Citing a source in a report or paper is pretty easy – you just give the source details according to a particular style of citation.
But, when it comes to presentations and speeches, do you know how to correctly cite your sources?
It seems like quite a basic question at first, but when it comes to the practicalities and technicalities, the answers aren’t so easy to come by.
Sure, quotes may be simple enough to introduce, but what about all the other information, data, facts, figures, and images you use? Do you know how to present that information and give proper legal credit without disrupting the flow of your presentation?
No? Then read on!
Why citing your sources is important
Your audience needs to know where the information, visuals, or any other materials you use in your presentation come from.
Very often our presentations and speeches are informed by or based on the work of others and this needs to be acknowledged. Likewise, audio, visual, or video is copyright protected.
Citing sources and creative owners can also help keep you on the right side of copyright law and fair use licenses….more on this below.
Make your work more credible
Citing gives your audience a good impression by proving how well you know your stuff. By attributing work to the rightful owners, you also show integrity.
A well-cited presentation appears well-researched and properly developed; and hence, it’s often better delivered, and better received.
Give the audience access to information
The whole point of a presentation or speech is to share knowledge. By citing your sources, you give your audience the opportunity to learn more about your subject and do their own research if they so wish.
Citations and Copyright
If you use someone else’s copyrighted material in your presentation without citing the creator – or if you cite them incorrectly – you may likely be guilty of copyright infringement.
Copyright infringement is only 100% avoided by getting the copyright owner’s explicit permission.
You can, however, use copyrighted material without permission if you can show that it doesn’t infringe on Fair Use.
To learn more about Fair Use, see this articlehereon the U.S. Copyright Office website.
This can be a rather gray area, as what is considered to be ‘fair use’ can be open to interpretation. Generally speaking, Fair Use takes into consideration the following:
- the purpose and character of the use
- the profit or nonprofit cause
- the nature of the protected work
- how much of the work is used
- how the use affects the value or future demand of the work
For example, if you use a copyrighted photograph just because it looks cool, use it as your background image on a PowerPoint slide, or repeatedly use it so that it becomes associated with your brand, then this is not Fair Use.
If you use the photograph to make a point, illustrate an idea, or for educational purposes, and also give proper accreditation to the copyright owner even if you don’t have permission, then that might be considered Fair Use and would probably be fine.
How to do in-text citations in PowerPoint
In-text citations are citations you see on the screen, and are often in the same format you’d see in a written report.
If your slide refers to a study, for example, you will need to add the copyright details. To do that, simply add the name of the author, the work and the publication in parentheses after the reference.
For example, in parenthesis: (Author, Date).
This is particularly useful when presenting quotes or insightful facts and figures that support your message.
Note: This type of citation sometimes doesn’t leave enough room for all the information you need to provide. In this case, you can add a Sources slide at the very end of your presentation
Adding footnote citations
You can also use footnotes on your PowerPoint slides to give citations.
Next to the text you would like to reference, add the number ‘1’ for your first citation. Highlight it, and then from the ‘Home’ option, open the Font box and select ‘Subscript’ and click on ‘OK’.
Then, click on ‘Insert,’ select a text box and then draw it onto your slide. Enter the same number as you used in the text, and type your source details. You will likely want to reduce the size of the text.
Note: When I talk about footnotes here, I don’t mean the Header & Footer feature in PowerPoint. You can write your citations inside the Footer placeholder, but keep in mind that the text you type in here will display on every slide that has the Footer enabled.
Verbal citation during a presentation
For some material, you may choose not to give an in-text citation, but rather give credit verbally. Be sure to introduce the source before you present the information and keep it brief so that it doesn’t slow down the flow of your presentation.
Here are some example phrases:
- According to Dr. Richards, professor of Such and Such at This University,…
- John Dean, author of the 2015 study, A Study of Something, argues that…
- Jane Gordons, a journalist writing for the New York Times, offers this example….
Use speaker notes to help you cite verbally
It is a good idea to add the full citation details in the speaker notes so that you make sure you relay the correct details.
Also it ensures that the full citations will be seen should you share your slides with audience or team members after the presentation, or print them.
If you want to learn more about adding speaker notes in PowerPoint, see our articlehere.
How to cite a website
If you are wondering how to cite websites, that’s probably because not all websites provide the authors name for you to cite (making it a bit more difficult).
If you can’t find the website authors name you can instead cite the website’s address. And you don’t have to copy and paste the whole URL when citing websites either.
When citing a website, you just need to give enough information so that your audience knows where the information came from and how to get more details if they want to check it out.
Here are the common elements you’ll need to properly cite a website in your presentation:
- Website or author name
- Page name or article title
- Exact URL of website
- Page date of publication
See the cited website example in the picture below.
How to cite a picture or image
There are countless places for pictures that are available for free and public use according to Creative Commons licensing. You can searchFlickrandGoogle Advanced Image Searchby filtering the results by ‘Creative Commons’.
Always check the licensing agreements, as some images may have ‘some rights reserved’ or specific requirements for citations.
The common elements you’ll need when citing a picture are:
- Creator’s name
- Title of the picture
- Date and location of publication
- Publisher or website
- Picture URL
To create the citation in PowerPoint, you can insert a small text box and add the details in a readable way, as you can see in the example below.
To learn how to crop a picture in PowerPoint into different shapes as pictured above,read our guide here.
How to cite a YouTube video
While YouTube is a free online streaming service, you shouldn’t assume that you can use anyone’s video without properly citing it.
Here are the common elements you’ll need to create a YouTube video citation:
- Creator’s name or screen name
- Video title
- Video URL
- Website name
- Publication date
Whichever citation method you use, should at a minimum credit the creator of the video (real name if possible, but their username will suffice), and the year the video was posted. For example: (Nuts & Bolts Speed Training, 2014).
In the notes for full referencing, you’ll need more details:
Author/Username. (month, day, year). Title of video (Video file). Retrieved fromhttp://URL.com.
Nuts & Bolts Speed Training. (June 25, 2014). 4 PowerPoint Tricks You Don’t Know (Video File). Retrieved fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=05OW0Ce8rT8.
To learn how to properly embed YouTube videos in PowerPoint,read our guide here.
How to cite a book
Books are another common reference material you’ll want to properly cite in your presentations.
Here are the common elements you’ll need when citing a book (same-same for a magazine):
- Author name
- Book title
- Publication date and location
- Publisher name
If you are paraphrasing from a book, include an in-text citation of the author and the year (Brown, 2005) or the author, year and the page number (Brown, 2005, p.13), immediately following the text.
Another option for your citation, is to include them in Speaker Notes so that if you print your notes as handouts, the speaker notes will appear there.
To learn the different ways you can print PowerPoint with notes,read our guide here.
How to cite a lecture (talk or speech)
Like for books and quotes, the in-text citation will need the author’s last name and the year the speech or talk was presented, written in parenthesis: (Gordon, 2017).
In your PowerPoint notes, it should be fully cited with the name, year, title of the talk and the format, and where it took place. For example:
Gordon, B. (2017). The Theory Behind Big Business. Presentation, Atlanta.
How to cite a song
When it comes to using a song in your presentation, there are a many variables as to whether it’s an infringement of copyright laws. Unauthorized use of a song can be allowed under the concept of ‘fair use’ as detailed above.
If you are in any doubt, obtain the license or get permission. The process is relatively straightforward and doesn’t always mean a hefty fee. Sometimes, it’s as simple as asking and getting permission or making sure you acknowledge the copyright owner.
You can give acknowledgment on the PowerPoint Slide with in-text citation on the appropriate slide or as a ‘sources slide’ at the end of your presentation:
To get permission, here are three main licensing companies that you can contact for further info:
How to cite a presentation
If you want to include a slide or information gained from another PowerPoint presentation that has been published, you can use an in-text citation just as if you were citing a book.
To cite a presentation, simply cite the author’s name and the year the presentation was produced, (Dean, 2007).
In the notes you’ll add the details of “PowerPoint slides”, when it was “Retrieved from” and the URL. It should look something like this:
How to cite a quote
In the same way as you would quote from a book, an in-text citation with the author of the quote is fine.
Some quotes from historical source won’t have a book, page number or publisher to cite. In these cases, the author name (and year if possible) is sufficient.
Note:Make sure that you thoroughly check the quote’s source if you find the quote online.
There are far too many misquoted and misattributed sayings out there and there’s nothing more embarrassing than citing the wrong person in your presentation.
So that’s how to cite a variety of different sources in your PowerPoint presentations including:
- How to cite books
- How to cite websites
- How to cite YouTube videos
- And a bunch of other sources
While in-text citation may take a little more work, it is better than keeping all of your sources in the conclusion. That’s because the end of your presentation should be punchy, memorable, and leave your audience with a good impression (see our tips for how to end a presentationhere).
The last thing you want to do at the end of your presentation is bombard people with all of your citations.
This is particularly true as, youraudience isn’t able to flip back to see which citation goes with which image, quote, video, website, etc. Giving them the details at the same time as the material allows them to take note of it there and then.
It’s a small detail but makes a huge difference when it comes to delivering a seamless and informative presentation.
If you enjoyed this ultimate guide to citing sources in PowerPoint, you’ll love our other PowerPoint training course and resources that you cancheck out here.
How to add speaker notes in PowerPointHow to Start a Presentation with Pizzazz (15 Beginnings to Try Out)How to End a Presentation with Punch (17 Techniques)How to Print PowerPoint with Notes (Step-by-Step)
To cite PowerPoint presentation slides, include the author name, year/date of presentation, the title, the source description, the website and/or university name, and the URL where the source can be found.How do you cite citations in PowerPoint? ›
To reference a PowerPoint presentation in APA Style, include the name of the author (whoever presented the PowerPoint), the date it was presented, the title (italicized), “PowerPoint slides” in square brackets, the name of the department and university, and the URL where the PowerPoint can be found.How do you cite a book in a PowerPoint presentation? ›
Author Last Name, Author First Name. (Year). Title [In Italics]. Place of Publication: Publisher.How do u cite a website? ›
Author last name, First name. “Page Title.” Website Name, Day Month Year, URL.How do you reference a website? ›
- author (the person or organisation responsible for the site)
- year (date created or last updated)
- page title (in italics)
- name of sponsor of site (if available)
- accessed day month year (the day you viewed the site)
- URL or Internet address (pointed brackets).
When creating a PowerPoint you'll need to cite your sources both in the text of your presentation, as well as on a references slide at the end. These citations will be similar to how you would cite resources in a traditional paper.Can you reference in Microsoft PowerPoint? ›
EndNote citations and references can also be inserted in PowerPoint presentations. If you have EndNote installed on your computer, then you should automatically see an EndNote or EndNote 20 tab when you open Microsoft PowerPoint.How do you cite a website in a PowerPoint MLA? ›
Author last name, First name. “Presentation Title.” Website Name, Day Month Year, URL.How do you cite a book? ›
The basic form for a book citation is: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.How do you cite a website in an answer? ›
Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is easy: Simply include the author and year of publication. The URL goes in the corresponding reference list entry (and yes, you can leave the links live).
Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access.How do you cite a website for beginners? ›
You will need the webpage's author's name, publication date, title of the page, website name, and the URL. Usually, if no author is shown the website is assumed to be the author. In these cases, the website name replaces the author name in the beginning of the reference.How do you cite a source example? ›
- For books: author, title, place of publication, publisher, and publication year.
- For articles: author, title of article, title of journal, volume, issue, date, page numbers, and doi or permalink.
- For web page resources: author, title of page, Web address or URL, and date of access.
Reference structure and example: Author Surname, Initials. (Publication Year) 'Article title', Journal Name, Volume(Issue), Page(s). Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: date).Do you have to cite all images in a PowerPoint? ›
According to APA, clip art images from Microsoft programs such as Word and Microsoft PowerPoint do not need a full citation.How do you cite websites in MLA format in text? ›
Revised on June 16, 2022. An MLA website citation includes the author's name, the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the website (in italics), the publication date, and the URL (without “https://”). If the author is unknown, start with the title of the page instead.How do I cite websites in MLA format? ›
Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Work.” Title of Site, Sponsor or Publisher [include only if different from website title or author], Date of Publication or Update Date, URL. Accessed Date [only if no date of publication or update date].How do you cite a website with no author on PowerPoint? ›
When there is no author, provide the title of the PowerPoint. If the title is short, provide the full title. If it's long, provide the first few words. When there is no date for the PowerPoint, use the initials “n.d.”How do you cite a book or a website? ›
Author (Last name, first name). Title of Book. Edition (if available), Publisher (if available), Year of online publication. Name of Website or Database, URL (without the http:// or https://) or DOI number.How do you cite a book in-text example? ›
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
Answer. To cite the book in the text of the discussion, put the author's last name and the year the book was published in parentheses: (Case-Smith, 2017). To quote directly from the book, include the page number of the quote: (Case-Smith, 2017, p. 42).Can I copy and paste if I cite the source? ›
Copying and Pasting Plagiarism
Anytime you copy and paste verbatim from a source and do not give the source credit it is plagiarism. If you do copy and paste a passage word for word, you must put the information in quotations (i.e. " ") marks and give credit to the author.
The short answer is "yes - but you must use them appropriately". Websites can provide valuable evidence to support your discussion, just like books or paper journals.How do you in text cite a video in APA 7th edition? ›
- Author: List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial). ...
- Date: List the date between parentheses, followed by a period.
- Title of video: In italics. ...
- Host site: List the name of the site that hosts the video, followed by a period.
- URL: List URL.
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.How do you add citations to a source? ›
On the Reference tab, click Insert Citation and then do one of the following: To add the source information, click Add New Source, and then, in the Create Source dialog box, click the arrow next to Type of Source, and select the type of source you want to use (for example, a book section or a website).How do you properly add a source? ›
- Include In-text or Parenthetical Citations When Paraphrasing. ...
- Periods (Almost) Always Go After the Parenthesis. ...
- Be Consistent with Your Citation Style. ...
- All In-text and Parenthetical Citations Should Correspond with a Reference List Entry. ...
- Cite Properly, Not in Excess.
Every time you quote, paraphrase or use an image from a source in your presentation, you'll need an in-text citation on your slide. This will include all the same things an in-text citation includes in a paper: Author's last name, year, and location information if you are using a direct quote.How do I cite a website with no author or data? ›
Works Cited Entry Template: “Title of the Webpage/Entry.” Title of the Website, Name of the publisher (if different from the website name), Date of publication, URL. When there isn't a known author, use the source's title in the in-text citation.How do you cite a website with no author or page number? ›
In-text citations for print sources with no known author
Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.