrees which are set forth by theinfallible judgment of the Church as dogmas of faith to be believed byall [see n. 1722]. And We persuade Ourselves, also, that they did notwish to declare that that perfect adhesion to revealed truths, whichthey recognized as absolutely necessary to attain true progress in thesciences and to refute errors, could be obtained if faith and obediencewere given only to the dogmas expressly defined by the Church. For,even if it were a matter concerning that subjection which is to bemanifested by an act o f divine faith, nevertheless, it would not haveto be limited to those matters which have been defined by expressdecrees of the ecumenical Councils, or of the Roman Pontiffs and ofthis See, but would have to be extended also to those matters which arehanded down as divinely revealed by the ordinary teaching power of thewhole Church spread throughout the world, and therefore, by universaland common consent are held by Catholic theologians to belong to faith.

1684 But, since it is a matter of that subjection by which inconscience all those Catholics are bound who work in the speculativesciences, in order that they may bring new advantages to the Church bytheir writings, on that account, then, the men of that same conventionshould recognize that it is not sufficient for learned Catholics toaccept and revere the aforesaid dogmas of the Church, but that it isalso necessary to subject themselves to the decisions pertaining todoctrine which are issued by the Pontifical Congregations, and also tothose forms of doctrine which are held by the common and constantconsent of Catholics as theological truths and conclusions, so certainthat opinions opposed to these same forms of doctrine, although theycannot be called heretical, nevertheless deserve some theologicalcensure.

The Unity of the Church *

[From the letter of the Sacred Office to the bishops of England, Sept. 16, 1864.]

1685 It has been made known to the Apostolic See that some Catholiclaymen and ecclesiastics have enrolled in a society to "procure" asthey say, the unity of Christianity, established at London in the year1857, and that already many journalistic articles have been published,which are signed by the names of Catholics approving this society, orwhich are shown to be the work of churchmen commending this samesociety.

But certainly, I need not say what the nature of this society is,and whither it is tending; this is easily understood from the articlesof the newspaper entitled THE UNION REVIEW, and from that very page onwhich members are invited and listed. Indeed, formed and directed byProtestants, it is animated by that spirit which expressly avows forexample, that the three Christian communions, Roman Catholic,Greekschismatic, and Anglican, however separated and divided from oneanother, nevertheless with equal right claim for themselves the nameCatholic. Admission, therefore, into that society is open to all,wheresoever they may live, Catholics, Greek-schismatics, and Anglicans,under this condition, however, that no one is permitted to raise aquestion about the various forms of doctrine in which they disagree,and that it is right for each individual to follow with tranquil soulwhat is acceptable to his own religious creed. Indeed, the societyitself indicates to all its members the prayers to be recited, and tothe priests the sacrifices to be celebrated according to its ownintention: namely, that the said three Christian communions, inasmuchas they, as it is alleged, together now constitute the Catholic Church,may at some time or other unite to form one body. . . .

1686 The foundation on which this society rests is of such a naturethat it makes the divine establishment of the Church of no consequence.For, it is wholly in this: that it supposes the true Church of JesusChrist to be composed partly of the Roman Church scattered andpropagated throughout the whole world, partly, indeed, of the schism ofPhotius, and of the Anglican heresy, to which, as well as to the RomanChurch, "there is one Lord, one faith, and one baptism" [cf. Eph. 4:5].Surely nothing should be preferable to a Catholic man than that schismsand dissensions among Christians be torn out by the roots and that allChristians be "careful to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond ofpeace" [Eph. 4:3]. . . . But, that the faithful of Christ and theclergy should pray for Christian unity under the leadership ofheretics, and, what is worse, according to an intention, polluted andinfected as much as possible with heresy, can in no way be tolerated.The true Church of Jesus Christ was established by divine authority,and is known by a fourfold mark, which we assert in the Creed must bebelieved; and each one of these marks so clings to the others that itcannot be separated from them; hence it happens that that Church whichtruly is, and is called Catholic should at the same time shine with theprerogatives of unity, sanctity, and apostolic succession. Therefore,the Catholic Church alone is conspicuous and perfect in the unity ofthe whole world and of all nations, particularly in that unity whosebeginning, root, and unfailing origin are that supreme authority and"higher principality''* of blessed PETER, the prince of the Apostles,and of his successors in the Roman Chair. No other Church is Catholicexcept the one which, founded on the one PETER, grows into one "bodycompacted and fitly joined together" [Eph. 4:16] in the unity of faithand charity. . . .

1687 Therefore, the faithful should especially shun this Londonsociety, because those sympathizing with it favor indifferentism andengender scandal.

Naturalism, Communism, Socialism *

[From the Encyclical, "Quanta cura,'' Dec. 8, 1864]

1688 Moreover, although We have not failed to proscribe and frequentlycondemn the most important errors of this sort, nevertheless, the causeof the Catholic Church and the salvation of souls divinely entrusted toUs, and the good of human society itself, demand that We again arouseyour pastoral solicitude to overcome other base opinions which springfrom these same errors as from fountains. These false and pervertederrors are to be the more detested because they have this goal in mind:to impede and remove that salutary force which the Catholic Church,according to the institution and command of her divine founder, mustexercise freely "unto the consummation of the world" [Matt. 28:20], noless toward individual men, than toward nations, peoples, and theirhighest leaders; and to remove that mutual alliance of councils betweenthe sacerdotal ministry and the government, and that "happy concordwhich has always existed, and is so salutary to sacred and civilaffairs." *

1689 For, surely you know, Venerable Brothers, that at this time not afew are found who, applying the impious and absurd principles ofnaturalism, as they call it, to civil society, dare to teach that "thebest plan for public society, and civil progress absolutely requiresthat human society be established and governed with no regard toreligion, as if it did not exist, or at least, without makingdistinction between the true and the false religions." And also,contrary to the teaching of Sacred Scripture, of the Church, and of themost holy Fathers, they do not hesitate to assert that "the bestcondition of society is the one in which there is no acknowledgment bythe government of the duty of restraining, by established penalties,offenders of the Catholic religion, except insofar as the public peacedemands."

1690 And, from this wholly false idea of social organization they donot fear to foster that erroneous opinion, especially fatal to theCatholic Church and to the salvation of souls, called * by Ourpredecessor of recent memory, GREGORY XVI, insanity; namely, that"liberty of conscience and of worship is the proper right of every man,and should be proclaimed and asserted by law in every correctlyestablished society; that the right to all manner of liberty rests inthe citizens, not to be restrained by either ecclesiastical or civilauthority; and that by this right they can manifest openly and publiclyand declare their own concepts, whatever they be, by voice, by print,or in any other way." While, in truth, they rashly affirm this, they donot understand and note that they are preaching a "liberty ofperdition," * and that "if human opinions always have freedom fordiscussion, there could never be wanting those who will dare to resisttruth, and to trust in the eloquence of human (al. mundane) wisdom,when faith and Christian wisdom know from the very teaching of our LordJesus Christ how much it should avoid such harmful vanity." *

1691 And since, when religion has been removed from civil society, andwhen the teaching and authority of divine revelation have beenrepudiated; or the true notion of justice and human right is obscuredby darkness and lost; and when in place of true justice and legitimateright, material force is substituted, then it is clear why some,completely neglecting and putting aside the certain principles of soundreason, dare to exclaim: "The will of the people, manifested as theysay by public opinion, or in some other way, constitutes the supremelaw, freed from all divine and human right; and, that deeds consummatedin the political order, by the very fact that they have beenconsummated, have the force of right." But who does not see and plainlyunderstand that a society of men who are released from the bonds ofreligion and of true justice can have no other aim, surely, than thegoal of amassing and heaping up wealth, and that it (society) canfollow no other law in its actions except an uncontrolled cupidity ofsoul, a slave to its own pleasures and advantages ?

1692 Therefore, men of this sort pursue with bitter hatred religiousorders, no matter how supremely deserving because of their Christian,civil, and literary work; and they cry out that these same orders haveno legitimate reason for existing, and in this way approve thefalsehoods of heretics. For, as Our predecessor of recent memory, PIUSVI, very wisely taught, "abolition of the regulars wounds the status ofthe public profession of the evangelical counsels; it injures the wayof life approved in the Church as suitable to the apostolic teaching;it harms the most distinguished founders whom we venerate on ouraltars, who established these orders only when inspired by God.''*

1693 And they also make the impious pronouncement that from thecitizens and the Church must be taken away the power "by which they canask for alms openly in the cause of Christian charity," and also thatthe law should be repealed "by which on some fixed days, because of theworship of God, servile works are prohibited," pretending mostdeceitfully that the said power and law obstruct the principles of thebest public economy. And, not content with removing religion frompublic society, they wish even to banish religion itself from privatefamilies.

1694 For, teaching and professing that most deadly error of communismand socialism, they assert that "domestic society or the family borrowsthe whole reason for its existence from the civil law alone; and,hence, all rights of parents over their children, especially the rightof caring for their instruction and education, emanate from and dependwholly on the civil law."

1695 In these impious opinions and machinations these most deceitfulmen have this particular intention: that the saving doctrine and powerof the Catholic Church be entirely eliminated from the instruction andtraining of youth, and that the tender and impressionable minds ofyouths may be unfortunately infected and ruined by every perniciouserror and vice. For, all who have tried to disturb not only theecclesiastical but also the public welfare, and to overturn the justorder of society, and to destroy all rights, divine and human, havealways formed all their evil plans, studies, and work to deceive anddeprave especially unsuspecting youth, as we have intimated above, andhave placed all their hopes in the corruption of youth. Therefore, theynever cease to harass in every unspeakable way both clergy (secular andregular), from whom, as the genuine documents of history splendidlytestify, have flowed so many great advantages for Christian, civil, andliterary society; and they never cease to declare that the clergy "asan enemy to the true and useful progress of science and government,must be removed from all responsibility and duty of instructing andtraining youth."

1696 But, in truth, others, renewing the evil andso-many-times-condemned fabrications of the innovators, dare withsignal impudence to subject the supreme authority of the Church and ofthis Apostolic See, given to it by Christ the Lord, to the judgment ofthe civil authority, and to deny all rights of the same Church and Seewith regard to those things which pertain to the exterior order.

1697 For, they are not at all ashamed to affirm that "the laws of theChurch do not bind in conscience, except when promulgated by the civilpower; that the acts and decrees of the Roman Pontiffs relating toreligion and the Church, need the sanction and approval, or at leastthe assent, of the civil power; that the Apostolic Constitutions,* inwhich secret societies are condemned, whether an oath of secrecy isdemanded in them or not, and their followers and sympathizers arepunished with anathema, have no force in those regions of the worldwhere societies of this sort are allowed by the civil government; thatthe excommunication uttered by the Council of Trent and the RomanPontiffs against those who invade and usurp the rights and possessionsof the Church rests upon a confusion between the spiritual order andthe civil and political order for the attaining of a mundane good only;that the Church should decree nothing which could bind the consciencesof the faithful in relation to the use of temporal goods; that to theChurch does not belong the right to coerce by temporal punishmentsviolators of its laws; that it is conformable to the principles ofsacred theology, and to the principles of public law for the civilgovernment to claim and defend the ownership of the goods which arepossessed by churches, by religious orders, and by other pious places."

1698 Nor do they blush to profess openly and publicly the axiom andprinciple of heretics from which so many perverse opinions and errorsarise. For they repeatedly say that "the ecclesiastical power is not bydivine right distinct from and independent of the civil power, and thatthe distinction and independence of the same could not be preservedwithout the essential rights of the civil power being invaded andusurped by the Church." And, we cannot pass over in silence theboldness of those who "not enduring sound doctrine" [2 Tim. 4:3],contend that "without sin and with no loss of Catholic profession, onecan withhold assent and obedience to those judgments and decrees of theApostolic See, whose object is declared to relate to the general goodof the Church and its rights and discipline, provided it does not touchdogmas of faith or morals." There is no one who does not see andunderstand clearly and openly how opposed this is to the Catholic dogmaof the plenary power divinely bestowed on the Roman Pontiff by Christthe Lord Himself of feeding, ruling, and governing the universal Church.

1699 In such great perversity of evil opinions, therefore, We, trulymindful of Our Apostolic duty, and especially solicitous about our mostholy religion, about sound doctrine and the salvation of souls divinelyentrusted to Us, and about the good of human society itself, havedecided to lift Our Apostolic voice again And so all and each evilopinion and doctrine individually mentioned in this letter, by OurApostolic authority We reject, proscribe, and condemn; and We wish andcommand that they be considered as absolutely rejected, proscribed, andcondemned by all the sons of the Catholic Church.

"Syllabus," or Collection of Modern Errors *

[Excerpted from various Allocutions, Encyclicals, Epistles of PIUS IX,together with (the above quoted) Bull, "Quanta cure," edited Dec. 8,1864]

A. Index of the Acts of Pius IX, from which the Syllabus is excerpted

1700 1. The Encyclical Letter, "Qui pluribus," Nov. 9, 1846 (to thisare referred the propositions of the Syllabus 4--7, 16]. 40, 63).

2. The Allocution, "Quisque vestrum," Oct. 4,1847 (Prop. 63).

3. The Allocution, "Ubi primum," Dec. 17, 1847 (Prop. 16].

4. The Allocution, "Quibus quantisque," Apr. 20, 1849 (Prop. 40, 64,76).

5. The Encyclical Letter, "Nostis et Nobiscum," Dec. 8, 1849 (Prop.

6. The Allocution, "Si semper antea," May 20, 1850 (Prop. 76).

7. The Allocution, "In consistoriali," Nov. 1, 1850 (Prop. 43, 45).

8. The Condemnation, "Multiplices inter," June 10, 1851 (Prop. 15,21,23, 30, 51, 54, 68)9. The Condemnation, "Ad apostolicae," Aug. 22,1851 (Prop. 24, 25, 34 36, 38, 41, 42, 65 67, 69--75).

10. The Allocution, "Quibus luctuosissimis," Sept. 5, 1851 (Prop. 45).

11. Letter to the KING of Sardinia, Sept. 9, 1852 (Prop. 73).

12. The Allocution, "Acerbissimum," Sept. 27, 1852 (Prop. 31, 51, 53, 55, 67, 73,74, 78).

13. The Allocution, "Singular) quadam," Dec. 9, 1854 (Prop. 8, 17, 19).

14. The Allocution, "Probe memineritis," Jan. 22,1855 (Prop. 53).

15. The Allocution, "Cum saepe," July 26, 1855 (Prop. 53). 16]

16. The Allocution, "Nemo vestrum," July 26, 1855 (Prop. 77).

17. The Encyclical Letter, "Singular) quidem," Mar. 17., 1856 (Prop.4, 16].).

18. The Allocution, "Nunquam fore," Dec. (15), 1856 (Prop. 26, 28, 29, 31, 46, 50, 52, 79).

19. The Letter, "Eximiam tuam," to the Archbishop of Cologne, June 15, 1857 (Prop. 14 NB)

20. The Apostolic Letter, "Cum catholica Ecclesia," Mar. 26,1860 (Prop. 63, 76 NB)

21. The Letter, "Dolore haud mediocri," to the Bishop of Wratislava (Breslau), Apr. 30, 1860 (Prop. 14 NB).

22. The Allocution, "Novos et ante," Sept. 28, 1860 (Prop. 19, 62,76, NB).

23. The Allocution, "Multis gravibusque," Dec. 17., 1860 (Prop 37, 43,73).

24. The Allocution, "Iamdudum cernimus," Mar. 18, 1861, (Prop. 37, 61,76, NB, 80).

25. The Allocution, "Meminit unusquisque," Sept. 30, 1861 (Prop. 20).

26. The Allocution, "Maxima quidem," June 9, 1862 (Prop. 1--7, (15),19, 27, 39, 44, 49, 56--60, 76, NB)

27. The Letter, "Gravissimas inter," to the Archbishop of Munich-Freising, Dec. II, 1862 (Prop. 9--11).

28. The Encyclical Letter, "Quanto conficiamur moerore," Aug. 10, 1863 (Prop. 17., 58).

29. The Encyclical Letter, "Incredibili," Sept. 17., 1863 (Prop. 26).

30. The Letter, "Tuas libenter," to the Archbishop of Munich-Freising,

Dec. 21, 1863 (Prop. 9, 10, 12--14,, 22, 33).

31. The Letter, "Cum non sine," to the Archbishop of Friburg, July14, 1864 (Prop. 47,48).

32. The Letter, "Singularis Nobisque," to the Bishop of Montreal (?), Sept. 29, 1864 (Prop. 32).

B. Syllabus*

Comprising the particular errors of our age, which are noted in

consistorial Allocutions, in Encyclical and other Apostolic

Letters of His Holiness, our Lord Pope Pius IX *

Sec. 1. Pantheism, Naturalism, and Absolute Rationalism

1701 1. No supreme, all wise, and all provident divine Godhead exists,distinct from this world of things, and God is the same as the natureof things and, therefore, liable to changes; and God comes into beingin man and in the universe, and all things are God and they have thesame substance of God; and God is one and the same as the world, andtherefore, also, spirit is one and the same with matter, necessity withliberty, the true with the false, the good with the evil, and the justwith the unjust (26).*

1702 2. All action of God upon men and the world must be denied (26).

1703 3. Human reason, with absolutely no regard to God, is the onlyjudge of the true and the false, the good and the evil; it is a lawunto itself and is, by its own natural powers, suffcient to provide forthe good of individuals and of peoples (26).

1704 4.All truths of religion flow from the natural power of humanreason; hence, reason is the chief norm by which man can and shouldcome to a knowledge of all truths of whatever kind (1, 17., 26).

1705 5. Divine revelation is imperfect, and therefore subject tocontinuous and indefinite progress, which corresponds to the progressof human reason (1 [cf. n. 1636] 26).

1706 6. The faith of Christ is opposed to human reason; and divinerevelation is not only of no benefit to, but even harms the perfectionof man ( 1 [see n. 1635] 26).

1707 7. The prophecies and miracles described and related in SacredScripture are the inventions of poets; and the mysteries of theChristian faith are the culmination of philosophical investigations;and in the books of both Testaments are contained mythical inventions;and Jesus Christ Himself is a mythical fiction (1,26).

Sec. 11. Modified Rationalism

1708 8. Since human reason is equal to religion itself, therefore,theological studies must be conducted just as the philosophical 13.[see n. 1642]).

1709 9. All the dogmas of the Christian religion without distinctionare the object of natural science or philosophy; and human reason,cultivated so much throughout history, can by its natural powers andprinciples arrive at the true knowledge of all, even the more hiddendogmas, provided these dogmas have been proposed to reason itself asits object (27, 30 [see n. 1682]).

1710 10. Since a philosopher is one thing and philosophy another, theformer has the right and the duty to submit himself to the authoritywhich he himself has proved to be true; but philosophy cannot andshould not submit itself to any authority (27 [see n. 1673] 30 [see n.1674])

1711 11. The Church should not only never pay attention to philosophy,but should also tolerate the errors of philosophy, and leave it tocorrect itself (27 [see n. 1675]).

1712 12. The decrees of the Apostolic See and of the Roman Congregations hinder the free progress of science (30 [see n. 1679]).

1713 13. The method and principles according to which the ancientscholastic doctors treated theology are by no means suited to thenecessities of our times and to the progress of the sciences (30 [seen. 1680]).

1714 14. Philosophy is to be treated without any regard to supernatural revelation (30).

N.B. To the system of rationalism are closely connected in greatpart the errors of Anthony Guenther which are condemned in the Epistleto the Card. Archbishop of Cologne, "Eximiam tuam," Jun. 15, 1857 (19)[see n. 1655], and in the Epistle to the Bishop of Breslau, "Dolorehaud mediocri," Apr. 30,

Sec. 111. Indifferentism, Latitudinarianism

1715 15 Every man is free to embrace and profess that religion whichhe, led by the light of reason, thinks to be the true religion (8, 26).

1716 16. In the worship of any religion whatever, men can find the wayt